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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771337

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychological suffering by health professionals may be associated with the uncertainty of a safe workplace. Front-line professionals exposed and involved in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients are more susceptible. METHOD: This review was conducted based on papers that were published at MEDLINE, BMJ, PsycINFO, and LILACS, the according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). RESULTS: Health professionals had a higher level of anxiety (13.0 vs. 8.5%, p < 0.01, OR = 1.6152; 95%CI 1.3283 to 1.9641; p < 0.0001) and depression 12.2 vs. 9.5%; p = 0.04; OR = 1.3246; 95%CI 1.0930 to 1.6053; p = 0.0042), besides somatizations and insomnia compared to professionals from other areas. CONCLUSION: Health professionals, regardless of their age, showed significant levels of mental disorders. We observed a prevalence of anxiety and depression. Insomnia was a risk factor for both.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Personal de Salud/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estrés Psicológico
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMEN

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudiantes/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Actitud , Análisis Factorial , Conducta del Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Psicometría
3.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 503-507, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009083

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To revisit ocular rosacea as an underappreciated condition which can cause permanent blindness if inadequately treated, and to review data supporting improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Ocular rosacea has an underrecognized prevalence in children and individuals with darker skin tone. Rosacea has several associations with other significant systemic diseases. Variations in local and systemic microbiome, including demodex infestation, may play a role in pathogenesis, severity, and in explaining the different phenotypes of rosacea. The National Rosacea Society Expert Committee established an updated classification system of rosacea in 2017. New treatment algorithms based on these clinical subtypes are suggested. SUMMARY: With continued advancements in the understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of rosacea, randomized controlled trials specific for ocular rosacea remain lacking. There is overall consensus that rosacea and ocular rosacea require chronic maintenance treatment strategies involving combination topical and systemic therapies.


Asunto(s)
Rosácea , Ceguera , Humanos , Prevalencia , Rosácea/diagnóstico , Rosácea/terapia
4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 686-690, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025940

RESUMEN

AIM: To study the prevalence of different malocclusion traits in Najran in Saudi adolescents and adults seeking orthodontic treatment in Najran in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty male patients in the age group of 12-35 years who visited faculty of dentistry in Najran University for orthodontic treatment were examined and were divided into two age groups, adolescents and adults. The patients were examined and classified into Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions. They were also examined for overjet, overbite, open bite, crossbite, scissor's bite, crowding, and spacing. RESULTS: The prevalence of Angle's malocclusion Classes I, II, and III was 52.8%, 31.6%, and 15.6%, respectively. The most common anomaly was moderate overbite followed by lateral open bite. Posterior crossbite was found to be more prevalent than anterior crossbite. CONCLUSION: Angle's Class I malocclusion was most prevalent type, followed by Class II, and then Class III. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study can be used to formulate an appropriate preventive and orthodontic treatment measures pertaining to the population of adolescent and adult Saudi males.


