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1.
Estima (Online) ; 19(1): e0721, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1255203

RESUMEN

Objetivo:conhecer o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico das pessoas com incontinência urinária em ambulatório de Hospital Universitário. Métodos: estudo transversal, em que se utilizou formulário semiestruturado com 63 mulheres que aguardavam atendimento nos ambulatórios de ginecologia e urologia, entre os meses de julho e agosto de 2019. Os dados foram processados no software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ­ SPSS 20.0. Resultados: foram realizadas entrevistas com mulheres com idade entre 19 e 77 anos. Dessas, 55,6% mantinha vida sexual ativa; 85,7% apresentava doença preexistente; 69,8% presentou perda urinária ao tossir, espirrar, sorrir, colocar peso e/ou fazer esforços; 12,7% precisa urinar assim que sentem vontade; e 17,5% apresenta perda de urina nas duas situações. Cerca de 35% procurou consulta devido à bexiga baixa e/ou perda de urina; 27% teve de 4 a 5 gestações. Dentre os fatores de risco associado à incontinência urinária, 28,6% tinha diabetes mellitus, 61,9% hipertensão arterial, 82,5% fazia uso de medicação contínua, 11,1% era obesa, 34,9% relatou problemas de constipação e 74,6% fez cirurgias pélvicas. Conclusão: concluiu-se que todas as mulheres do estudo apresentaram mais de um fator de risco para desenvolver incontinência urinária, reforçando sua multifatorialidade, bem como a importância de um tratamento holístico e multiprofissional.


Objective:to know the sociodemographic and clinical profile of people with urinary incontinence in an outpatient clinic of a University Hospital. Methods: cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured form with 63 women who were awaiting care at the gynecology and urology outpatient clinics, between the months of July and August 2019. The data were processed in the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ­ SPSS 20.0. Results: interviews were carried out with women aged between 19 and 77 years. Of these, 55.6% maintained an active sex life; 85.7% had pre-existing disease; 69.8% presented urinary loss when coughing, sneezing, smiling, putting on weight and/or making efforts; 12.7% need to urinate as soon as they feel like it; and 17.5% had loss of urine in both situations. About 35% sought consultation due to low bladder and/or loss of urine; 27% had 4 to 5 pregnancies. Among the risk factors associated with urinary incontinence, 28.6% had diabetes mellitus, 61.9% had arterial hypertension, 82.5% used continuous medication, 11.1% was obese, 34.9% reported constipation problems and 74.6% underwent pelvic surgery. Conclusion: it was concluded that all women in the study had more than one risk factor for developing urinary incontinence, reinforcing their multifactoriality, as well as the importance of a holistic and multiprofessional treatment.


Asunto(s)
Incontinencia Urinaria , Perfil de Salud , Prevalencia , Enfermería
2.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 189-201, mayo-sept. 2021. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202543

RESUMEN

El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue revisar el estado de la investigación psicopatológica del duelo complicado en población adulta de España. Una búsqueda sistemática en PsycINFO, PsycArticles, PTSDpubs y PSICODOC identificó 13 estudios en los que, en conjunto, se había evaluado a 1,655 adultos. Los resultados de esta revisión ponen de manifiesto que no existe consenso en el diagnóstico de duelo complicado, en el uso de instrumentos de detección ni en los factores de riesgo y protección del duelo complicado. La prevalencia media ponderada basada en 6 de los estudios revisados fue de 21,53%. Tomando en consideración el tipo de instrumento de medida del duelo utilizado, se obtuvo una prevalencia de 7,67-10,68% en aquellos estudios que utilizaban instrumentos diagnósticos y de 28,77% en los instrumentos sintomáticos. Los resultados indican que el duelo complicado se relaciona con: un menor nivel socioeconómico y situación laboral desfavorable, la pérdida de un hijo o cónyuge, menor edad del fallecido, vulnerabilidad psicológica previa, consumo de psicofármacos y comorbilidad con otros trastornos. El apoyo social, los cuidados paliativos, las estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en el problema, el empleo de actividades agradables y la trascendencia o espiritualidad se presentan como factores protectores


