Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.062.566
Filtrar
1.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-557

RESUMEN

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje , Educación/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-559

RESUMEN

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Tecnología Educacional , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico
3.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229227

RESUMEN

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje , Educación/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229229

RESUMEN

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Tecnología Educacional , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico
5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(5): 479-493, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843921

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate changes in the urinary metabolite profiles of children exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during critical brain development and explore their potential link with the intestinal microbiota. Methods: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine ten hydroxyl metabolites of PAHs (OH-PAHs) in 36-month-old children. Subsequently, 37 children were categorized into low- and high-exposure groups based on the sum of the ten OH-PAHs. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify non-targeted metabolites in the urine samples. Furthermore, fecal flora abundance was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Results: The concentrations of 21 metabolites were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group (variable importance for projection > 1, P < 0.05). Most of these metabolites were positively correlated with the hydroxyl metabolites of naphthalene, fluorine, and phenanthrene ( r = 0.336-0.531). The identified differential metabolites primarily belonged to pathways associated with inflammation or proinflammatory states, including amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide metabolism. Additionally, these distinct metabolites were significantly associated with specific intestinal flora abundances ( r = 0.34-0.55), which were mainly involved in neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Higher PAH exposure in young children affected metabolic homeostasis, particularly that of certain gut microbiota-derived metabolites. Further investigation is needed to explore the potential influence of PAHs on the gut microbiota and their possible association with neurodevelopmental outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/orina , Masculino , Preescolar , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Metabolómica , Metaboloma/efectos de los fármacos
6.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(6): 333, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844593

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stiff skin syndrome (SSS) is a rare disease characterized by thickened, indurated skin and limited joint movement. Multiple diverse phenotypes have been reported, and the correlation of severity with the clinical heterogeneity and histopathological findings of SSS needs to be refined. OBJECTIVE: To define subtypes based on clinical features and predict the prognosis of a new SSS classification. METHODS: Eighty-three patients with SSS were retrospectively reviewed for clinicopathological manifestations and routine laboratory workup, including 59 cases obtained from a PubMed search between 1971 and 2022 and 24 cases diagnosed in our department between 2003 and 2022. RESULTS: Among the 83 patients, 27.7, 41, and 31.3% had classic widespread, generalized segmental, and localized SSS, respectively. Joint immobility was present in 100, 71, and 20% of classic, generalized, and localized cases, respectively. Histopathologic findings were common among the 3 groups, and based on that, we further found a difference in the distribution of proliferative collagen. 54.5% of classic and 50% of generalized cases occurred throughout the dermis or the subcutis, whereas 76% of localized cases were mainly involved in the reticular dermis or subcutis. In patients with incipient localized SSS, 42% (21/50) developed generalized SSS, and only 6% (3/50) progressed to classic SSS, whereas more than half of the incipient generalized SSS cases (60.6%, 20/33) developed classic SSS. LIMITATIONS: This retrospective study was limited to previously published cases with limited data. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a distinct clinical classification characterized by lesion distribution, including classic widespread, generalized segmental, and localized SSS, associated with disease severity and prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Piel , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Piel/patología , Adulto Joven , Niño , Pronóstico , Enfermedades Cutáneas Genéticas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cutáneas Genéticas/clasificación , Enfermedades Cutáneas Genéticas/patología , Anciano , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Preescolar , Colágeno/metabolismo , Contractura
7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(5): e14801, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845603

