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1.
Primates ; 60(6): 487-491, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571101

RESUMEN

Hair plucking is observed in many captive primate species and is often characterized as an abnormal behavior. However, this behavior may be both self-directed and social and may have different etiologies. Early research in captive macaques (Macaca mulatta) described the aggressive nature of social hair plucking while more recent observations did not find an association with aggression or grooming, but the behavior was initiated most frequently by individuals with more secure dominance rank. Here, we investigate patterns of social hair plucking in a group of captive bonobos at the Columbus Zoo. We tested the hypothesis that social plucking reflects the dominance hierarchy by examining the association between social plucking and grooming, dominance, and kinship. We collected 128 h of grooming data on 16 captive bonobos using all-occurrence sampling. We ran three Mantel tests between a directed grooming matrix and (1) a plucking matrix, (2) a matrix reflecting dominance, and (3) matrix of relatedness. Grooming and hair plucking were significantly correlated (r = 0.25, p < 0.01), however, there was no association between plucking and dominance (r = - 0.04, p = 0.67), or plucking and relatedness (r = 0.07, p = 0.24). These results support the hypothesis that social plucking in bonobos is a grooming convention and is unrelated to dominance.


Asunto(s)
Aseo Animal , Pan paniscus/psicología , Conducta Social , Animales , Animales de Zoológico/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Ohio , Predominio Social
2.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 49, 2019 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456004

RESUMEN

Social interactions may shape brain development. In primitively eusocial insects, the mushroom body (MB), an area of the brain associated with sensory integration and learning, is larger in queens than in workers. This may reflect a strategy of neural investment in queens or it may be a plastic response to social interactions in the nest. Here, we show that nest foundresses-the reproductive females who will become queens but are solitary until their first workers are born-have larger MBs than workers in the primitively eusocial sweat bee Augochlorella aurata. Whole brain size and optic lobe size do not differ between the two groups, but foundresses also have larger antennal lobes than workers. This shows that increased neural investment in MBs precedes social group formation. Larger MBs among foundresses may reflect the increased larval nutrition provisioned to future queens and the lack of social aggression from a dominant queen upon adult emergence.


Asunto(s)
Abejas/anatomía & histología , Abejas/fisiología , Predominio Social , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Conducta Animal , Cuerpos Pedunculados/anatomía & histología
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9176-9186, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400897

RESUMEN

Accurate assessments of social behavior and dominance relationships in cattle can be time consuming. We investigated whether replacements at the feed bunk and water trough-one type of agonistic interaction-can be used to automatically assess dominance relationships. Our study set out to (1) validate a replacement detection algorithm using combined data from electronic feed and water bins, and (2) investigate the applicability of this algorithm to identify individual dominance scores and group-level social hierarchy in freestall-housed dairy cows. We used 4 groups of lactating cows kept in different group sizes (11 to 20 cows) located at 2 research facilities. In both facilities, feed and water were provided via automated feeding systems. A trained observer recorded all agonistic interactions in the pen over multiple days using video. Data from the electronic feed and water bins for the same days were analyzed using an algorithm to detect replacements (i.e., visits where a receiver cow was competitively replaced by an actor cow). Most agonistic interactions at the feed bunk were replacements. These replacements were associated with a brief interval between the time the receiver cow left the bin and the actor cow took her place; the optimal threshold to detect these replacements varied from 22 to 27 s between groups, independent of stocking density. The recall and precision of an algorithm based upon this threshold was high (on average >0.8), comparable to that of trained human observers. We improved data preparation by controlling for detection errors and included filtering to reduce false positives. This resulted in a >20% decrease in false positives and an increase in precision of 0.043. The dominance hierarchy based upon algorithm-detected replacements was similar to that based upon total agonistic interactions observed in the pen; the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between these hierarchies varied among the groups from 0.81 to 0.96. We conclude that data from electronic feed and water bins can accurately estimate agonistic behavior and dominance relationships among dairy cows.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Agonística , Bovinos/psicología , Predominio Social , Animales , Conducta Animal , Industria Lechera , Ingestión de Líquidos , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Lactancia
4.
Biol Lett ; 15(8): 20190232, 2019 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455170

RESUMEN

Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is associated with social dominance in human and non-human primates, which may reflect the effects of testosterone on facial morphology and behaviour. Given that testosterone facilitates status-seeking motivation, the association between fWHR and behaviour should be contingent on the relative costs and benefits of particular dominance strategies across species and socioecological contexts. We tested this hypothesis in bonobos (Pan paniscus), who exhibit female dominance and rely on both affiliation and aggression to achieve status. We measured fWHR from facial photographs, affiliative dominance with Assertiveness personality scores and agonistic dominance with behavioural data. Consistent with our hypothesis, agonistic and affiliative dominance predicted fWHR in both sexes independent of age and body weight, supporting the role of status-seeking motivation in producing the link between fWHR and socioecologically relevant dominance behaviour across primates.


