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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 273-275, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431279

RESUMEN

Human exposure to Toxocara spp. is very frequent, and its larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier and invade the central nervous system (CNS), causing neurotoxocariasis. We aimed to establish a neurotoxocariasis animal model in pigs confirmed by necropsy. Also, the presence of larvae in the CNS was assessed using magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs), to establish brain lesions caused by the larvae migration. Ten pigs were infected intraperitoneally with 3,000 Toxocara larvae. Cerebral toxocariasis was evaluated using MRIs at days 7, 14, 21, and 49, and pigs were euthanized after the examination. Brain tissues were examined by microscopy, and five pigs presented Toxocara, most frequently at day 21 after infection. None of the 10 pigs showed alterations on MRIs. Our study confirms that intraperitoneal Toxocara infection produces neurotoxocariasis in pigs. Toxocara larvae passage through the brain does not seem to produce lesions detectable at MRIs.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/parasitología , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Toxocara , Toxocariasis/diagnóstico por imagen , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/patología , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/parasitología , Femenino , Larva , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagen , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico por imagen , Toxocariasis/diagnóstico
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1663-1674, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219552

RESUMEN

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging opportunistic pathogen infecting humans, and both domestic and wild pigs are known to harbour zoonotic genotypes. There remains a paucity of information on the prevalence and epidemiology of this enteropathogen in Southeast Asia. The present study was undertaken to determine the molecular prevalence and risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection among commercially farmed pigs in Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 450 pigs from 15 different farms and subjected to nested PCR amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of E. bieneusi. Phylogenetic analysis involved 28 nucleotide sequences of the ITS region of E. bieneusi. An interviewer-administered questionnaire provided information on the animal hosts, farm management systems and environmental factors and was statistically analysed to determine the risk factors for infection. The prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was relatively high (40.7%). The highest prevalence (51.3%) was recorded among the piglets, while the adults showed the lowest level of infection (31.3%). Multivariate analysis indicated that age of the pigs, distance of the farm from human settlement and farm management system were significant risk factors of infection. Three genotypes (EbpA, EbpC and Henan-III) detected among the pigs are potentially zoonotic. The high prevalence of E. bieneusi among locally reared pigs, the presence of zoonotic genotypes and the spatial distribution of pig farms and human settlements warrant further investigation on the possibility of zoonotic transmission.


Asunto(s)
Enterocytozoon/aislamiento & purificación , Microsporidiosis/epidemiología , Microsporidiosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , China/epidemiología , ADN Espaciador Ribosómico/genética , Enterocytozoon/genética , Granjas/estadística & datos numéricos , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Microsporidiosis/transmisión , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Zoonosis/epidemiología
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 60, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ascariasis, caused by Ascaris suum, is an important soil-transmitted parasitic disease of pigs worldwide. It leads to significant economic losses in the pork industry, as a consequence of low feed conversion efficiency in pigs and liver condemnation at slaughter. Despite ascariasis still being widespread on pig farms in many developing and the industrialised countries, there are surprisingly limited data on porcine ascariasis in China, where nearly half of the world's total pork is produced. METHODS: In the present study, using the recently developed A. suum-haemoglobin (As-Hb) antigen-based serological test, we screened 512 individual serum samples from fattening pigs from 13 farms across seven distinct locations of Sichuan Province in China for anti-Ascaris antibody. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Ascaris antibody ranged from 0% to 100% on the distinct farms, with the mean (overall) seroprevalence being > 60%. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the intensive and extensive farms. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure anti-Ascaris seroprevalence in China. The results of this 'snapshot' investigation indicate that Ascaris infection in commercial pig farms in Sichuan Province is seriously underestimated, encouraging future, large-scale serological studies to assess the distribution and extent of Ascaris exposure and infection in various regions of China and the world.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Ascaris suum/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Granjas , Industria de Alimentos , Hígado/parasitología , Carne de Cerdo/parasitología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Pruebas Serológicas , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 50, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028994

