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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMEN

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Brasil/epidemiología , Incidencia , Modelos Estadísticos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMEN

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Cariotipificación
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246062, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339355

RESUMEN

Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world's most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.


Resumo Um grupo de defeitos sanguíneos hereditários é conhecido como talassemia e está entre as hemoglobinopatias mais prevalentes do mundo. As talassemias são de dois tipos, como talassemia alfa e beta. As causas desses defeitos são as mutações genéticas que levam a níveis baixos e/ou proteínas de globina com mau funcionamento, respectivamente. Em alguns casos, uma dessas proteínas pode estar completamente ausente. As cadeias de globina α e β formam uma dobra ou bolsa de globina para a fixação de heme (Fe ++) para transportar oxigênio. Os genes das proteínas alfa e beta globina estão presentes na forma de um cluster nos cromossomos 16 e 11, respectivamente. Diferentes genes de globina são usados ​​em diferentes estágios do curso de vida. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal, as proteínas γ globina se associam à α globina e, posteriormente, são substituídas pela proteína β globina. Os desequilíbrios da cadeia de globina resultam em hemólise e impedem a eritropoiese. Indivíduos que apresentam sintomas leves incluem portadores de talassemia alfa ou as pessoas com traços de talassemia alfa ou beta. A talassemia alfa causa condições como anemia hemolítica ou hidropsia fetal fatal, dependendo da gravidade da doença. A beta talassemia principal resulta em anemia hemolítica, retardo de crescimento e aberrações esqueléticas na primeira infância. As crianças afetadas por esse distúrbio precisam de transfusões de sangue regulares ao longo da vida. Os pacientes que dependem de transfusão de sangue geralmente desenvolvem sobrecarga de ferro que causa outras complicações nos sistemas do corpo, como insuficiência renal ou hepática, portanto as talassemias agora são classificadas como uma síndrome. A única cura para as talassemias seria um transplante de medula óssea ou terapia genética sem atualmente uma taxa de sucesso significativa. Uma compreensão completa da base molecular dessa síndrome pode fornecer novos insights e ideias para seu tratamento, já que os cientistas ainda não conseguiram encontrar uma cura permanente para essa doença mortal depois de mais de 87 anos desde que foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1925.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Talasemia/genética , Talasemia beta/genética , Hemoglobinas
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

RESUMEN

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Trampas Extracelulares , Células Epiteliales , Pulmón
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMEN

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Anciano , Granada (Fruta) , Staphylococcus aureus , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Escherichia coli , Antiinfecciosos
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e98, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347906

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is quite difficult to distinguish retractile testis from gliding testis, which requires different treatment planning in the clinic setting. We evaluated practice patterns of urologists in Korea regarding the diagnosis and management of retractile and gliding testes. METHODS: We mailed or e-mailed self-completion questionnaires consisting of 20 items to 106 urologists practicing in Korean hospitals concerning the diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism. We collected and analyzed the responses statistically. RESULTS: Responses were received from 62 urologists. The response rate was 58.5%. Thirty-seven urologists (59.7%) actually felt they had difficulty in distinguishing retractile testis from gliding testis in the clinic setting. This rate was higher for non-pediatric urologists (78.1%) than for pediatric urologists (40.0%) (P = 0.006). In cases of infant retractile testis, only five urologists (8.1%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately, with 54 (87.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of preschool-age children with retractile testis, 17 urologists (27.4%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 41 (66.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of infant gliding testis, 37 urologists (59.7%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 24 (38.7%) urologists saying they would do a follow-up. CONCLUSION: More than half (59.7%) of Korean urologists revealed it challenging to distinguish retractile testis and gliding testis in the clinical setting. The more it was difficult to diagnose retractile testis with certainty, the more frequent surgical correction was chosen for treatment. Therefore, it is essential to prevent unnecessary surgical treatment by establishing a practical guideline.