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2500 pediatric patients are awaiting kidney transplantation in the United States, with <5% comprising those ≤15 kg. Transplant in this cohort is often delayed by center-based growth parameters, often necessitating transplantation after the initiation of dialysis. Furthermore, prognostication remains somewhat ambiguous. In this report, we scrutinize the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) data from 2001 to 2021 to help better understand specific variables impacting graft and patient outcomes in these children. METHODS: The OPTN kidney transplant dataset from 2001 to 2021 was analyzed. Inclusion criteria included age <18 years, weight ≤15 kg, and recipient of primary living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) or deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT). Patient and graft survival probabilities were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and identify variables significantly associated with patient and graft survival. RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred sixty-eight pediatric transplant recipients met inclusion criteria. Patient survival at 1 and 3 years was 98% and 97%, respectively. Graft survival at 1 and 3 years was 95% and 92%, respectively. Dialysis was the sole significant variable impacting both patient and graft survival. Graft survival was further impacted by transplant era, recipient gender and ethnicity, and donor type. Infants transplanted at Age 1 had better graft survival compared with older children, and nephrotic syndrome was likewise associated with a better prognosis. CONCLUSION: Pediatric kidney transplantation is highly successful. The balance between preemptive transplantation, medical optimization, and satisfactory technical parameters seems to suggest a "Goldilocks zone" for many children, favoring transplantation between 1 and 2 years of age.


Asunto(s)
Bases de Datos Factuales , Supervivencia de Injerto , Trasplante de Riñón , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos , Humanos , Niño , Femenino , Masculino , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos/métodos , Preescolar , Adolescente , Pronóstico , Lactante , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Fallo Renal Crónico/cirugía , Peso Corporal , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estudios Retrospectivos , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Recién Nacido
8.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 40(2): 135-142, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847027

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the application value of combining the Demirjian's method with machine learning algorithms for dental age estimation in northern Chinese Han children and adolescents. METHODS: Oral panoramic images of 10 256 Han individuals aged 5 to 24 years in northern China were collected. The development of eight permanent teeth in the left mandibular was classified into different stages using the Demirjian's method. Various machine learning algorithms, including support vector regression (SVR), gradient boosting regression (GBR), linear regression (LR), random forest regression (RFR), and decision tree regression (DTR) were employed. Age estimation models were constructed based on total, female, and male samples respectively using these algorithms. The fitting performance of different machine learning algorithms in these three groups was evaluated. RESULTS: SVR demonstrated superior estimation efficiency among all machine learning models in both total and female samples, while GBR showed the best performance in male samples. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the optimal age estimation model was 1.246 3, 1.281 8 and 1.153 8 years in the total, female and male samples, respectively. The optimal age estimation model exhibited varying levels of accuracy across different age ranges, which provided relatively accurate age estimations in individuals under 18 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The machine learning model developed in this study exhibits good age estimation efficiency in northern Chinese Han children and adolescents. However, its performance is not ideal when applied to adult population. To improve the accuracy in age estimation, the other variables can be considered.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Edad por los Dientes , Algoritmos , Pueblo Asiatico , Aprendizaje Automático , Radiografía Panorámica , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Determinación de la Edad por los Dientes/métodos , Radiografía Panorámica/métodos , China/etnología , Preescolar , Adulto Joven , Mandíbula , Diente/diagnóstico por imagen , Diente/crecimiento & desarrollo , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte , Árboles de Decisión , Etnicidad , Pueblos del Este de Asia
9.
J Med Virol ; 96(6): e29711, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847304

RESUMEN

The emerging evidence of human infections with emerging viruses suggests their potential public health importance. A novel taxon of viruses named Statoviruses (for stool-associated Tombus-like viruses) was recently identified in the gastrointestinal tracts of multiple mammals. Here we report the discovery of respiratory Statovirus-like viruses (provisionally named Restviruses) from the respiratory tracts of five patients experiencing acute respiratory disease with Human coronavirus OC43 infection through the retrospective analysis of meta-transcriptomic data. Restviruses shared 53.1%-98.8% identities of genomic sequences with each other and 39.9%-44.3% identities with Statoviruses. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Restviruses together with a Stato-like virus from nasal-throat swabs of Vietnamese patients with acute respiratory disease, formed a well-supported clade distinct from the taxon of Statoviruses. However, the consistent genome characteristics of Restviruses and Statoviruses suggested that they might share similar evolutionary trajectories. These findings warrant further studies to elucidate the etiological and epidemiological significance of the emerging Restviruses.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Humanos , China/epidemiología , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Preescolar , Adulto , Niño , ARN Viral/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad
10.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 21-25, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847628

