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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMEN

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Parásitos , Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Galliformes , Prevalencia , Animales Salvajes
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMEN

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Tripanosomiasis/diagnóstico , Tripanosomiasis/veterinaria , Tripanosomiasis/epidemiología , Ciervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Océano Índico , Caballos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

RESUMEN

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Parásitos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Rumiantes , Cabras , Ovinos , Prevalencia , Heces
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384

RESUMEN

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.


Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Inmunoglobulina M , Prevalencia , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246887, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285630

RESUMEN

Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Parásitos , Columbidae , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Animales Salvajes
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMEN

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepacivirus/genética , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Genotipo
8.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 95(3): 559-571, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220487

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the effort-reward imbalance prevalence (ERI) among physicians. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from 2005 to 2019 using PRISMA guidelines on the PubMed and EBSCOhost search engines. Data were classified according to the ERI definition used by the authors. A meta-analysis was performed on effort and reward scores and on ERI prevalence rates. RESULTS: Out of 3787 results, we selected 41 studies. The physicians' ERI prevalence rate ranged from 3.50 to 96.9%. The standardized pooled effort mean score was 58.5 for effort and 48.9 for a reward out of 100, respectively. The overall combined ERI rate (when the ratio between effort and reward scores was above 1) was 40.2% among 21,939 practitioners (31.7% in the working European population). ERI rate was 70.2% using a four-point Likert scale and 21.1% using a five-point Likert scale. The highest rate (96.9%) was observed among German rural general practitioners and the lowest rate (3.50%) among Swiss hospital practitioners. The low percentage of variability (I2 = 27%) attributed to effort scores heterogeneity between studies suggested that this dimension is not discriminant in the physician ERI assessment. The high heterogeneity in reward scores (I2 = 83%) indicated that this dimension is sensible in ERI assessment among physicians. The number of items used did not appear as a significant source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Physician job ERI appeared to be higher than in the working population. Studying each dimension and item indicators could help improve psychosocial risk prevention.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Médicos , Humanos , Médicos/psicología , Prevalencia , Recompensa , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga de Trabajo/psicología
9.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Ginecomastia , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Ginecomastia/diagnóstico por imagen , Ginecomastia/epidemiología , Humanos , Hallazgos Incidentales , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
10.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366907

RESUMEN

Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Objetivos: estabelecer diagnóstico diferencial das demências em ambulatório de geriatria no Distrito Federal, calculando-se sua prevalência por meio de exame clínico e avaliação multifuncional. Método: estudo longitudinal, retrospectivo, com amostra de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais residentes no Distrito Federal-Brasil, com déficit cognitivo caracterizado por Transtorno Neurocognitivo (TNC) Maior (demência), cadastradas durante os anos de 2010 a 2018. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários para selecionar e avaliar o perfil do idoso com diagnóstico de TNC seguida de avaliação geriátrica ampla e avaliação multifuncional. A análise de dados foi realizada com o cálculo da prevalência, estatística descritiva e índice V de Cramer. Resultados: 158 indivíduos conseguiram concluir todas as avalições. 52,5% possuem de 80 a 89 anos, 62,5% são mulheres e 62,7% caucasianos, 50,6% viúvos e 47,5% analfabetos. A prevalência inicial de Doença de Alzheimer (DA) foi de 45,6%, reduzindo-se para 35,4% após um período de acompanhamento e a demência vascular (DV) foi de 34,2%, inicialmente, e 45,6% ao final. Utilizou-se o Coeficiente V de Cramer, em que se encontrou uma relação fraca de fatores de risco com os diagnósticos das demências apresentados. Conclusão: DV foi a mais prevalente na área estudada. Entende-se ser a maior frequência de DA esteja relacionada à avaliação superficial uma vez que esse tipo de demência é mundialmente mais frequente


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Mujeres , Demencia Vascular , Evaluación Geriátrica , Salud Pública , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Neurocognitivos , Geriatría , Personas
11.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1366204

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Odontalgia/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas de Salud Bucal , Prevalencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Indonesia/epidemiología
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1479, 2022 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922783