Asunto(s)
Pan paniscus , Predominio Social , Agresión , Animales , Pesos y Medidas Corporales , Cara , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219067, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291300

RESUMEN

Social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) are ideological attitudes that predict lower concern for the environment and less willingness to act on climate change. Research generally shows that SDO and RWA exhibit moderate, negative relationships with environmentalism. We examine the longitudinal influence of SDO and RWA on people's willingness to change their behaviour to benefit the environment in a national probability sample over five years. We show that both ideological attitudes relate to lower environmentalism across time and that the SDO effect was stronger than the RWA effect, yet the association from environmentalism to later endorsement of SDO is stronger than the reverse. Interestingly, these findings suggest that the more likely temporal association flows from environmentalism to SDO.


Asunto(s)
Autoritarismo , Predominio Social , Adulto , Cambio Climático , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Nueva Zelanda
6.
Horm Behav ; 114: 104551, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279703

RESUMEN

The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin and their receptors have established roles in the regulation of mammalian social behavior including parental care, sex, affiliation and pair-bonding, but less is known regarding their relationship to social dominance and subordination within social hierarchies. We have previously demonstrated that male mice can form stable linear dominance hierarchies with individuals occupying one of three classes of social status: alpha, subdominant, subordinate. Alpha males exhibit high levels of aggression and rarely receive aggression. Subdominant males exhibit aggression towards subordinate males but also receive aggression from more dominant individuals. Subordinate males rarely exhibit aggression and receive aggression from more dominant males. Here, we examined whether variation in social status was associated with levels of oxytocin (OTR) and vasopressin 1a (V1aR) receptor binding in socially relevant brain regions. We found that socially dominant males had significantly higher OTR binding in the nucleus accumbens core than subordinate animals. Alpha males also had higher OTR binding in the anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior part of the cortical amygdala and rostral lateral septum compared to more subordinate individuals. Conversely, alpha males had lower V1aR binding in the rostral lateral septum and lateral preoptic area compared to subordinates. These observed relationships have two potential explanations. Preexisting individual differences in the patterns of OTR and V1aR binding may underlie behavioral differences that promote or inhibit the acquisition of social status. More likely, the differential social environments experienced by dominant and subordinate animals may shift receptor expression, potentially facilitating the expression of adaptive social behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Jerarquia Social , Oxitocina/metabolismo , Receptores de Vasopresinas/metabolismo , Agresión/fisiología , Animales , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Apareamiento , Receptores de Oxitocina/metabolismo , Conducta Social , Predominio Social , Medio Social , Vasopresinas/metabolismo
7.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919863164, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345060

RESUMEN

Recent studies suggest that both facial and bodily dominance promote high status positions and predict status-seeking behaviors such as aggression and social dominance. An evolutionarily relevant context in which associations between these dominance signals and status outcomes may be prevalent are face-to-face status contests. The present study examined whether facial and bodily dominance predicted success in dyadic competitions (one physical discipline, arm wrestling, and three nonphysical disciplines) in men (N = 125) in a controlled laboratory setting. Men's bodies and faces were independently rated for physical dominance, and associations of these ratings with contest outcomes as well as mediating and moderating variables (such as physical strength, body height, trait dominance, baseline and reactive testosterone) were examined. Both facial and bodily dominance positively predicted success in the physical discipline, mediated by physical strength, but not in the three nonphysical disciplines. Our findings demonstrate that facial and bodily physical dominance may be honest signals for men's formidability and hence status potential, at least in a physically competitive context.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Predominio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Hombres , Personalidad/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217129, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226108

RESUMEN

Object handovers between humans are common in our daily life but the mechanisms underlying handovers are still largely unclear. A good understanding of these mechanisms is important not only for a better understanding of human social behaviors, but also for the prospect of an automatized society in which machines will need to perform similar objects exchanges with humans. In this paper, we analyzed how humans determine the location of object transfer during handovers- to determine whether they can predict the preferred handover location of a partner, the variation of this prediction in 3D space, and to examine how much of a role vision plays in the whole process. For this we developed a paradigm that allows us to compare handovers by humans with and without on-line visual feedback. Our results show that humans have the surprising ability to modulate their handover location according to partners they have just met such that the resulting handover errors are in the order of few centimeters, even in the absence of vision. The handover errors are least along the axis joining the two partners, suggesting a limited role for visual feedback in this direction. Finally, we show that the handover locations are explained very well by a linear model considering the heights, genders and social dominances of the two partners, and the distance between them. We developed separate models for the behavior of 'givers' and 'receivers' and discuss how the behavior of the same individual changes depending on his role in the handover.