Asunto(s)
Criptorquidismo , Urólogos , Niño , Preescolar , Comprensión , Criptorquidismo/diagnóstico , Criptorquidismo/cirugía , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
7.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 62(2): 206-219, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435684

RESUMEN

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-safety analyses of alisertib were performed in children enrolled in 2 clinical trials: NCT02444884 and NCT01154816. NCT02444884 was a dose-finding study in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies (phase 1) or neuroblastomas (phase 2). Patients received oral alisertib 45 to 100 mg/m2 as powder-in-capsule once daily or twice daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. NCT01154816 was a phase 2 single-arm study evaluating efficacy in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies or acute leukemias. Patients received alisertib 80 mg/m2 as enteric-coated tablets once daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Sparse PK samples were collected up to 8 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. Sources of alisertib PK variability were characterized and quantified using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to support dosing recommendations in children and adolescents. A 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 3 transit compartments was developed using data from 146 patients. Apparent oral clearance and central distribution volume were correlated with body surface area across the age range of 2 to 21 years, supporting the use of body surface area-based alisertib dosing in the pediatric population. The recommended dose of 80 mg/m2 once daily enteric-coated tablets provided similar alisertib exposures across pediatric age groups and comparable exposure to that in adults receiving 50 mg twice daily (recommended adult dose). Statistically significant relationships (P < .01) were observed between alisertib exposures and incidence of grade ≥2 stomatitis and febrile neutropenia, consistent with antiproliferative mechanism-related toxicities.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Azepinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Azepinas/efectos adversos , Superficie Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dosis Máxima Tolerada , Modelos Biológicos , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/patología , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/efectos adversos , Pirimidinas/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
8.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Ginecomastia , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Ginecomastia/diagnóstico por imagen , Ginecomastia/epidemiología , Humanos , Hallazgos Incidentales , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

RESUMEN

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mutación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Receptores beta de Hormona Tiroidea/genética , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistencia a Hormonas Tiroideas/genética , Tirotropina , Tiroxina , Triyodotironina , Adulto Joven
10.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226341, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1354797

RESUMEN

Treatment of dental caries in children still remains challenging due to lack of cooperation with conventional treatment modalities. Recently, the use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) has proved useful in addressing this challenge. Aim: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) in arresting caries in children in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a phase III balanced randomized controlled school based interventional study on 240 children. The study group was treated with SDF while GIC was used in the control group. Follow up visits in 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months were carried out to assess the treatment outcome. Inferential statistics with the use of Pearson Chi-square test and Independent Student t-test were used at 5% level of significance. Results: There was significant relationship between SDF and caries arrest in 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months' assessment period (p = 0.001). The control group showed continuous decline (71.7%, 54.3% and 50.9%) in restorative success from 2 weeks to 3 months respectively. The mean ± SD and Confidence Interval (CI) of arrested caries in the SDF group were 113± 1.24 and 113.1 ­ 113.5 respectively. In the control group the mean ± SD and CI of restorative success were 69.3±11.8 and 67.2 ­ 71.4. The effect size was 5.24. Conclusion: The result of the study showed that SDF was effective in arresting caries in children without any harm and there was statistically significant difference in the use of 38% SDF in arresting caries in children


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Niño , Fluoruros Tópicos , Caries Dental , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo
11.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1366204

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Odontalgia/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas de Salud Bucal , Prevalencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Indonesia/epidemiología
12.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(2): 311-317, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611762