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Immunophenotype (IPT) and cytogenetics are essential for diagnosis, risk stratification, and management for ALL. OBJECTIVES: Evaluating the burden of immunophenotypic and cytogenetic profile of pediatric ALL patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 patients of ALL (1-18 completed years) attending a tertiary-care center in Kolkata, Eastern India. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of patients had B-cell ALL (94.00% pre-B ALL and 2.00% Pro-B ALL) and 4.0% had T-ALL. 60% B-cell ALL were CD19/CD10 positive, 10% were CD79a positive, 9% were only CD19 positive, and 7% were only CD10 positive. Thirty-three percent of T-ALL were CD3+, whereas 22% were positive each for CD4 and CD7. 51.0% of patients had diploid, 46.0% hyperdiploid, and 3.0% hypodiploid karyotype. Among hyperdiploids, 98% had good prednisolone response and 89% had measurable residual disease (MRD) <0.01. CONCLUSION: The most commonly diagnosed ALL by IPT was pre-B ALL. Among the detectable cytogenetic abnormalities, t(12; 21) ETV6-RUNX1 was the most common. ZNF-384 gene arrangement was also detected in our study. t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1 had a good treatment response, while t(9;22) BCR-ABL, t(1;19) TCF3-PBX1, iAMP-21, MLL gene rearrangement, and ZNF-384 gene arrangement had poor treatment response in terms of MRD.


Asunto(s)
Inmunofenotipificación , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Lactante , Análisis Citogenético
11.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 26-30, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence against children within the family context is a global issue that has serious implications for children's well-being. In Indonesia, like the tip of an iceberg, this violence is often underreported. However, this issue is prevalent in many countries worldwide. It is estimated that up to 1 billion children aged 2-17 years experienced physical, sexual, and emotional violence in the past year. Most of this violence occurs within the family, and this trend is also apparent in Indonesia. OBJECTIVES: This research aims to describe the types, forms, and perpetrators of violence against children in Padang, Indonesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study utilizes a descriptive design with a population of elementary school-age children in Padang City. The population consists of 16,747 individuals, with a margin of error of 3%. The sample size was determined using the Slovin formula, resulting in a sample of approximately 1000 individuals. Data were collected from October to December 2022 through two types of questionnaires, one describing respondent demographics and the other containing questions about the forms of violence perpetrated by parents. Data collection was facilitated by enumerators from elementary school teachers who had undergone training. RESULTS: The study involved 1200 participants, with 1000 providing complete data. The results showed that 95.1% of children had experienced violence within the family, including physical violence (94.60%), psychological violence (95.10%), sexual violence (22.10%), and social violence (31.60%). Mothers were the most common perpetrators (80%), followed by fathers (61.3%), grandfathers (14.8%), brothers (35.4%), and uncles (13.1%). CONCLUSION: This research underscores the alarming prevalence of violence against children within the family context in Padang. Addressing and preventing violence against children should be a priority to protect their rights and create a safe environment for their development.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Masculino , Preescolar , Adolescente , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 60-65, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847635