RESUMEN

The increasing complexity of academia, with its demanding working conditions and uncertain career opportunities, may affect the mental health of academics and potentially lead to mental health problems. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the academic population of the University of Udine and to compare symptoms in senior and younger academics and administrative staff.A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2020, involving academic and administrative staff in all departments. The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was assessed using the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 tools. The relationship between mental health outcomes and job role was analyzed using nonparametric tests and ordinal logistic regression.A total of 366 individuals participated: 109 junior academics, 146 senior and 111 administrative staff. The proportion of women was 55.7% and the mean age was 47.9 years. The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the studied population was 25.7% (95% IC 21.5-30.4) and 22.7% (95% IC 18.7-27.2) respectively, with junior academics having the higher prevalence of both symptoms. Univariate models suggest a higher risk for anxiety symptoms OR 1.89 (1.13-3.17) for women.The prevalence of depressive symptoms is higher in our academic community than in the general population, especially among junior academics. These findings may reflect the impact of uncertain career and challenging environment on the mental health of young academics. Universities should provide more support to young academics so that they can contribute effectively and healthily to the advancement of research.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Naciones Unidas , Universidades
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1478, 2022 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a significant public health challenge that affects the population of all nations. Anemia among adolescents emerged as an alarming public health issue as it harms an individual's physical capacity and cognitive and work performance. The study aims to determine the effect of changes in individual and household level factors on the prevalence of anemia among adolescent boys and girls. METHOD: The study utilized data from two waves of the "Understanding the lives of adolescent and young adults" (UDAYA) survey, conducted in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh during 2015-16 (wave-1) and 2018-19 (wave-2). The sample size for the present study was 4216 and 5974 unmarried adolescent boys and girls aged 10-19 years in both waves. We performed descriptive analysis to observe the characteristics of adolescents during 2015-16. Further, changes in selected independent variables from wave-1 to wave-2 were examined using the proportion test. Moreover, random-effect regression models were employed to examine the association of changes in individual and household level factors with anemia prevalence among adolescents. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia decreased over time among adolescent boys (33 to 30%), whereas it increased among adolescent girls (59 to 63%). The results from the random-effect model show that adolescent boys who used shared toilets were more anemic than those who used a private restroom [ß:0.05, 95% CI:(0.01, 0.08)]. Moreover, underweight [ß:0.05, CI:(0.01, 0.09)] and thin [ß:0.04, CI:(0.00, 0.07)] adolescent boys were more likely to be anemic compared to their normal counterparts. Additionally, boys who belonged to the poorest [ß:0.08, CI:(0.02, 0.14)] households had a higher risk of anemia than the richest household. CONCLUSION: The anemia prevalence was higher among adolescents aged 10-19 years in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. This study has filled an information gap by providing state-level representative estimates indicating underweight status and thinness as the common factors behind the anemia prevalence among adolescent boys than in girls. Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent in certain age groups in India. Hence, Anemia prevention efforts and iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation programs are currently being strengthened in India, targeting the high-risk population.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Ferropénica , Anemia , Adolescente , Anemia/epidemiología , Anemia Ferropénica/epidemiología , Femenino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Delgadez/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1490, 2022 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cross-cultural studies studying work-family conflicts (W_F_Cs) are scarce. We compared the prevalence of W_F_Cs, factors correlated with them, and their association with self-rated health between Japan and Egypt. METHODS: Among 4862 Japanese and 3111 Egyptian civil workers recruited by a convenience sample in 2018/2019 and reported self-rated health status, we assessed the W_F_Cs by the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) and attributed them to sociodemographic, family, and work variables. We also evaluated the W_F_Cs' gender- and country-specific associations with self-rated health by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: W_F_Cs were more prevalent in Egyptian than in Japanese women (23.7% vs. 18.2%) and men (19.1% vs. 10.5%), while poor self-rated health was more prevalent in Japanese than Egyptians (19.3% and 17.3% vs. 16.9% and 5.5%). Longer working hours, shift work, and overtime work were positively associated with stronger work-to-family conflict (WFC). Whereas being single was inversely associated with stronger family-to-work conflict (FWC). Living with children, fathers, or alone in Japan while education in Egypt was associated with these conflicts. The OR (95% CI) for poor self-reported health among those with the strong, in reference to weak total W_F_Cs, was 4.28 (2.91-6.30) and 6.01 (4.50-8.01) in Japanese women and men and was 2.46 (1.75-3.47) and 3.11 (1.67-5.80) in Egyptian women and men. CONCLUSIONS: Japanese and Egyptian civil workers have different prevalence and correlated factors of W_F_Cs and self-rated health. W_F_Cs were associated in a dose-response pattern with poor-self-rated health of civil workers in both countries.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto Psicológico , Conflicto Familiar , Niño , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
J Med Life ; 15(6): 772-777, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928370