The main objective of this research was to review the status of the psychopathological research of complicated grief in adult population of Spain, specifically the prevalence and risk factors. A systematic review of PsycINFO, PsycArticles, PTSDpubs, and PSICODOC databases identified 12 studies in which, overall, 1.627 adults had been evaluated. The results of this review show that there is no consensus about the diagnosis of complicated grief, the use of detection instruments, or the risk and protective factors for complicated grief. The weighted mean prevalence based on 6 of the reviewed studies was 21.53%. Taking into account the type of grief measurement used, a prevalence of 7.67 - 10.68% was obtained in those studies that used diagnostic instruments, and 28.77% in those using symptomatic instruments. The results indicate that complicated grief is related to: a lower socioeconomic level and unfavorable work situation, the loss of a child or spouse, younger age of the deceased, previous psychological vulnerability, the use of psychotropic medication, and comorbidity with other disorders. Social support, palliative care, problem-centered coping strategies, the use of pleasant activities, and transcendence or spirituality are shown as protective factors


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Pesar , Factores Protectores , Trastornos de Adaptación/epidemiología , Trastornos de Adaptación/diagnóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Prevalencia , Trastornos de Adaptación/psicología , Factores de Tiempo , España/epidemiología
3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 145-157, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196284

RESUMEN

Disease monitoring is an essential step in translocation projects, specifically in amphibians where emerging pathogens such as the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) are linked to population declines. The eastern hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis is a large, fully aquatic salamander experiencing precipitous range-wide population declines; however, the role Bd plays in these declines is unclear. To augment declining hellbender populations and determine effects of translocation on Bd prevalence, we conducted a translocation study of wild adult hellbenders from 2 source streams with abundant hellbender populations to 2 streams with declining populations in east Tennessee, USA. In 2018, we implanted radio transmitters into 30 hellbenders and sampled them periodically for Bd until 17 of the 30 hellbenders were translocated in 2019. We attempted to recapture translocated hellbenders approximately every 45 d for 3 mo to determine Bd prevalence post-release. We used qPCR to detect Bd and quantify zoospore loads on positive samples. Hellbenders had a pre-translocation Bd prevalence of 50% (15 of 30), which decreased to 10% (1 of 10) post-translocation. The average zoospore load for positive samples was 73.63 ± 30.82, and no hellbenders showed signs of chytridiomycosis throughout the study. Although we detected no significant effect of translocation on Bd prevalence, we observed a reduction in Bd prevalence post-release. Our results indicate that translocation did not lead to an increase in pathogen prevalence in translocated wild adult hellbenders, suggesting that chytrid did not impact the success of short-term translocations of eastern hellbenders in the Blue Ridge ecoregion.


Asunto(s)
Quitridiomicetos , Micosis , Anfibios , Animales , Batrachochytrium , Micosis/epidemiología , Micosis/veterinaria , Prevalencia , Urodelos
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 252, 2021 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193265

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) among patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to healthy controls without T2DM. To achieve this objective, we conducted a case-control study in a large hospital in Atlanta from 2016 to 2019. RESULTS: We enrolled 98 cases; 119 potential controls were screened, 84 of which had HbA1c ≥ 5.7% and one did not have QFT result, leaving 34 (28.6%) individuals enrolled as controls. LTBI prevalence was 9.2% among cases and 14.7% among controls (crude odds ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.19-2.04). After adjusting for age and sex, the adjusted odds of LTBI among patients with T2DM was 0.45 (95% CI 0.13, 1.71) times the controls. We did not observe a statistically significant association between LTBI and T2DM. However, we reported a positive correlation between HbA1c level and nil count among individuals with LTBI (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.01). In addition, we reported a high prevalence of LTBI among adults with T2DM and family members without T2DM.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tuberculosis Latente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Hospitales , Humanos , Tuberculosis Latente/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Prueba de Tuberculina
5.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e7, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212744