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance system in the first wave indicated that the data-driven approach helped in resource allocation and public health interventions. OBJECTIVES: We described the epidemiology of COVID-19 cases in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, from February 2021 to February 2022. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the COVID-19 surveillance data from Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India's Greater Chennai Corporation. We described the deidentified line list of COVID-19 cases and deaths by months, zones, age, and gender. We estimated the incidence of COVID-19 cases per million population, test positivity rate (TPR), and case fatality ratio (CFR). RESULTS: Of the 434,040 cases reported in Chennai from February 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, 53% were male. The incidence per million peaked in May 2021 (19,210) and January 2022 (15,881). Age groups more than 60 years reported maximum incidence. Southern region zones reported higher incidence. Overall TPR was 5.8%, peaked in May 2021 (17.5%) and January 2022 (15.1%). Over half of the 4929 reported deaths were in May 2021 (56%). Almost half of the deaths were 61-80 years (52%), followed by 41-60 years (26%). Overall CFR was 1%, which peaked in June 2021 (4%). CONCLUSION: We conclude that Chennai city experienced a surge in COVID-19 due to delta and omicron variants. Understanding descriptive epidemiology is vital for planning the public health response, resource allocation, vaccination policies, and risk communication to the community.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , India/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Incidencia , Adulto , Anciano , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Adulto Joven , Lactante
13.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 75-82, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847637

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood malnutrition in India remains among the highest in the world. Adult alcohol consumption and severe malnutrition have increased among indigenous people in South India. However, the association between them is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate this association, which could help design better intervention strategies. METHODS: This case-control observational study was conducted in the Nilgiri district in South India. Cases included children aged 1-5 years with moderate malnutrition. Controls were defined as children in the same age group with normal weight-for-age. A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, socioeconomic status (SES), and parental education. The WHO Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used to estimate parental alcohol use. Health-care workers collected data from within the community. RESULTS: The baseline demographics of the children in the control (n = 250) and case groups (n = 177) were similar. Paternal age and AUDIT scores were not different in the two groups. SES was lower in the malnourished group, while maternal education among cases was significantly lower. Maternal and paternal education were associated with childhood malnutrition (odds ratio [OR]: 0.728 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.583-0.903] and OR: 0.753 [95% CI: 0.589-0.957], respectively). After adjustment for covariates, paternal alcohol use was associated with a higher risk of malnutrition (OR: 1.56 [95% CI: 1.00-2.47]), which SES partly mediated. CONCLUSION: Paternal alcohol consumption is associated with childhood malnutrition, partially mediated by lower SES. Furthermore, lower SES appeared to be strongly associated with paternal alcohol consumption.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Preescolar , Lactante , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Padre/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 89-94, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847639

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The burden of wasting among under five children in India, has not reduced in the last decade. OBJECTIVES: We used child-level data from the latest nationally representative Comprehensive National Nutritional Survey (CNNS) to estimate the prevalence of wasting at the national and state level in India. METHODS: We explored the association of wasting with maternal, child and household factors using multivariable logistic regression for the age group of 0-5, 6-23 and 24-59 months. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of wasting was 17.3%, ranging from 5.8% to 29.1% across states, 23.3% in children 0-5 months, 19.6 % in children 6-23 months and 15.4 % in children 24-59 months of age. Higher birthweight i.e., every 100g increase (0-5 months aOR = 0.96, 6-23 months aOR = 0.94, 24-59 months aOR = 0.96), higher maternal BMI (0-5 months aOR = 0.51, 6-23 months aOR = 0.62, 24-59 months aOR = 0.67), increasing child age in months (0-5 months aOR = 0.84) and female sex of the child (24-59 months aOR = 0.82) was found to have significantly lower odds of wasting. The odds of wasting were significantly higher for poorest wealth quintile (0-5 months aOR = 1.99, 6-23 months aOR = 2.13), maternal unemployment (0-5 months aOR = 2.25), and lower levels of maternal education (6-23 months aOR = 1.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses showed that burden of wasting continues to remain high in India. Preventive interventions must target reduction of low birthweight. Early identification and management of wasting should be done, especially during the first six months of life who are not part of current therapeutic feeding programme.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas Nutricionales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Síndrome Debilitante , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Prevalencia , Femenino , Masculino , Preescolar , Síndrome Debilitante/epidemiología , Recién Nacido , Factores de Riesgo , Peso al Nacer , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Edad , Factores Sociodemográficos
15.
Acta Neuropathol ; 147(1): 95, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847845