Asunto(s)
Maloclusión , Mordida Abierta , Sobremordida , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Maloclusión/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 720, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children living with sputum smear-positive adult tuberculosis (TB) patients are vulnerable to acquire tubercular infection. Contact tracing is an important strategy to control tubercular infection in the community. This study was done to find out prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular infection in children living with sputum smear-positive adult patients receiving DOTS at recruitment and to find out incidence of tubercular infection and disease in these children on follow up. METHOD: Children (< 15 years) living in contact with adults on DOTS were grouped as < 6 years and 6-14 years. They were further sub grouped as being - uninfected, infected, diseased and on prophylaxis and were followed at 3, 6 and 9 months. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were done. RESULTS: At recruitment 152 children were enrolled and 21.1% (n = 32) had TB. On follow up, 4.3% (n = 5), 5.8% (n = 6) and 11.6% (n = 11) children developed TB after 3, 6 and 9 months respectively.9 children did not come for the last follow up so the overall prevalence of TB disease at 9 months was 37.7% (n = 54). Out of the 128 children with TST reading 23.4% (n = 30) child contacts were found to be infected already at recruitment. The incidence of TST conversion was 20.7% (n = 18), 26.9% (n = 18) and 16.3% (n = 7) respectively. The overall prevalence of tubercular infection in the children, who were in contact with TB patients for 9 months was 74.5% (n = 73). CONCLUSION: About half the children were either suffering from TB or tubercular infection on recruitment. During 9 months follow up 22 unaffected children developed disease and 43acquired infection.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Esputo/microbiología , Prueba de Tuberculina , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1196-1202, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trend, clinical profile, and the prevalence of risk factors and associated comorbidities in new cases of tuberculosis in the Northeast (2001-2016). METHODS: A prevalence study involving all tuberculosis cases registered in Northeast Brasil, 2001-2016. Data were obtained from the National System of Notification of Disorders. For statistical analysis, the inflection point regression model and descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: 331,245 cases of tuberculosis were reported. The overall incidence rate decreased from 44.84/100,000 inhabitants (2001) to 30.92/100,000 inhabitants (2016), with a decreasing trend (AAPC: -2.3; p<0.001). The profile was characterized by men (73.53%), age 20-59 years (73.56%), pulmonary tuberculosis (86.37%), positive smear microscopy (54.78%). The main risk factors and comorbidities were: AIDS (4.64%), HIV (12.10%), Diabetes mellitus (5.46%), alcohol (11.63%), institutionalized, (4.31%) and deprived of liberty (2.30%). The cure rate was 70.66% and the abandonment rate was 9.11%. CONCLUSIONS: Even with a reduced incidence, tuberculosis represents a real public health problem in the Northeast region. The profile was characterized by a male population, in economically-active age, lung smear-positive pulmonary presentation, and the risk factors and comorbidities of Aids, TB/HIV co-infection, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, institutionalized and deprived of freedom reflect the complexity of the challenges in facing the disease.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Adulto , Brasil , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1225-1228, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027449

RESUMEN

METHODS: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy with unknown pathophysiology among women of reproductive age. Several studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among PCOS patients. Recent studies have reported varied prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with PCOS. The aim of this study is to determine if women with PCOS are at a higher risk of MetS or some degree of metabolic compromise. This is an observational study. A total of 96 women diagnosed with PCOS (according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria) were included. Variables of diagnostic criteria for MetS according to the ATP III were analyzed at the first consultation. Data analysis was performed using Epi Info™ 7.2.2.16. RESULTS: We assessed the prevalence of obesity, blood pressure, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia in 96 women with PCOS and an average age of 28 (17-39) years. Forty percent of the women had BMI <25 kg/m2; 85.4% had blood pressure <130/85 mm Hg; 22.9% had HDL cholesterol >50 mg/dl, 57.3% had triglycerides <150 mg/dl, 63.5% had fasting glucose <100 mg/dl. According to the ATP III criteria for MetS, 8.33% met none of the criteria, 19.79% met one criterion, 15.63% two criteria, 41.67% 3 criteria, 13.54% 4 criteria, and 1.04% met the 5 criteria. CONCLUSION: Considering the high prevalence of MetS or altered metabolic components in PCOS patients at the moment of the diagnosis, its regular screening is necessary to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates in these women.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Obesidad , Prevalencia , Triglicéridos
10.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1235-1240, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027451