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The genus Onchocerca Diesing, 1841 includes species of medical importance, such as O. volvulus (Leuckart, 1893), which causes river blindness in the tropics. Recently, zoonotic onchocercosis has been reported in humans worldwide. In Japan, O. dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka, 2001 from wild boars is a causative agent for this zoonosis. Many filarioid nematodes are infected with Wolbachia endosymbionts which exhibit various evolutionary relationships with their hosts. While investigating the filarial fauna of Borneo, we discovered an undescribed Onchocerca species in the bearded pig Sus barbatus Müller (Cetartiodactyla: Suidae). METHODS: We isolated Onchocerca specimens from bearded pigs and examined their morphology. For comparative material, we collected fresh specimens of O. d. dewittei Bain, Ramachandran, Petter & Mak, 1977 from banded pigs (S. scrofa vittatus Boie) in Peninsular Malaysia. Partial sequences of three different genes (two mitochondrial genes, cox1 and 12S rRNA, and one nuclear ITS region) of these filarioids were analysed. By multi-locus sequence analyses based on six genes (16S rDNA, ftsZ, dnaA, coxA, fbpA and gatB) of Wolbachia, we determined the supergroups in the specimens from bearded pigs and those of O. d. dewittei. RESULTS: Onchocerca borneensis Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka n. sp. is described on the basis of morphological characteristics and its genetic divergence from congeners. Molecular characteristics of the new species revealed its close evolutionary relationship with O. d. dewittei. Calculated p-distance for the cox1 gene sequences between O. borneensis n. sp. and O. d. dewittei was 5.9%, while that between O. d. dewittei and O. d. japonica was 7.6%. No intraspecific genetic variation was found for the new species. Wolbachia strains identified in the new species and O. d. dewittei belonged to supergroup C and are closely related. CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular analyses of filarioids from Asian suids indicate that the new species is sister to O. d. dewittei. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, we propose to elevate O. d. japonica to species level as O. japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka, 2001. Coevolutionary relationships exist between the Wolbachia strains and their filarial hosts in Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia.


Asunto(s)
Onchocerca , Oncocercosis/veterinaria , Porcinos/parasitología , Wolbachia , Animales , Coevolución Biológica , Clasificación , Genes Bacterianos , Genes de Helminto , Humanos , Onchocerca/anatomía & histología , Onchocerca/clasificación , Onchocerca/microbiología , Oncocercosis/transmisión , Oncocercosis Ocular/parasitología , Oncocercosis Ocular/transmisión , Filogenia , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Simbiosis , Wolbachia/clasificación , Wolbachia/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/transmisión
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2824017, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781607

RESUMEN

Parasitic Entamoeba spp. can infect many classes of vertebrates including humans and pigs. Entamoeba suis and zoonotic Entamoeba polecki have been identified in pigs, and swine are implicated as potential reservoirs for Entamoeba histolytica. However, the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. in pigs in southeastern China has not been reported. In this study, 668 fecal samples collected from 6 different regions in Fujian Province, southeastern China, were analyzed to identify three Entamoeba species by nested PCR and sequencing analysis. The overall prevalence of Entamoeba spp. was 55.4% (370/668; 95% CI 51.6% to 59.2%), and the infection rate of E. polecki ST1 was the highest (302/668; 45.2%, 95% CI 41.4% to 49.0%), followed by E. polecki ST3 (228/668; 34.1%, 95% CI 30.5% to 37.7%) and E. suis (87/668; 13.0%, 95% CI 10.5% to 15.6%). E. histolytica was not detected in any samples. Moreover, the coinfection rate of E. polecki ST1 and ST3 was 25.1% (168/668; 95% CI 21.9% to 28.4%), the coinfection rate of E. polecki ST1 and E. suis was 3.7% (25/668; 95% CI 2.3% to 5.2%), the coinfection rate of E. polecki ST3 and E. suis was 0.3% (2/668), and the coinfection rate of E. polecki ST1, E. polecki ST3, and E. suis was 4.0% (27/668; 95% CI 2.5% to 5.5%). A representative sequence (MK347346) was identical to the sequence of E. suis (DQ286372). Two subtype-specific sequences (MK357717 and MK347347) were almost identical to the sequences of E. polecki ST1 (FR686383) and ST3 (AJ566411), respectively. This is the first study to survey the occurrence and to conduct molecular identification of three Entamoeba species in southeastern China. This is the first report regarding mixed infections with E. suis, E. polecki ST1, and E. polecki ST3 in China. More research studies are needed to better understand the transmission and zoonotic potential of Entamoeba spp.