Asunto(s)
Retroalimentación , Relaciones Interpersonales , Movimiento , Percepción Visual , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Predominio Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 282: 113209, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226256

RESUMEN

The highly conserved brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis controls reproduction in all vertebrates, so analyzing the regulation of this signaling cascade is important for understanding reproductive competence. The protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions as a conserved regulator of cellular growth and metabolism in all eukaryotes, and also regulates the reproductive axis in mammals. However, whether mTOR might also regulate the BPG axis in non-mammalian vertebrates remains unexplored. We used complementary experimental approaches in an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to demonstrate that mTOR is involved in regulation of the brain, pituitary, and testes when males rise in rank to social dominance. mTOR or downstream components of its signaling pathway (p-p70S6K) were detected in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1) neurons, the pituitary, and testes. Transcript levels of mtor in the pituitary and testes also varied when reproductively-suppressed subordinate males rose in social rank to become dominant reproductively-active males, a transition similar to puberty in mammals. Intracerebroventricular injection of the mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, revealed a role for mTOR in the socially-induced hypertrophy of GnRH1 neurons. Rapamycin treatment also had effects at the pituitary and testes, suggesting involvement of the mTORC1 complex at multiple levels of the reproductive axis. Thus, we show that mTOR regulation of BPG function is conserved to fishes, likely playing important roles in regulating reproduction and fertility across all male vertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Predominio Social , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Animales , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cíclidos/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Masculino , Plasticidad Neuronal/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/metabolismo , Fosforilación/efectos de los fármacos , Hipófisis/efectos de los fármacos , Hipófisis/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Maduración Sexual/efectos de los fármacos , Sirolimus/farmacología , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/genética , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
10.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(6): 441-455, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230043

RESUMEN

Maternal styles have been intensively studied in a variety of terrestrial species of primates, but far less in arboreal species. However, to have a balanced view of the evolution of maternal care, it is necessary to investigate this behaviour in the context of habitat. Here, we investigate whether the mother's parity, age and dominance rank, as well as the infant's age and sex, influence maternal care and mother-infant proximity in arboreal grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). We observed 13 mother-infant dyads in four free-ranging groups for 6 months. Our main finding is that maternal care is a dynamic process affected by a mix of mothers' and infants' characteristics. We found that first-time mothers spent more time watching their infants than multiparous mothers, who carried, groomed and protected their infants more often. We also found that low-ranking mothers prevented their infants from leaving them more often than did high-ranking mothers. Moreover, mothers adjusted their care as infants became older. They groomed and protected female infants more than male infants, behaviours common in female-bonded species. Our study shows the ever-changing dynamics of maternal care related to infant age and highlights the role of the mother's parity and rank in this process.


Asunto(s)
Cercocebus/psicología , Conducta Materna , Paridad , Predominio Social , Factores de Edad , Animales , Cercocebus/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Factores Sexuales , Uganda
11.
Mamm Genome ; 30(3-4): 54-62, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020388

RESUMEN

Spermatogenesis-associated protein 13 (Spata13) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) enriched in discrete brain regions in the adult, with pronounced expression in the extended central amygdala (CeA). Loss of Spata13, also known as the adenomatous polyposis coli exchange factor Asef2, has no identifiable phenotype although it has been shown to reduce the number and size of intestinal tumours in Apc (Min/+) mice. Nevertheless, its brain-related functions have not been investigated. To pursue this, we have generated a Spata13 knockout mouse line using CRISPR-mediated deletion of an exon containing the GTPase domain that is common to multiple isoforms. Homozygous mutants were viable and appeared normal. We subjected both male and female cohorts to a comprehensive battery of behavioural tests designed to investigate particular CeA-related functions. Here, we show that Spata13 modulates social behaviour with homozygous mutants being subordinate to wildtype controls. Furthermore, female homozygotes show increased activity in home cages during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle. In summary, Spata13 modulates social hierarchy in both male and female mice in addition to affecting voluntary activity in females.