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is characterized by the involuntary loss of lean body mass associated with a progressive reduction of muscle strength. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in kidney transplant recipients and its association with the determining factors that control muscle homeostasis. METHODS: We evaluated renal transplant recipients undergoing follow-up at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão from June 2017 to July 2018 and who met the inclusion criteria. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European criteria. The skeletal muscle mass index was measured by dual-energy radiological absorptiometry; the values <7,26 kg/m2 for men and <5,5 kg/m2 for women were adopted for muscle depletion. For handgrip strength, values of <30 kg for men and <20 kg for women were considered as reduced muscle strength. In both sexes, the cutoff point for walking speed was <0,8 m/s. RESULTS: We evaluated 83 renal transplant recipients with a mean age of 48.8 ± 12,1 years and predominantly males (57,8%). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 19,3%. Among individuals without sarcopenia, 17,9% had a decrease in handgrip strength and 40,3% has altered gait speed. DISCUSSION: Individuals submitted to renal transplant may develop sarcopenia while still young and already present altered muscle function and strength even before the depletion of lean body mass. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis may allow the prevention of sarcopenia and provide a better quality of life for patients.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Riñón , Sarcopenia , Adulto , Femenino , Fuerza de la Mano , Homeostasis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1247-1251, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, caused by the Human Papilloma Virus, has a significant economic impact worldwide and there are no epidemiological data of this disease in Brasil. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of laryngeal papillomatosis of some otorhinolaryngology centers in São Paulo State (Brasil). METHODS: A questionnaire containing data on the number of new and follow-up cases diagnosed with laryngeal papillomatosis was sent to the Otorhinolaryngology services (n=35) of São Paulo State (Brasil). RESULTS: A total of 20 otorhinolaryngology centers answered the questionnaire. Of these, the five largest regional health centers were selected as follows: Campinas (42 cities - 4,536,657 inhabitants), Sao Jose do Rio Preto (102 cities - 1,602,845 inhabitants), Ribeirão Preto (26 cities - 1,483,715 inhabitants), Bauru (68 cities - 1,770,427 inhabitants), and Sorocaba (47 cities - 2,478,208 inhabitants). The incidence and prevalence of each regional health centers were, respectively: Campinas (5.51;7.27), Sorocaba (2.02;6.86), São José do Rio Preto (1.87;7.49), Ribeirão Preto (11.46;22.92), and Bauru (3.95;7.91). CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of the laryngeal papillomatosis of the five largest regional health centers of the interior of São Paulo State (Brasil) varied between 1.87 to 11.46 and 6.86 to 22.92 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, respectively for a total population of 11,871,852 inhabitants.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Papiloma , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Incidencia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiología , Papiloma/epidemiología , Prevalencia
13.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020258

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement with COVID-19 is increasingly being recognised. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 complicated by secondary Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is poorly understood. METHODS: This retrospective case series was conducted between March and April 2020 at four hospitals of Steward Health Care Network of Massachusetts, USA. Seven patients out of 169 who had echocardiogram were identified to have features of TC. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome were gathered from their electronic medical records. We also reviewed all the published cases of COVID-19 and TC in the literature to recognise their common clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: In our series of seven patients, three typical, two inverted, one biventricular and one global TC were recognised. Three were females and four were males. The mean age was 71±11 years. In-hospital death was observed in 57% of patients. Patients who belonged to the high-risk group and had high-risk echocardiographic features in our series had a 100% mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 complicated by TC has a high mortality rate. Early identification of patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk for developing secondary TC is important for the prevention of complications, and thus improved outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cardiomiopatía de Takotsubo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cardiomiopatía de Takotsubo/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografía/métodos , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Femenino , Corazón Auxiliar , Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distribución por Sexo , Cardiomiopatía de Takotsubo/terapia
14.
Skinmed ; 18(4): 210-212, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032683

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an infectious disease of recent origin with high transmissibility and mortality. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the United States the most, in terms of the number of confirmed cases and fatalities. How other aspects of public health will be impacted by this disease has yet to be fully realized. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), already a major public health crisis, will likely be significantly affected by this pandemic. We address some of the potential implications for STDs in the setting of widespread COVID-19, discussing the sexual transmission of COVID-19 itself, STD co-infection with COVID-19, and changes in STD prevalence secondary to COVID-19. (SKINmed. 2020;18:210-212).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Skinmed ; 18(4): 218-220, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032685