RESUMEN

The non-WNT/non-SHH (Grp3/Grp4) medulloblastomas (MBs) include eight second-generation subgroups (SGS; I-VIII) each with distinct molecular and clinical characteristics. Recently, we also identified two prognostically relevant transcriptome subtypes within each SGS MB, which are associated with unique gene expression signatures and signaling pathways. These prognostic subsets may be in connection to the intra-tumoral cell landscape that underlies SGS MB clinical-molecular diversity. Here, we performed a deconvolution analysis of the Grp3/Grp4 MB bulk RNA profiles using the previously identified single-cell RNA-seq reference dataset and focusing on variability in the cellular composition of SGS MB. RNA deconvolution analysis of the Grp3/Grp4 MB disclosed the subgroup-specific neoplastic cell subpopulations. Neuronally differentiated axodendritic GP3-C1 and glutamatergic GP4-C1 subpopulations were distributed within Grp3- and Grp4-associated SGS MB, respectively. Progenitor GP3-B2 subpopulation was prominent in aggressive SGS II MB, whereas photoreceptor/visual perception GP3/4-C2 cell content was typical for SGS III/IV MB. The current study also revealed significant variability in the proportions of cell subpopulations between clinically relevant SGS MB transcriptome subtypes, where unfavorable cohorts were enriched with cell cycle and progenitor-like cell subpopulations and, vice versa, favorable subtypes were composed of neuronally differentiated cell fractions predominantly. A higher than median proportion of proliferating and progenitor cell subpopulations conferred the shortest survival of the Grp3 and Grp 4 MB, and similar survival associations were identified for all SGS MB except SGS IV MB. In summary, the recently identified clinically relevant Grp3/Grp4 MB transcriptome subtypes are composed of different cell populations. Future studies should aim to validate the prognostic and therapeutic role of the identified Grp3/Grp4 MB inter-tumoral cellular heterogeneity. The application of the single-cell techniques on each SGS MB separately could help to clarify the clinical significance of subgroup-specific variability in tumor cell content and its relation with prognostic transcriptome signatures identified before.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cerebelosas , Meduloblastoma , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Meduloblastoma/genética , Meduloblastoma/patología , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cerebelosas/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelosas/patología , Neoplasias Cerebelosas/metabolismo , Proliferación Celular/genética , Masculino , Niño , Femenino , Preescolar , Adolescente , Pronóstico
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13001, 2024 06 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844500

RESUMEN

Achieving favorable seizure outcomes is challenging in patients with seizures resulting from hypothalamic hamartoma. Although minimally invasive and non-invasive surgical procedures are used to treat this population, these procedures have limitations. Therefore, we analyzed the outcomes of patients with hypothalamic hamartoma following direct resection. We included 159 patients with hypothalamic hamartoma who underwent direct resection using the transcallosal interforniceal approach between 2011 and 2018. The relationships between clinical parameters and seizure outcomes were analyzed. In total, 55.3% achieved gross total resection and 25.2% underwent near-total resection. Of all patients, 79.2% were overall seizure-free at one year, but this number dropped to 77.0% at more than five years. Moreover, 88.4% (129/146) reached gelastic seizure (GS)-free status at one year and this number increased to 89.0% (97/109) at more than five years. Seventy-one patients took antiseizure medication (ASM) long-term, 68 took it for one year, and 11 took it for one-half year. The duration of ASM consumption (p < 0.001) and extent of hypothalamic hamartoma resection (p = 0.016) were significant independent predictors of long-term overall seizure-free survival, while the duration of ASM consumption (p = 0.011) and extent of hypothalamic hamartoma resection (p = 0.026) were significant independent predictors of long-term GS-free survival. Most patients' behavior, school performance, and intelligence were not affected after surgery. Direct resection is effective and safe strategy for patients with hypothalamic hamartomas. Hypothalamic hamartomas should be removed as completely as possible, and patients should take ASM long-term following surgery to reach long-term overall seizure-free or GS-free status.