Asunto(s)
Entamoeba/genética , Filogenia , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Entamoeba/clasificación , Entamoeba/patogenicidad , Heces/parasitología , Humanos , Porcinos/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223474, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603911

RESUMEN

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively studied in wild boars worldwide due to the emerging risk for human infection through meat consumption. However, this is the first study that reports toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in wild boars, wild boar hunters and their hunting dogs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in the complex wild boars, hunting dogs and hunters, and to determine the risk factors associated with seropositivity in southern and central-western Brazil. Overall, anti-T. gondii seropositivity was observed in 15/71 (21.1%) wild boars by modified agglutination test (MAT); and 49/157 (31.2%) hunting dogs and 15/49 (32.7%) hunters by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Brazilian wild boars was within the national and international range, posting wild boars as potential environmental sentinels for T. gondii presence. In addition, the findings have comparatively shown that wild boars have been less exposed to infection than hunting dogs or hunters in both Brazilian regions. Seropositivity for T. gondii was statistically higher in 12/14 (85.7%) captured wild boars when compared to 5/57 (7.0%) free-range wild boars (p = 0.000001). Similarly, captured wild boars from anthropized areas were more likely to be seropositive than of natural regions (p = 0.000255). When in multiple regression model, dogs with the habit of wild boar hunting had significant more chance to be positive (adjusted-OR 4.62 CI 95% 1.16-18.42). Despite potential as sentinels of environmental toxoplasmosis, seroprevalence in wild boars alone may provide a biased basis for public health concerns; thus, hunters and hunting dogs should be always be included in such studies. Although hunters should be aware of potential T. gondii infection, wild boars from natural and agricultural areas may present lower protozoa load when compared to wild boars from anthropized areas, likely by the higher presence of domestic cats as definitive hosts.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Perros/parasitología , Porcinos/parasitología , Toxoplasma/inmunología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Perros/sangre , Geografía , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Porcinos/sangre
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMEN

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Neospora/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Porcinos/parasitología , Toxoplasma/inmunología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/diagnóstico , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico
9.
Parasite ; 26: 53, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448999

RESUMEN

To study the presence of Giardia duodenalis in Xinjiang, northwest China, we collected 801 fecal specimens from seven large-scale pig farms and screened them using PCR targeting the SSU rRNA gene. Twenty-one (2.6%) of the specimens from five farms were G. duodenalis-positive, with a significant difference in prevalence among different farms (0-8.7%) (p < 0.01). Giardia duodenalis prevalence was highest in fattening pigs (5.4%, 7/129), followed by sows (3.2%, 7/222), post-weaning piglets (1.8%, 5/281), and pre-weaning piglets (1.2%, 2/169), but there was no significant difference in prevalence among the age groups (p > 0.05). Sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene revealed that the 21 G. duodenalis strains belonged to three assemblages: A (n = 2), B (n = 16), and E (n = 3). Assemblage B was the predominant assemblage and was widely distributed in all G. duodenalis-positive farms and age groups. All G. duodenalis-positive specimens were further assayed at the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes, and two tpi, four gdh, and two bg sequences were identified. These data indicate that pigs may be a zoonotic risk and can potentially spread G. duodenalis infection from animals to humans.