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition to affecting mainly the respiratory tract, there have been many reported cutaneous manifestations of the disease. A retrospective case series based on history and clinical findings was performed across six hospitals in the UAE, including two field hospitals. A total of 324 patients with COVID-19 were identified and divided into three groups based on the severity of the disease. Forty-five (12.5%) patients had clearly identifiable cutaneous manifestation of COVID-19. Two patients each with alopecia areata and sclerosis of the extremities, respectively, were identified in the second group. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 have been well reported across the literature. The experience in the UAE is similar to that of published reports. The occurrence of other cutaneous manifestations with an underlying autoimmune pathogenesis should raise the possibility of such conditions in those with COVID-19. (SKINmed. 2020;18:218-220).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Virales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Virales/fisiopatología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Emiratos Árabes Unidos/epidemiología
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 741, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970's and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for national outbreaks. A previous study among this population, reported a case confirmation rate of 40% by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) among patients at the Uvira Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC). This study considers the prevalence and diversity of 15 enteric pathogens in suspected cholera cases seeking treatment at the Uvira CTC. METHODS: We used the Luminex xTAG® multiplex PCR to test for 15 enteric pathogens, including toxigenic strains of V. cholerae in rectal swabs preserved on Whatman FTA Elute cards. Results were interpreted on MAGPIX® and analyzed on the xTAG® Data Analysis Software. Prevalence of enteric pathogens were calculated and pathogen diversity was modelled with a Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 269 enrolled CTC patients, PCR detected the presence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in 38% (103/269) of the patients, which were considered to be cholera cases. These strains were detected as the sole pathogen in 36% (37/103) of these cases. Almost half (45%) of all study participants carried multiple enteric pathogens (two or more). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (36%) and Cryptosporidium (28%) were the other most common pathogens identified amongst all participants. No pathogen was detected in 16.4% of study participants. Mean number of pathogens was highest amongst boys and girls aged 1-15 years and lowest in women aged 16-81 years. Ninety-three percent of toxigenic V. cholerae strains detected by PCR were found in patients having tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by RDT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous results from DRC and other cholera endemic areas in sub-Sahara Africa with less than half of CTC admissions positive for cholera by PCR. More research is required to determine the causes of severe acute diarrhea in these low-resource, endemic areas to optimize treatment measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is part of the impact evaluation study entitled: "Impact Evaluation of Urban Water Supply Improvements on Cholera and Other Diarrheal Diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of Congo" registered on 10 October 2016 at clinicaltrials.gov Identification number: NCT02928341 .


Asunto(s)
Cólera/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarrea/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigénica/genética , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Cólera/microbiología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Diarrea/microbiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Prevalencia , Microbiología del Agua , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 740, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036575

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Institute of India) are included in the Indian immunization program. We report the rotavirus disease burden and the diversity of rotavirus genotypes from 2005 to 2016 in a multi-centric surveillance study before the introduction of vaccines. METHODS: A total of 29,561 stool samples collected from 2005 to 2016 (7 sites during 2005-2009, 3 sites from 2009 to 2012, and 28 sites during 2012-2016) were included in the analysis. Stools were tested for rotavirus antigen using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping was performed on 65.8% of the EIA positive samples using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify the G (VP7) and P (VP4) types. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of detecting genotypes across the surveillance period and in particular age groups. RESULTS: Of the 29,561 samples tested, 10,959 (37.1%) were positive for rotavirus. There was a peak in rotavirus positivity during December to February across all sites. Of the 7215 genotyped samples, G1P[8] (38.7%) was the most common, followed by G2P[4] (12.3%), G9P[4] (5.8%), G12P[6] (4.2%), G9P[8] (4%), and G12P[8] (2.4%). Globally, G9P[4] and G12P[6] are less common genotypes, although these genotypes have been reported from India and few other countries. There was a variation in the geographic and temporal distribution of genotypes, and the emergence or re-emergence of new genotypes such as G3P[8] was seen. Over the surveillance period, there was a decline in the proportion of G2P[4], and an increase in the proportion of G9P[4]. A higher proportion of mixed and partially typed/untyped samples was also seen more in the age group 0-11 months. CONCLUSIONS: This 11 years surveillance highlights the high burden of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years of age before inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in the national programme. Regional variations in rotavirus epidemiology were seen, including the emergence of G3P[8] in the latter part of the surveillance. Having pre-introduction data is important to track changing epidemiology of rotaviruses, particularly following vaccine introduction.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Genotipo , Hospitalización , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/genética , Enfermedad Aguda , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/prevención & control , Gastroenteritis/virología , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Esquemas de Inmunización , Técnicas para Inmunoenzimas , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Rotavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/inmunología
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 159-168, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041315