RESUMEN

The auditory pathway is the main target for high levels of blood sugar. Increased glucose in diabetic patients can disrupt the auditory system physiologically and anatomically. The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of hearing loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 94 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged from 40 to 80 years, were selected randomly in the present descriptive cross-sectional study for pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech discrimination score (SDS), and speech reception threshold (SRT) tests. Accordingly, patients with a hearing threshold larger than or equal to 25 dB were considered hearing-impaired according to the PTA test. In addition, the patients' speech discrimination score was measured using a list of monosyllabic words with an intensity of 40 dB or more than the SDS test. However, in the SRT test, the patients' superficial speech comprehension threshold was measured using a list of two-syllable words. Most diabetic patients had hearing loss in both right and left ears based on the PTA and SRT tests. However, they did not have hearing loss in both ears according to the SDS test. There was no correlation between the PTA, SRT, and SDS tests and blood creatinine levels in both ears (p>0.05). Nevertheless, the right ear had a positive correlation with systolic blood pressure only in the PTA test (p<0.05). The difference between the two groups of men and women with type 2 diabetes in the hearing level in the right and left ears was not statistically significant. Hearing loss is a common deficiency in diabetic patients. In addition, it seems that diabetes is an independent risk factor for the hearing loss level.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pérdida Auditiva , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Audiometría de Tonos Puros , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Pérdida Auditiva/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(8): e25954, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929226

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Population-based biomarker surveys are the gold standard for estimating HIV prevalence but are susceptible to substantial non-participation (up to 30%). Analytical missing data methods, including inverse-probability weighting (IPW) and multiple imputation (MI), are biased when data are missing-not-at-random, for example when people living with HIV more frequently decline participation. Heckman-type selection models can, under certain assumptions, recover unbiased prevalence estimates in such scenarios. METHODS: We pooled data from 142,706 participants aged 15-49 years from nationally representative cross-sectional Population-based HIV Impact Assessments in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa, conducted between 2015 and 2018 in Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Eswatini. We compared sex-stratified HIV prevalence estimates from unadjusted, IPW, MI and selection models, controlling for household and individual-level predictors of non-participation, and assessed the sensitivity of selection models to the copula function specifying the correlation between study participation and HIV status. RESULTS: In total, 84.1% of participants provided a blood sample to determine HIV serostatus (range: 76% in Malawi to 95% in Uganda). HIV prevalence estimates from selection models diverged from IPW and MI models by up to 5% in Lesotho, without substantial precision loss. In Tanzania, the IPW model yielded lower HIV prevalence estimates among males than the best-fitting copula selection model (3.8% vs. 7.9%). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate how HIV prevalence estimates from selection models can differ from those obtained under missing-at-random assumptions. Further benefits include exploration of plausible relationships between participation and outcome. While selection models require additional assumptions and careful specification, they are an important tool for triangulating prevalence estimates in surveys with substantial missing data due to non-participation.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Sesgo de Selección , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
17.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 1319-1325, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a home-based therapy which requires the patients or their caregivers to perform the practice. We aimed to develop a practical approach to evaluate PD practice ability of the patients and to identify berries to self-care PD. METHODS: A structural form was designed comprising measures of physical, cognitive, and operational abilities which were required to perform manual PD independently. The evaluation was jointly conducted by a PD nurse, a nephrologist and a close family member of the patient. Patients who met all the requirements were deemed as capable of performing PD independently (self-care PD) and others were deemed as needing an assistant (assisted PD). RESULTS: The evaluation form was applied in 280 prevalent PD patients and 33.9% of them were assessed as needing assisted PD, mainly due to physical (62.1%) or operational (66.3%) disabilities. The evaluation result was consistent with current dialysis status in 79.3% patients and it matched better in patients who performed PD with the help of an assistant (93.0 vs. 76.8%, p = 0.014). Patients who were evaluated as having barriers to self-care PD but still performed PD without an assistant were older and demonstrated higher prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and PD-related infection, lower education level, and lower serum albumin (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PD practice ability assessment form is useful to identify patients with barriers to self-care PD. It provides objective information to the patients and their family to choose feasible PD practice modality, self-care, or assisted PD.