Asunto(s)
Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/aislamiento & purificación , Giardiasis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Granjas , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Genes Protozoarios , Genotipo , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Giardiasis/parasitología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Proteínas Protozoarias/genética , Porcinos/parasitología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300133

RESUMEN

Unawareness of canine parasitic diseases among at-risk hosts and an uncontrolled program of stray dog population have caused that zoonotic parasites received great attention in endemic regions of the Middle East. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected between December 2016 to January 2018 from stray (n = 408) and domestic (n = 144) dogs of Iran. All specimens were coproscopically observed following concentration and flotation techniques. Subsequently, the DNAs of taeniid eggs were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and small-subunit ribosomal DNA markers. The overall prevalence of canine intestinal parasites found 53.6%. The following parasites and their total frequencies were identified: taeniid (10.5%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.7%), Trichuris vulpis (1.2%), Capillaria spp. (2.3%), Blastocystis spp. (5.2%), Ancylostoma spp. (2%), Eimeria spp. (13.2%), Dipylidium caninum (2.3%), Toxocara canis (3.8%), Giardia spp. (8.5%), and Toxascaris leonina (3.6%). Stray dogs were characterized more likely to be poliparasitized and indicated a higher prevalence of taeniid (10.9%), T. canis (4.4%) Giardia spp. (10.1%) than domestic dogs (P > 0.05). Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of Cox1 and SSU-rDNA indicated a low genetic diversity (Haplotype diversity; 0 to 0.495) in E. granulosus sensu lato G1, G3, G7 genotypes, and Taenia hydatigena. The pairwise sequence distances between G7 isolates showed an intra-diversity of 0.7%-1.5% and identity of 98.5%-100%. The first occurrence of pig strain (G7) from Iranian dogs might have substantial implications in the drug treatment of infected dogs due to the shorter maturation time of G7 compared with G1 genotype. Thus, the preventive strategies should be noticed to determine the risk factors, the importance of applying the hygienic practices, and well adjusting deworming programs for the Iranian dogs and at-risk individuals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Equinococosis/veterinaria , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Filogenia , Teniasis/veterinaria , Animales , Ciclooxigenasa 1/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Perros/parasitología , Equinococosis/diagnóstico , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Parasitosis Intestinales/diagnóstico , Irán/epidemiología , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Mitocondrias/genética , Prevalencia , Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia/genética , Teniasis/diagnóstico , Teniasis/epidemiología
11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1531, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333663

RESUMEN

We characterized the porcine tissue transcriptional landscapes that follow Toxoplasma gondii infection. RNAs were isolated from liver, spleen, cerebral cortex, lung, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of T. gondii-infected and uninfected (control) pigs at days 6 and 18 postinfection, and were analyzed using next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq). T. gondii altered the expression of 178, 476, 199, 201, and 362 transcripts at 6 dpi and 217, 223, 347, 119, and 161 at 18 dpi in the infected brain, liver, lung, MLNs and spleen, respectively. The differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were grouped into five expression patterns and 10 sub-clusters. Gene Ontology enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that immune-related genes dominated the overall transcriptomic signature and that metabolic processes, such as steroid biosynthesis, and metabolism of lipid and carboxylic acid, were downregulated in infected tissues. Co-expression network analysis identified transcriptional modules associated with host immune response to infection. These findings not only show how T. gondii infection alters porcine transcriptome in a tissue-specific manner, but also offer a gateway for testing new hypotheses regarding human response to T. gondii infection.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica/inmunología , Porcinos , Toxoplasma/parasitología , Toxoplasmosis/inmunología , Transcripción Genética/inmunología , Animales , Especificidad de Órganos/inmunología , Porcinos/inmunología , Porcinos/parasitología
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 145, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308860