RESUMEN

The double burden of malnutrition is the coexistence of two different conditions, mainly reflected as excess or deficit in weight. Anemia is a specific nutritional deficit not always included in the double burden assessment. We reviewed overweight and/or obesity (OW/OB) and anemia studies from Latin-American Children over the last ten years up to 2019. Two authors evaluated the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and LILACS databases. A scale of ten questions was used to assess the risk of bias in prevalence studies. Fourteen studies were selected. The population studies' size ranged from 147 to 20,342 children with different socio-economic backgrounds, such as urban, peri-urban and rural settings, socio-economic status, schooling, population (ethnic minorities and indigenous), and environmental differences (sea level or high altitude). The prevalence of OW/OB ranged from 4.9% to 42%. The prevalence of anemia was from 3.4% to 67%. The double burden, including OW/OB and anemia, ranged from 0.7% to 67%. A higher prevalence of excess weight and anemia was found in rural and high altitude above sea level environments, extreme poverty, low education level, and indigenous communities. These heterogeneous data, before the 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic), reflect the vast inequities between countries and within each country. Food insecurity linked to poverty and the induced change in eating habits and lifestyles threaten optimal child nutrition in ongoing and future scenarios. The existence of OW/OB and anemia and their simultaneous coexistence in the community, home, and individual levels, indicates that interventions should be comprehensive to face the double burden of malnutrition.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Costo de Enfermedad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Geografía , Humanos , Lactante , América Latina , Prevalencia , Publicaciones
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 746, 2020 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046016

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Effective active case finding (ACF) activities are essential for early identification of new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI). Accurate diagnostics as well as the ability to identify contacts at high risk of infection are essential for ACF, and have not been systematically reported from Central Asia. The objective was to implement a pilot ACF program to determine the prevalence and risk factors for LTBI and active TB among contacts of individuals with TB in Kyrgyz Republic using Quantiferon-TB Gold plus (QuantiFERON). METHODS: An enhanced ACF project in the Kyrgyz Republic was implemented in which close and household (home) contacts of TB patients from the Issyk-Kul Oblast TB Center were visited at home. QuantiFERON and the tuberculin skin test (TST) alongside clinical and bacteriological examination were used to identify LTBI and active TB cases among contacts. The association for QuantiFERON positivity and risk factors were analysed and compared to TST results. RESULTS: Implementation of ACF with QuantiFERON involved close collaboration with the national sanitary and epidemiological services (SES) and laboratories in the Kyrgyz Republic. From 67 index cases, 296 contacts were enrolled of whom 253 had QuantiFERON or TST results; of those 103 contacts had LTBI (positive TST or IGRA), and four (1.4%) active TB cases were detected. Index case smear microscopy (OR 1.76) and high household density (OR 1.97) were significant risk factors for QuantiFERON positivity for all contacts. When stratified by age, association with smear positivity disappeared for children below 15 years. TST was not associated with any risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that ACF activities have been reported for Central Asia, and provide insight for implementation of effective ACF in the region. These ACF activities using QuantiFERON led to increase in the detection of LTBI and active cases, prior to patients seeking treatment. Household density should be taken into consideration as an important risk factor for the stratification of future ACF activities.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Ensayos de Liberación de Interferón gamma/métodos , Tuberculosis Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/inmunología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kirguistán/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Latente/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Prueba de Tuberculina/métodos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 724-730, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070812

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between fever and diarrhea 2-week prevalence and Yingyangbao(YYB) effective consumption among infants and young children. METHODS: A total of 2952 infants and young children aged from 6 to 24 month in 10 impoverished counties of Henan province were selected by multi-stage random sampling between June and September 2017. To acquire 2-week prevalence information of infants and young children, their caregivers were investigated by self-made questionnaire. The structural equation model was utilized in multi-factor analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting potential confounders, YYB effective consumption reduced2-week prevalence of fever(ß=-0. 279, P=0. 001) and diarrhea(ß=-0. 182, P=0. 042) among infants and young children. Nutrition knowledge and YYB benefit cognition of caregivers reduced2-week prevalence of fever(γ=-0. 002, 95%CI-0. 004~-0. 001, P=0. 003) and diarrhea(γ=-0. 001, 95%CI-0. 003~0. 000, P=0. 049) indirectly through chain mediation path of "nutrition knowledge-YYB benfit cognition-YYB effective consumption-fever/diarrheal". CONCLUSION: YYB effective consumption can reduce 2-week prevalence of fever and diarrhea among infants and young children. Nutrition knowledge and YYB benefit cognition can improve YYB effective consumption and thus reduce 2-week prevalence of fever and diarrhea indirectly.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Población Rural , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/prevención & control , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactante , Prevalencia
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