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus persists in 10-40% of children with posterior fossa tumours (PFT). A delay in commencement of adjuvant therapy (AT) can negatively influence survival. The objective of this study was to determine whether postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedures caused potentially preventable delays in AT. METHODS: A retrospective study of children diagnosed with PFT requiring AT from 2004 to 2018 from two large centres was conducted. Data on histology, timing of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VPS) insertion, and AT was collected. The modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH) score was calculated. The primary outcome was delay in AT beyond 40 days post-resection. Progression-free and overall survival were assessed. RESULTS: Out of 196 primary PFT resections, 144 fitted the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 6.57 ± 4.62. Histology was medulloblastoma (104), ependymoma (27), and others (13). Forty patients had a VPS inserted; 17 of these experienced a delay in AT. A total of 104 patients were not shunted; 15 of these had delayed AT (p = 0.0007). Patients who had a VPS insertion had longer intervals from surgery to commencement of AT (34.5 vs 30.8, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in mCPPRH score between those who had a VPS (4.03) and those who did not (3.61; p = 0.252). Multivariable linear regression modelling did not show a significant effect of VPS or mCPPRH on progression-free survival or OS. CONCLUSION: CSF diversion procedures may cause a preventable delay in the initiation of adjuvant therapy. Early post-operative VP shunt insertion, rather than a 'wait and see policy' should be considered in order to reduce this delay.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cerebelosas , Hidrocefalia , Neoplasias Infratentoriales , Canadá , Neoplasias Cerebelosas/cirugía , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico , Hidrocefalia/etiología , Hidrocefalia/cirugía , Lactante , Neoplasias Infratentoriales/complicaciones , Neoplasias Infratentoriales/cirugía , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Derivación Ventriculoperitoneal/efectos adversos
13.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 74(3): 313-317, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of functional constipation in children presenting to Specialized Sam Pediatric Center (SSPC) Sana'a city. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in SSPC during 7 months 2014. Of the 5625 patients seen for different causes through that period, 450 (8%) had functional constipation were included in the study and met the Rome III criteria for constipation. Information regarding age, gender, duration of constipation consistency of stool, infrequent defecation, painful evacuation, fecal incontinence and fecal mass in rectum, and/or soiling were collected. RESULTS: Age ranged from 0-18 years. Prevalence of functional constipation in children was 450 (8%) with duration ≥2 months (230 [51%] females, 220 [49%] males). Prevalence of constipation in age group of 5-10 years was 41.33% and it was 32, 67% in age group 2-5 years. The most common complaints were dry hard stool was found in 97% of the patients, infrequent defecation in 70%, painful evacuation stools in 60% and fecal incontinence in 20%. Large fecal mass in rectum, and/or soiling was found in 20%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of constipation of all visits to pediatric outpatient clinics was high. It was more prevalent, in the age groups of 5-10 years and 2-5 years than in the other age groups and females more affected than males. The most common symptom and signs was dry, hard stool followed by infrequent defecation, painful stools, fecal incontinence then fecal mass in rectum, and/or soiling.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Fecal , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Estreñimiento/diagnóstico , Estreñimiento/epidemiología , Estreñimiento/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Incontinencia Fecal/complicaciones , Incontinencia Fecal/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Dolor/complicaciones , Prevalencia , Yemen
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9727415, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685165

RESUMEN

With the development of AI technology, human-computer interaction technology is no longer the traditional mouse and keyboard interaction. AI and VR have been widely used in early childhood education. In the process of the slow development and application of voice interaction, visual interaction, action interaction, and other technologies, multimodal interaction technology system has become a research hotspot. In this paper, dynamic image capture and recognition technology is integrated into early childhood physical education for intelligent interaction. According to the basic movement process and final node matching in children's sports training to judge children's physical behavior ability, attention is paid to identify the accuracy and safety of movement. The input images and questions are from the abstract clipart dataset of dynamic image recognition and the self-made 3D dataset of Web3D dynamic motion scene with the same style, which is similar to the action content in the actual preschool training teaching. Therefore, according to the idea of process capture and target recognition, on the basis of the original conditions of the recognition model, a new recognition model is developed through Zheng's target detector. The modified model is characterized by higher accuracy. Weapons need to combine process recognition and result recognition. The experimental results show that the improved model has the obvious advantages of high precision and fast speed, which provides a new research idea for the development of children's physical training simulation.


Asunto(s)
Redes Neurales de la Computación , Deportes , Atención , Preescolar , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Movimiento
15.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 1781662, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685224

RESUMEN

Taking the entire education system in Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province, Central China, as an example, this paper uses the questionnaire survey method to analyze the effect of artificial intelligence (AI) on role cognition in the education system. The education system targeted by this questionnaire survey involves 8 categories: preschool education, primary education, secondary education, higher education, adult education, computer network education, enterprise education, and social education; the respondents include 368 teachers, 402 students or learners, 118 school managers, and 124 family members of students or learners in all above education categories. The questionnaire design has a total of 34 question classified into 6 role cognition items, with a 5-level score; a total of 1012 questionnaires were distributed, and 978 were recovered with a recovery rate of 96.64%, in which 957 were valid questionnaires with an effective rate of 97.85%. The study results show that the learning of AI-assisted courses is strongly dependent on course role cognition, and the construction of role cognition is related to the understanding of course content, teaching methods, and activity methods. Therefore, the effect of AI on role cognition in the education system needs to be systematically analyzed from the aspects of function realization form, resource presentation method, supporting hardware form, teacher-student interaction method, and representation method of works. As connecters, teacher's role cognition is limited by the degree of understanding learners, the amount of resources, and data processing capabilities, but the advantage is that they can flexibly monitor and adjust. AI technology is flexible and diverse, it functions in learning and teaching activities in a variety of ways, and there is no agreement on the terminology to describe its role in role recognition. The results of this paper provide a reference for further researches on the effect of AI on role cognition in the education system.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Preescolar , Cognición , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 7918604, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685494