RESUMEN

Introduction: porcine cysticercosis is under-reported particularly in Nigeria, despite the reportedly high prevalence of epilepsy and associated life-threatening health implications. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and factors related to Taenia solium transmission to humans. Methods: slaughtered pigs at a major abattoir, south-western Nigeria were randomly inspected and questionnaire was administered to pig workers/consumers while the data were analysed using Stata 12.0. Results: a 4.4% (11/250) prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was obtained; the age, breed, sex and body conditions of pigs were not significant for infection (p < 0.05). Further, none (0.0%) of the respondents knew that T. solium could cause epilepsy in man and 39.5% often defaecated on neighbouring open fields and farmlands. Respondents purchasing pork from home slaughter were about four and ten times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.74) and practice (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.05-0.22) than those purchasing from abattoir. Moreover, those lacking toilet facility were about four and five times less likely to demonstrate good knowledge (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.86) and practice (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08-0.45) than those who had it. Other factors associated with practices related to T. solium transmission included age (p = 0.000), sex (p = 0.000) and duration (p = 0.003). Conclusion: the increased odds of poor knowledge and practices related to Taenia solium transmission especially among respondents purchasing home slaughter pork and lacking toilet facility provides insights into the parasite epidemiology. Above findings are important in lowering the infection prevalence in pigs and humans in this endemic area.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación , Mataderos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Animales , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Epilepsia/parasitología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/parasitología , Prevalencia , Carne Roja/parasitología , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Adulto Joven
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 352, 2019 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. RESULTS: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Estaciones del Año , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Conducta Animal , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Perú/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Análisis Espacial , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 403-409, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042533

RESUMEN

Abstract To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Resumo Para estimar a soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum, utilizando a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), e identificar os fatores de risco associados, foram coletadas amostras de soro de 1.070 suínos provenientes de 320 criatórios de fundo de quintal no Estado de Mato Grosso. A soroprevalência para nível animal de T. gondii e N. caninum foi de 32,48% e 13,49%, respectivamente, com uma soroprevalência de rebanho de 55,63% para T. gondii e 27,81% para N. caninum. Alimentar os animais com sobras aumenta a probabilidade da presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em porcos em 1,09 vezes. Ao contrário de T. gondii, a alimentação baseada em sobras foi encontrada como negativamente associada à soropositividade para N. caninum na análise em nível de fazenda e no modelo em nível animal, diminuindo assim as chances de positividade. Ainda, a idade foi considerada um fator de risco para a soropositividade para N. caninum. Mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o impacto da infecção por T. gondii na produção de suinocultura de quintal e sua importância como fonte de infecção para toxoplasmose em humanos no Estado de Mato Grosso, bem como o papel dos suínos domésticos na epidemiologia da neosporose.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Toxoplasma/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Neospora/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Coccidiosis/diagnóstico , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 508-513, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042532

RESUMEN

Abstract Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis for pregnant women and immunosuppressed people. The pig population also becomes infected by this pathogen, and undercooked or raw meat is an important source of infection for humans. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the rate of exposure of pigs to T. gondii in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte and seek to identify associations with possible risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 412 pigs and were analyzed using the immunofluorescence assay. Among these 412 serum samples, 40.7% were seropositive for T. gondii. The IgG antibody titers were 64 (56 specimens), 128 (32), 256 (37), 512 (23), 1024 (14), 2048 (5) and 4046 (1). Seropositivity for T. gondii was found to be related (p-value < 0.05) to the following factors: female gender, semi-confined rearing system, use of well water, dewormed animals, presence of cats, goats, sheep, mice and vultures on the farm and carcasses left on the ground. In contrast, seropositivity was not related (p-value < 0.05) to the age of the pigs, type of facility or feeding with human food remains. Preventive measures need to be adopted on the farms studied here, with the aim of decreasing the animals' intake of sporulated oocysts.