Asunto(s)
Diálisis Peritoneal , Peritonitis , Cuidadores , Humanos , Peritonitis/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Autocuidado
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1493, 2022 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the acceleration of industrialization and population aging, low back pain (LBP) has become the leading cause of life loss years caused by disability. Thus, it places a huge economic burden on society and is a global public health problem that needs urgent solution. This study aimed to conduct an epidemiological investigation and research on a large sample of workers in key industries in different regions of China, determine the incidence and distribution characteristics of LBP, explore the epidemic law, and provide a reference basis for alleviating global public health problems caused by LBP. METHODS: We adopted a modified epidemiological cross-sectional survey method and a stratified cluster sampling method. All on-duty workers who fulfill the inclusion criteria are taken as the research participants from the representative enterprises in key industries across seven regions: north, east, central, south, southwest, northwest, and northeast China. The Chinese version of the musculoskeletal disease questionnaire, modified by a standardized Nordic questionnaire, was used to collect information, and 57,501 valid questionnaires were received. Descriptive statistics were used, and multivariate logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05) was performed to explore the association between musculoskeletal disorders and potential risk factors. RESULTS: LBP annual incidence among workers in China's key industries is 16.4%. There was a significant difference in LBP incidence among occupational groups across different industries (p < 0.05). The multivariate regression model showed the following as risk factors for LBP: frequent repetitive movements with the trunk, working in the same positions at a high pace, trunk position, frequently turning around with your trunk, often working overtime, lifting heavy loads (i.e., more than 20 kg), education level, staff shortage, working age (years), cigarette smoking, use of vibration tools at work, body mass index, lifting heavy loads (i.e., more than 5 kg), and age (years). Physical exercise, often standing at work, and absolute resting time were protective factors. CONCLUSION: LBP incidence among key industries and workers in China is high. Thus, it is urgent to take relevant measures according to the individual, occupational, and psychosocial factors of LBP to reduce the adverse impact of LBP on workers' health.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Enfermedades Profesionales , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/epidemiología , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1503, 2022 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting at work should be avoided to reduce the risks of either noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) or musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among office workers. A short duration of breaks in sitting every hour can reduce cardiometabolic risk factors contributing to NCDs. However, the recommendation for a break from sitting at work to reduce the risks of MSDs has not been identified. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether breaking by changing position at work, physical activity, physical fitness, stress and sleep were associated with MSDs among office workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2017 to 2020. Participants aged 20-59 years and using a computer at work ≥ 4 days/week were recruited. Data were collected using an online self-reporting questionnaire for computer users and 5 domains of physical fitness tests. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of MSDs was 37.9% (n = 207/545) and the most area of complaint were the neck, shoulders and back. A nonsignificant association between physical fitness and MSDs among office workers was obtained. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and comorbidity, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) ≥ 150 min/week and sitting at work ≥ 4 h/day were MSDs risk factors (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.04-2.37). Frequently changing positions from sitting to standing or walking at work every hour could reduce the risks of MSDs by more than 30%. The risks of MSDs increased among office workers who commuted by staff shuttle bus and personal car and had high to severe stress and slept < 6 h/day (1.6 to 2.4 times). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated MVPA and prolonged sitting were MSD risk factors. We recommend office workers change position from sitting to standing or walking during work every hour and sleep ≥ 6 h/day to reduce risks of MSDs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas , Enfermedades Profesionales , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/prevención & control , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Posición de Pie , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 477, 2022 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are the major public health problem in the world especially in school age children. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni among Ambesame primary school children, North-West Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out at Ambasame primary school children from March to May, 2019. Study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Socio-demographic characteristics and other factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Moreover, stool samples were examined microscopically using wet mount and formol ether concentration techniques. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was done to investigate the association between dependent and independent variables. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 117(31.2%). The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthes and S.mansoni was 110 (29.3%) using formol ether concentration technique. The most predominant parasite was S. mansoni (10.7%), followed by hookworm (5.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, helminthic infection was associated with children less than 7 years of age (P-value = 0.019, AOR = 3.29, 95% CI (1.21-8.91)); fathers who are able to read and write (P-value< 0.001, AOR = 5.4, 95% CI (2.37-12.33)); absence of latrine (P-value = 0.016, AOR = 12.96, 95% CI (1.60-104.87)) and untrimmed nail (P-value = 0.043, AOR = 2.09, 95% CI (1.02-4.27)). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal helminthes among Ambasame primary school children was relatively high. The lower educational status of father, absence of latrine and untrimmed finger nail showed statistically significant association with intestinal helminthic infection. This indicates the school community, health offices and other stakeholders should plan a strategy to tackle problems associated with sanitary condition. Furthermore, Health policy makers, healthcare workers and health extension workers should enhance their effort of awareness creation for school children, parents, school community about personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, intestinal parasites transmission, prevention and control. Moreover, mass deworming of school children and periodic screening for parasitic infection should be done.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis , Helmintos , Parasitosis Intestinales , Esquistosomiasis mansoni , Animales , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Éteres , Etiopía/epidemiología , Formaldehído , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas , Suelo/parasitología
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