RESUMEN

Background: The healthcare system in Jordan faced substantial burden during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic including disruption of routine childhood vaccination services. Aims: We sought, for the first time, to describe the impact of the 2020 pandemic on vaccination coverage of Jordanian children in Jordan and to identify the key contributing factors. Methods: Nationwide vaccination rates were retrieved from the electronic records at the Ministry of Health (2018-2020) enrolling crude births of 220,057 Jordanian children during 2020. Records of doses administered were compared for each month of 2020 with the baseline of 2018-2019. A cross-sectional survey (March-August 2021) was also conducted enrolling a convenient sample of adults aged ≥18 who were Jordanian caregivers for vaccine-eligible children (0-23 months) between 1 January 2020 and the date of the interview. The survey aimed to address caregivers' adherence to routine vaccination during 2020-2021 and to describe the determinants of the current and future adherence to vaccination where multiple logistic regression model was utilized. Results: The electronic records revealed a significant decline in vaccination coverage during 2020. The greatest decline was observed during the lockdown period from 21 March 2020 to 21 April 2020 (32.4%-46.8%) followed by the decline observed by the entry of the first wave during September-October 2020 (18.4%-22.8%). A drop of 14-16% was observed for the vaccines recommended under the age of 12 months and of 6-7% for those recommended in 1-2-year-old children. The yearly coverage rates for measles-1 (at 9 months), 2 (at 12 months as part of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine), and 3 (at 18 months as part of MMR) were 76%, 90%, and 87%, respectively, and for hexavalent-1, 2, and 3 were 78%, 78%, and 77%, respectively. The results of the survey revealed that the main reason for vaccination delay for at least 1 month from the recommended administration time was the lockdown, followed by child illness and smart lockdowns (regional lockdown/health center closure). Vaccination delay was less likely to be observed in children aged ≥12 months (P value < 0.001; OR: 0.18; CI: 0.11-0.29) or children with chronic diseases (P value < 0.05; OR: 0.5; CI: 0.33-0.88). Conclusion: The current study demonstrates a decline in vaccination coverage of Jordanian children during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to formulate future strategies to promote catch-up vaccination and to avoid future backsliding of vaccination rates during further waves of the COVID-19 pandemic or other pandemics. These include improving health services, allaying caregivers' concerns about contracting COVID-19, and arranging vaccination campaigns outside health centers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sarampión , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Preescolar , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Jordania/epidemiología , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola , Pandemias , Vacunación , Cobertura de Vacunación
17.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 2212624, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685513

RESUMEN

Introduction: Anemia is indeed a significant risk factor for children's health as it affects growth retardation and has severe short and prolonged effects that follow in morbidity and death. Notwithstanding such ways to tackle anemia, the prevalence remains high in India and poses a severe public health concern. Objectives: The primary focus of this study was to find the prevalence and to determine the factors associated with the anemia of children under five years of age in India. Problem Statement. The increasing prevalence of childhood anemia and the life-threatening consequences for millions of children in India are a major concern. Knowing the relevant associated factors with childhood anemia is essential to reduce the frequency and severity level. Study design. For analysis purposes, this study utilized a cross-sectional study design. Methodology. Using the Indian Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16 data, we used chi-squared and gamma tests to find the association. Then, we utilized multinomial logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression to find the better model and the influencing factors of anemia in India. Results: In our study, we have found that children with highly educated mothers were 36.7% less likely (OR = 0.633, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 0.608, 0.658) to be higher anemic than the children with not educated mother. Children with moderate and severe anemic mothers were 163.3% (OR = 2.633, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 2.565, 7.704) more likely to be higher anemic than the children with not anemic mother. Not stunting children were 21.9% (OR = 0.781, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 0 .764, 0.797) less likely to be higher anemic than the stunting children. Children aged 36-59 months were 73.9% (OR = 0.361, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 0.353, 0.369) less likely to be higher anemic than the children aged 6-24 months. Again, the ACI value revealed that ordinal logistic regression was a better-fitted model for these data. Conclusion: and contribution. The variables such as stunting, underweight, wasting, child age, size of the child, and source of drinking water were the most critical indicators for child anemia in India. In summary, our study result indicated the major socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with childhood anemia in India, which can help the policymaker to take quick decision to reduce the severity level.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Anemia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos del Crecimiento/complicaciones , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 1918177, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685588