Resumo A toxoplasmose é uma importante zoonose para mulheres grávidas e pessoas imunossuprimidas. Os suínos também são infectados por este patógeno; e a carne crua ou malcozida é uma importante fonte de infecção para o ser humano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a taxa de exposição suína à T. gondii no município de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte e identificar associações com possíveis fatores de risco. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em tubos sem anticoagulante e o soro foi separado de 412 porcos e analisadas pelo ensaio de imunofluorescência. Dentre as 412 amostras de soro, 40,7% foram positivas para T. gondii. Os títulos para o anticorpo IgG foram 64 (56 amostras); 128 (32); 256 (37); 512 (23); 1024 (14); 2048 (5) e 4046 (1). A soropotividade para T. gondii foi relacionada (p-valor < 0,05) aos seguintes fatores: gênero feminino, sistema de criação de semi-confinamento, uso de água de poço, animais vermifugados, presença de gatos, cabras, ovelhas, ratos e urubus na fazenda e carcaças deixadas à céu aberto. Em contrapartida, a soropositividade não foi relacionada (p-valor < 0,05) à idade dos suínos, tipo de instalações ou alimentação com restos de comida humana. As adoções de medidas preventivas são necessárias na propriedade estudada, objetivando diminuir a ingestão de oocistos esporulados pelos animais.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Porcinos/parasitología , Toxoplasma/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores de Riesgo , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta/veterinaria
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 508-513, 2019 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188949

RESUMEN

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis for pregnant women and immunosuppressed people. The pig population also becomes infected by this pathogen, and undercooked or raw meat is an important source of infection for humans. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the rate of exposure of pigs to T. gondii in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte and seek to identify associations with possible risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 412 pigs and were analyzed using the immunofluorescence assay. Among these 412 serum samples, 40.7% were seropositive for T. gondii. The IgG antibody titers were 64 (56 specimens), 128 (32), 256 (37), 512 (23), 1024 (14), 2048 (5) and 4046 (1). Seropositivity for T. gondii was found to be related (p-value < 0.05) to the following factors: female gender, semi-confined rearing system, use of well water, dewormed animals, presence of cats, goats, sheep, mice and vultures on the farm and carcasses left on the ground. In contrast, seropositivity was not related (p-value < 0.05) to the age of the pigs, type of facility or feeding with human food remains. Preventive measures need to be adopted on the farms studied here, with the aim of decreasing the animals' intake of sporulated oocysts.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Porcinos/parasitología , Toxoplasma/inmunología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta/veterinaria , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
17.
Parasitology ; 146(9): 1199-1205, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084658

RESUMEN

Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and other mammals, and it causes major public and veterinary health problems worldwide. China is a major pig-raising country, and studies on Giardia in pigs have important public health significance. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Giardia and assess its genetic characterization. A total of 93 samples were collected from two farms in Shanghai. The presence of Giardia was determined using PCR and sequence analysis of glutamate dehydrogenase, beta-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase genes. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 26.88% (25/93) in the pigs, with 28.13% (18/64) in farm 1 vs 24.14% (7/29) in farm 2. All the PCR-positive products were successfully sequenced, and assemblage E was more prevalent. Zoonotic assemblages A and B and canine-specific assemblage C were identified in farm 1, whereas, only assemblage E was detected in farm 2. Interestingly, two pig isolates showed 100% homology with human-derived isolates from Australia and China at the bg and tpi loci respectively. Pigs infected with Giardia infect humans by polluting the environment; whether pigs are a potential environmental source of the human pathogen in China requires more epidemiological data.


Asunto(s)
Genotipo , Giardia lamblia/clasificación , Giardiasis/veterinaria , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/genética , Granjas , Heces/parasitología , Variación Genética , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Glutamato Deshidrogenasa/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Proteínas Protozoarias/genética , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Triosa-Fosfato Isomerasa/genética
18.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 211: 6-9, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084896