Asunto(s)
Hamartoma , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas , Convulsiones , Humanos , Hamartoma/cirugía , Hamartoma/complicaciones , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas/cirugía , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas/complicaciones , Femenino , Masculino , Convulsiones/cirugía , Niño , Preescolar , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adolescente , Lactante , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/métodos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico
17.
Amino Acids ; 56(1): 38, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844708

RESUMEN

Biomarkers that accurately reflect renal function are essential in management of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, in children, age/physique and medication often alter established renal biomarkers. We studied whether amino acid enantiomers in body fluids correlate with renal function and whether they are influenced by physique or steroid medication during development. We conducted a prospective study of children 2 to 18 years old with and without CKD. We analyzed associations of serine/asparagine enantiomers in body fluids with major biochemical parameters as well as physique. To study consequences of kidney dysfunction and steroids on serine/asparagine enantiomers, we generated juvenile mice with uninephrectomy, ischemic reperfusion injury, or dexamethasone treatment. We obtained samples from 27 children, of which 12 had CKD due to congenital (n = 7) and perinatal (n = 5) causes. Plasma D-asparagine and the D/L-serine ratio had robust, positive linear associations with serum creatinine and cystatin C, and detected CKD with high sensitivity and specificity, uninfluenced by body size or biochemical parameters. In the animal study, kidney dysfunction increased plasma D-asparagine and the D/L-serine ratio, but dexamethasone treatment did not. Thus, plasma D-asparagine and the D/L-serine ratio can be useful markers for renal function in children.


Asunto(s)
Asparagina , Biomarcadores , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Serina , Niño , Animales , Humanos , Asparagina/sangre , Asparagina/metabolismo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/sangre , Preescolar , Serina/sangre , Ratones , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Dexametasona , Estereoisomerismo , Creatinina/sangre , Riñón/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12999, 2024 06 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844805

RESUMEN

Pediatric health service differs between and within countries. To prioritize limited resources, data-driven studies on pediatric tertiary hospital contacts are warranted. This population-based register study identified all contacts with four Danish tertiary hospitals 2000-2018 by 0-17-year-old patients. During 2000-2018, 2,496,001 individuals resided in Denmark while 0-17 years old, and the study described 829,562 inpatient and 3,932,744 outpatient contacts at tertiary hospitals by hospital, sex, age, diagnosis, department, and residence. Male patients accounted for more contacts overall (inpatient 55.51%, outpatient 52.40%) and more contacts with severe chronic disease (inpatient 56.24%, outpatient 54.41%). Median (interquartile range) patient age was 3.09 (0.26-9.96) and 8.48 (2.78-13.70) years for in- and outpatient contacts. Overall, 28.23% and 21.02% of in- and outpatient contacts included a diagnosis of a severe chronic disease, but the proportions differed across hospitals. A pattern of pediatric healthcare directed towards less severe diseases was observed: While the total number of outpatient visits at tertiary hospitals increased from 2000 to 2018, the proportion of these contacts which had a diagnosis of a severe chronic disease decreased. Future comparisons between hospitals regarding pediatric outcomes should consider potential differences in terms of uptake and diagnosis severity. Such findings may have implications for future pediatric organization, nationally and internationally.