Asunto(s)
Ritmo Circadiano/efectos de la radiación , Factores de Intercambio de Guanina Nucleótido/metabolismo , Conducta Social , Animales , Conducta Animal/efectos de la radiación , Femenino , Factores de Intercambio de Guanina Nucleótido/genética , Jerarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Fotoperiodo , Predominio Social
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215060, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017920

RESUMEN

Animals housed in naturalistic social groups with access to automated cognitive testing vary in whether and how much they participate in cognitive testing. Understanding how demographic, seasonal, and social factors relate to participation is essential to evaluating the usefulness of these systems for studying cognition and in assessing the data produced. We evaluated how sex, age, reproductive experience, seasonality, and rank related to patterns of participation in a naturalistic group of rhesus monkeys over a 4-year period. Females interacted with the touchscreen systems more than males and were more likely to complete initial training. Age was positively correlated with touchscreen activity through adolescence in females, at which point seasonality and reproductive experience were stronger associates of participation. While monkeys in different rank categories did not differ in how much they interacted with the touchscreen systems, monkeys of different ranks tended not to work at the same times, perhaps reflecting avoidance of high ranking animals by those of lower rank. Automated cognitive testing systems for naturalistic social groups of rhesus monkeys can yield quality cognitive data from individuals of all ages and ranks, but participation biases may make it difficult to study sex differences or seasonal variation in cognition.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Cognición/fisiología , Computadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Estaciones del Año , Conducta Social , Predominio Social , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Animales , Demografía , Femenino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Reproducción , Tacto
13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215181, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978215

RESUMEN

An extensive review and textual analysis of the academic and popular literature of the human alpha female was conducted to examine the social construction and expression of the alpha female identity in a small non-random sample of North American women (N = 398). This review revealed 2 predominant alpha female representations in the literature-one more masculine versus one more feminine-and 21 alpha female variables. In this sample of women, the "alpha female" was found to be a recognized socially constructed female identity. Univariate analysis revealed positive and highly significant differences in self-reported mean scores between alpha (N = 94) and non-alpha (N = 304) females for 10 variables including, masculine traits, leadership, strength, low introversion, self-esteem, life satisfaction, sexual experience, initiates sex, enjoys sex and playing a dominant role in sexual encounters, with alpha females scoring higher than non-alphas. The measure of masculine traits was identified as the only predictor of alpha female status as per the multiple regression model. Interestingly, both alpha and non-alpha women scored the same for the measure of feminine traits. Further, both groups scored higher for feminine traits than masculine traits. The results also revealed that neither social dominance nor sexual dominance were predictors of alpha female status which challenge academic and popularized representations of this identity. The results suggest that although the alpha female is often regarded as an exceptional and, at times, an exoticized form of femininity, like other femininities, her identity is marked by contradictions and tensions.


Asunto(s)
Feminidad , Liderazgo , Masculinidad , Adulto , Femenino , Feminidad/historia , Identidad de Género , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidad/historia , Modelos Psicológicos , Autoimagen , Conducta Sexual/historia , Conducta Social/historia , Predominio Social/historia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214929, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986242

RESUMEN

Culture-specific behaviour strategies provide an interesting window into individual differences research, producing a richer conceptualization of personality descriptions. Our aim is to describe the personality dimensions linked to a core socio-cultural behaviour pattern in Brazil: jeitinho. To reach this goal we conducted four studies. Our first set of studies (1a, 1b and 1c) examined the underlying structure of jeitinho as an individual difference variable and its nomological network with social values, the Big-Five, moral attitudes, and social dominance orientation. In Study 2, we confirm this structure and relate personal jeitinho to perceptions of jeitinho norms. Results demonstrated that personal jeitinho has two dimensions: Jeitinho Simpático is an individual's tendency to seek positive social interactions, avoid conflict, and find creative solutions; and Jeitinho Malandro captures behaviours such as the use of deception and trickery. These two behaviours are rooted in the same dimensions of the integrated model of values and personality.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Individualidad , Principios Morales , Predominio Social , Valores Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
Biol Lett ; 15(2): 20180737, 2019 02 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958131

RESUMEN

Many animal societies have dominance hierarchies in which social rank is correlated with size. In such societies, the growth and size of individuals can be a strategic response to their social environment: in fishes, individuals may decrease their growth rate to remain small and retain a subordinate position; in mammals, individuals may increase their growth rate to become large and attain a dominant position-a strategy called competitive growth. Here, we investigate whether the clown anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, exhibits competitive growth also. We show that juvenile clownfish paired with a size-matched reproductive rival increase their growth rate and size relative to solitary controls. Remarkably, paired individuals achieved this, despite being provided with the same amount of food as solitary controls. Our results demonstrate that clownfish are able to increase their growth rate in response to social competition. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that the growth of social vertebrates can be a fine-tuned plastic response to their social environment.