RESUMEN

Helminth parasites are highly prevalent in swine production, causing chronic infections and considerable morbidity due to growth retardation. Moreover, helminths actively modulate host immune responses to other pathogens and/or vaccines. Here, we investigated the modulatory effects of Ascaris suum adult body fluid (ABF) and Trichuris suis Soluble Products (TsSP) on the cytokine response in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In PBMCs, TsSP induced the secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1ß, but not TNF-α. Moreover, TsSP significantly enhanced the production of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 and IL-10 but suppressed the production of LPS-induced TNF-α. ABF did not induce cytokine secretion from PBMC, but suppressed LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. ABF did not have any effect on cytokine production in IPEC-J2 cells. In contrast, TsSP selectively induced the secretion of IL-6, and enhanced the IL-6 response induced by LPS. The IL-6 response appeared to be a conserved response to T. suis products, as significant secretion was also observed in alveolar macrophages. Thus, T. suis products have diverse modulatory effects on cytokine secretion in vitro, with IL-6 production a consistent feature of the innate host response.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , Ascaris suum/inmunología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/inmunología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Trichuris/inmunología , Animales , Ascariasis/inmunología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Citocinas/inmunología , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/parasitología , Femenino , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/parasitología , Masculino , Porcinos/inmunología , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Tricuriasis/inmunología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/veterinaria
19.
Parasitol Int ; 71: 194-206, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974207

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidium is a medical and veterinary significant protozoan parasite that infects all classes of vertebrates. Environmental contamination with infective oocyst increases the risk of transmission to susceptible host. Estimates of Cryptosporidium prevalence in humans and animals are lacking in Nigeria, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to understand the epidemiology of the disease over a period of 30 years using publications from EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, AJOL and Google Scholar databases. Studies that met the inclusion criteria of Cryptosporidium infections under the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist were analysed. Point estimates prevalence and subgroup analyses based on potential risk factors and diagnostic techniques were evaluated at 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 64 eligible studies published between 1987 and 2017 were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection using quality effects model among human, cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, laboratory animals and birds was estimated as 15.0, 26.1, 16.6, 26.0, 20.1, 9.0 and 7.2%, respectively. The high report of C. parvum subtype family IIc indicates the importance of anthroponotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in Nigeria. Heterogeneity of subgroup (regions, species) and risk factors (HIV status, age, gender, faecal type) analyses were determined. The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in different hosts were high and linked with several risk factors such as environmental contamination and animal contact. There is need for increased awareness on the prevalence of the disease to provide strategies that mitigate the disease in humans and animals.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/fisiología , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Cabras/parasitología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Oocistos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Ovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 268: 67-72, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981308

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a strategic deworming program on Ascaris suum infection levels and technical performance parameters in fattening pigs. Eighteen fattening stables were selected and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 9 stables in which the fattening pigs tested seropositive for Ascaris, indicative for the presence of Ascaris eggs in the stable, whereas group 2 consisted of 9 stables in which the fattening pigs tested seronegative for Ascaris, indicating of a low or absent environmental contamination with Ascaris eggs. The production in each stable was monitored for a period of 7 consecutive fattening rounds. The first of these 7 fattening rounds (i.e. round 0), during which no intervention took place in the deworming strategy applied in the stable, served as a historical control. A deworming program using 200 mg/ml fenbendazole oral suspension in drinking water for 2 days every 6 weeks was implemented for a period of 6 consecutive fattening rounds. For each fattening round and for each stable, technical performance parameters including average daily growth, feed conversion ratio, days in fattening and the percentage of affected livers were obtained from the producers. Blood was collected from 10 randomly selected animals per stable at the end of each fattening round and evaluated for the presence of anti-Ascaris antibodies using 2 different serological tests, namely the AsHb- and the L3-Lung ELISA. The serological results obtained indicated a lower exposure of the animals to Ascaris after the implementation of a strategic deworming program. A significant decline in anti-Ascaris antibody levels was detectable in the stables that originally tested positive for Ascaris and was already visible after one treatment round. The outcomes of hierarchical linear mixed models indicated that the level of L3-Lung antibody reactivity was a significant predictor of decreased ADG, increased FCR and prolonged DIF for the Ascaris-positive herds, indicating an effect of Ascaris infections on productivity.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Antinematodos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Fenbendazol/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antinematodos/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascaris suum/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Fenbendazol/administración & dosificación , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/parasitología , Ganado/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ganado/parasitología , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/parasitología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Pruebas Serológicas , Porcinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos/parasitología
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