Asunto(s)
Centros de Atención Terciaria , Humanos , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Lactante , Femenino , Adolescente , Recién Nacido , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Pacientes Ambulatorios/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13055, 2024 06 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844828

RESUMEN

Parental stress occurs when parenting demands exceed the resources available to cope with parenting. Previous research has identified household wealth, educational level, marital status, age, and number of dependent children as predictors of parental stress. However, limited evidence exists from sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated the sociodemographic predictors of parenting stress among mothers in Kenya and Zambia. This cross-sectional study utilised baseline secondary data from parenting intervention programs implemented in Kisumu County (rural Kenya), Nairobi County (Urban Kenya), and Chisamba District (rural Zambia). Out of 913 caregivers recruited for the parenting program, 844 with complete data were included in the analysis. The mean age was 1.0 (SD = 0.7) years. Parental stress was measured using the Parental Stress Score (PSS) tool and demographic questionnaires were used to collect demographic information. Mean PSS were compared across study sites, and a multiple linear regression model was used to examine associations between sociodemographic predictors (household income, educational level, marital status, maternal age, child age, and number of children aged < 5 years) and PSS, adjusting for clustering and other predictors. From the results, the mean PSS in rural Kenya was 37.6 [SD = 11.8], in urban Kenya was 48.4 [SD = 4.2], and in rural Zambia was 43.0 [SD = 9.1]. In addition, the significant association between PSS and mothers' income and educational level was only observed in Kenyan study sites (income: Kenya rural ß = -0.40, p < 0.001**; Kenya urban, ß = - 0.33, p = .02*; Zambia rural, ß = - 0.01, p = 0.7) education: Kenya rural, ß = - 0.25, p = .005**; Kenya urban, ß = - 0.14, p = 0.07; Zambia rural, ß = 0.04, p = 0.3). However, marital status, mother's age, child's age, and the number of children below five years were not associated with PSS. The results revealed that mothers' income and education level were negatively associated with PSS, indicating that higher socioeconomic status can buffer the effects of parental stress.Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry ( https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/ ) database (ID Number: PACTR20180774832663 Date: 26/July/2018; (ID number: PACTR201905787868050 Date: 06/May/2019.


Asunto(s)
Madres , Responsabilidad Parental , Población Rural , Estrés Psicológico , Población Urbana , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Zambia/epidemiología , Femenino , Madres/psicología , Adulto , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores Sociodemográficos , Lactante , Preescolar
20.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 690, 2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844891

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prognostic value of multifocality in paediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients remains a subject of debate. This study aimed to explore the clinical significance and prognostic value of multifocality in children and adolescents with PTC. METHODS: This study retrospectively analysed the clinicopathological characteristics and postoperative follow-up data of 338 PTC patients aged ≤ 20 years from May 2012 to July 2022. The clinical and pathological characteristics of 205 patients with unifocal lesions and 133 patients with multifocal lesions were compared. A logistic regression model evaluated the relationship between multifocal lesions and disease recurrence/persistence in children and adolescents with PTC. Based on the median follow-up time of children with multifocal PTC, 114 patients with multifocal PTC older than 20 years were added, and the clinicopathological characteristics were compared between the 133. paediatric/adolescent patients and 114 adult patients with multifocal PTC. RESULTS: Among the paediatric and adolescent patients, over a median follow-up time of 49 months, 133 had multifocal disease and 205 had unifocal disease. Multifocal PTC patients exhibited stronger invasiveness in the form of extrathyroidal extension, tumour diameter, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. Multifocality (OR 2.68; p = 0.017), lateral lymph node metastasis (OR 2.85; p = 0.036), and distant metastasis (OR 4.28; p = 0.010) were identified as independent predictive factors for the recurrence/persistence of disease. Comparing the paediatric/adolescent vs. adult multifocal patients, the former demonstrated greater tumour invasiveness. Lateral lymph node metastasis (OR 6.36; P = 0.012) and distant metastasis (OR 3.70; P = 0.027) were independent predictive factors for recurrence/persistence of disease in multifocal patients, while age was not (OR 0.95; P = 0.455). CONCLUSION: Tumour multifocality independently predicts persistent/recurrent disease in paediatric and adolescent PTC patients.


Asunto(s)
Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Femenino , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/patología , Cáncer Papilar Tiroideo/cirugía , Niño , Pronóstico , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Adulto Joven , Metástasis Linfática/patología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Tiroidectomía , Adulto , Preescolar
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...