Asunto(s)
Peces , Perciformes , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Reproducción , Predominio Social
16.
Primates ; 60(3): 261-275, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941537

RESUMEN

The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categories. No effect of the juvenile's hierarchical rank was detected, suggesting that the variation in social attention recorded reflects different biases and stages of social learning and socialisation, rather than social anxiety. Juvenile females tended to exhibit a dominance-based bias more strongly than did males. This might be explained by a greater emphasis on attaining social knowledge during juvenile socialisation in the philopatric sex. Moreover, despite a preferred association between juveniles, social attention was more often directed to adults, suggesting that adults may still be more often chosen as a target of attention independent of their dominance rank.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Conducta Animal , Conducta Social , Aprendizaje Social , Factores de Edad , Animales , Animales Salvajes/psicología , Femenino , Aseo Animal , Masculino , Predominio Social , Socialización
17.
J Child Sex Abus ; 28(4): 400-416, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920900

RESUMEN

Allegations of child sexual abuse (CSA) across various contexts have often been denied or ignored by a multitude of people, including those who do not personally know the alleged perpetrators or victims. The lack of belief of children's CSA reports is problematic, as this may affect the child's adjustment, the consequences for the alleged perpetrator, and the likelihood of other victims reporting abuse that they experienced. One plausible explanation for low credibility is the variable of social dominance orientation. In the current study, a diverse sample (N = 60) read a hypothetical vignette of a CSA allegation, rated the credibility of the child, and completed the Social Dominance Orientation-7 scale (SDO-7). Results supported that high social dominance orientation predicts low credibility ratings of the child's CSA allegation. Findings may impact how clinicians and investigators approach the assessment of credibility of CSA allegations, how they appraise the opinions of others about such credibility, and jury selection in the court system.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Pruebas Psicológicas , Predominio Social , Percepción Social , Confianza , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(2): 77-88, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814479

RESUMEN

Data from a large cross-sectional sample of wild chimpanzee mother-infant dyads yield evidence that young chimpanzees' pant grunting unfolds nonlinearly over the early developmental period. Though infants begin pant grunting early, and mothers' rates did not decrease, infant pant grunting declined as infants aged through infancy. Mother-infant dyadic pant grunting discordance therefore increased over infancy, with some discordance observed at even the earliest ages. In half of 90 observed instances involving infants ranging in age from 2 weeks to 69 months, only one member of the mother-infant dyad pant grunted; infants' pant grunting was not influenced by their mother's age, their position on their mother's body at the time of the greeting, or the dominance status of the male greeted. Male infants were more likely to pant grunt than female infants. We discuss the developmental trend in the context of infants' increasing independence, changing social motivations, and male-dominated social hierarchy.


Asunto(s)
Pan troglodytes/fisiología , Vocalización Animal , Factores de Edad , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Predominio Social , Uganda
20.
Primates ; 60(2): 133-142, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847670

RESUMEN

Dispersal is a key event in the life of an animal and it influences individual reproductive success. Male mountain gorillas exhibit both philopatry and dispersal, resulting in a mixed one-male and multimale social organization. However, little is known about the relationship between male dispersal or philopatry and reproductive careers in Bwindi mountain gorillas. Here we analyze data spanning from 1993 to 2017 on social groups in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda to examine the proportion of males that disperse, age of dispersal, pathways to attaining alpha status, fate of dispersing males and philopatric males, and male tenure length as well as make comparisons of these variables to the Virunga mountain gorilla population. We report previously undocumented cases of dispersal by immature males and old males and we also observed the only known case of a fully mature male immigrating into a breeding group. We used genetic tracking of known individuals to estimate that a minimum of 25% of males that disperse to become solitary males eventually form new groups. No differences were found between the Bwindi and Virunga population in the age of male dispersal, the proportion of males that disperse, the age of alpha male acquisition, and dominance tenure length. The lack of differences may be due to small sample sizes or because the observed ecological variability does not lead to life history differences between the populations. Males in both populations follow variable strategies to attain alpha status leading to the variable one-male and multimale social organization, including dispersal to become solitary and eventually form a group, via group fissioning, usurping another alpha male, or inheriting the alpha position when a previous group leader dies.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Gorilla gorilla/fisiología , Reproducción , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Predominio Social , Uganda
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