RESUMEN

Objective: In this study, by using clinical and paraclinical characteristics, we have aimed to predict the severity of the disease in hospitalized COVID-19 children. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on medical records about epidemiologic data, underlying diseases, symptoms, and laboratory tests from March to October, 2020, on 238 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 paediatric cases in several children's hospitals of Tehran, Ahwaz, Isfahan, and Bandar Abbas. Results: From 238 patients, 140 (59%) were male and most of them were in the age group of 1 to 5 years (34.6%). Among all hospitalized patients, 38% had an underlying disease and in total, 5% of cases were expired. Conclusion: Determining patient severity is essential for appropriate clinical decision making; our results showed that in hospitalized pediatric patients, by using several variables such as SGOT, CRP, ALC, LDH, WBC, O2sat, and ferritin, we can use clinical and paraclinical characteristics for predicting the severity of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Niño Hospitalizado , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 841178, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685755

RESUMEN

This study examined effects of COVID-19 restrictions in early 2020 on movement (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and healthy eating behaviors in families with 0-12-year-old children in western Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,371 parents completed an online survey about changes in children's and families' food intake and movement behaviors. There was an increase in sedentary screen use by children (4.18/5.00) and families (3.91/5.00) and a slight increase in reported physical activity (3.56/5.00), amount of food consumed (3.58/5.00) and meals and snacks eaten (3.69/5.00) during the height of the COVID-19 restrictions compared to before. There was little change in reported sleep (3.17/5.00). Lower socioeconomic families were disproportionately affected, with greater increases in unhealthy eating (t = 2.739, P = 0.06), lower levels of improvement in physical activity, such as walking and cycling (t = -7.521, P < 0.001) and outdoor activity (t = 5.415, p < 0.001), and higher increases in family sedentary behavior (t = 2.313, P = 0.021). Therefore, even short periods of restrictions can result in detrimental health behavior changes. Such changes could become entrenched leading to increased risk of lifestyle diseases. Programmatic and policy strategies should be geared toward promoting healthy movement behaviors, focusing on families of lower socioeconomic status to ensure the pandemic does not widen an existing gap.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Dieta Saludable , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Pandemias , Conducta Sedentaria
20.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e10, 2022 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695440

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND:  Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death among children under five years old globally. It remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among this age group in Nigeria. Using simple home management, mothers play important roles in the prevention and control of diarrhoea among these children. AIM:  This study aimed to assess mothers' knowledge, attitude and practice in the prevention and home management of diarrhoeal diseases among children under five years old in Lagos, Nigeria. SETTING:  This study was conducted within the communities of Kosofe local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria. METHODS:  A descriptive cross-sectional study design was conducted using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and analysed using EPI info version 7.2.1. Chi-square statistic was used to test the association between variable at the level of significance of 5%. RESULTS:  A total of 360 respondents participated in this study. The mean age of the respondents was 32.5 ± 5.5 years. About 59.2% of respondents had good knowledge, 59.2% of them had positive attitude, and 53.1% of them had good practice towards prevention and home management of diarrhoea. Age (p = 0.007), occupation (p = 0.008) and level of education (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with practice of home management of diarrhoea among children under five years old. CONCLUSION:  Educated, employed, and married mothers were more likely to have good prevention and home management practices towards diarrhoea in their children under five years old.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Madres , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Diarrea/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Nigeria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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