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a public health threat of global concern with increasing prevalence in many countries, including Nigeria. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hypertension in a rural agrarian community in Edo North, Nigeria. SETTING: The study was carried out in Ayua, a community in Edo North, southern Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study involved the use of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain relevant data. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and glucose were recorded. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen participants aged 15 years completed the study with a mean age of 54.03 ± 16.61 years and females comprising 159 (72.6%) of the total. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.9% (in 61 participants). Twenty-one (9.8%) respondents gave a family history of hypertension. The mean BMI amongst respondents was 27.10 ± 6.61 kg/m2. Obesity and pre-obesity were found in 58 (26.5%) and 71(32.4%) respondents, respectively. The determinants of hypertension were age and BMI. Compared with those who were less than 40 years old, those aged 40-65 years and 65 years had 1.9 and 4.2 times increased odds of developing hypertension, respectively. Similarly, compared with the non-obese, obese participants had 2.3 times increased odd of having hypertension. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was highly prevalent in this rural community. Health sensitisation and intervention programmes are recommended in rural communities for early detection and management of hypertension, especially amongst older and obese adults.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Adulto , Anciano , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/etnología , Hipertensión/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/etnología , Obesidad/psicología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 613-624, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226446

RESUMEN

Obesity is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The relative percentage of change is higher in developing countries. Childhood obesity has become a serious public health emerging problem because of its strong association with adulthood obesity and related adverse health consequences. The main objective of the study was to find out the status of overweight and obesity among primary school children of Mymensingh municipal area. This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among primary school children of Mymensingh municipal area from September 2016 to February 2018. Total 1450 students were enrolled from 6 schools. Schools were selected by random lottery method. Data was collected in predesigned case record forms by investigator with the help of students, teachers and parents. Anthropometry was measured by principal investigator. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and plotted by using Center for disease control (CDC) BMI growth charts for age and sex. Children were categorized as obese, overweight, normal and underweight. Data analysis was done by computer software SPSS version 20.0. Mean age of children was 9.0±1.124 years. There was 47.4% male and 52.6% female. Among the 1450 children 18.6% obese, 17.5% overweight, 53.5% normal and 10.4% underweight. So, total 36.1% children had BMI above normal limit. Obesity was found more common among male children (p<0.001). Obesity and overweight was significantly associated with fast food consumption (p<0.001), playing computer and mobile games (p<0.001), watching TV (p<0.001), higher parent's education (p<0.001), higher parent's income (p<0.001), service holder father (p<0.001), family history of overweight or obesity (p<0.001), single child in family (p<0.001) and increased birth weight (p<0.001). A large number of primary school children in Mymensingh municipal area were overweight and obese. Childhood obesity and overweight varies from school to school. Childhood obesity and overweight is an emerging and growing health issue in municipal area.


Asunto(s)
Aplicaciones Móviles , Juegos de Video , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 625-632, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226447

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of ESBL genes among A. baumannii isolates. In this cross sectional study, 49 Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from various clinical samples from March 2019 to February 2020 conducted in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Clinical samples including endotracheal aspirates, wound swab/pus, urine and blood. A total of 380 samples were analyzed. Growth was obtained in 34.21% of the samples yielding 130 organisms. Out of 130 organisms, 49(37.69%) were Acinetobacter spp. Among 49 Acinetobacter spp, 39(79.59%) were Acinetobacter baumannii which was identified by PCR targeting OXA-51 like gene. Amplification of the ESBL encoding genes, namely CTX-M, TEM, SHV done by molecular technique PCR. The most antibacterial resistance was against ceftriaxone (79.48%) and lower resistance only showed in colistin (12.82%). All the isolates were sensitive to tigecycline. The distribution of ESBLs genes such as TEM 20(51.28%), CTX-M 16(41.02%) and SHV 0(0%). The high resistance to most of the antibiotics among the studied strains and also a high prevalence of TEM gene in A. baumannii strains found in our study gives alarming sign towards the treatment complexity of these strains.


Asunto(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Prevalencia , Centros de Atención Terciaria , beta-Lactamasas/genética
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198775

RESUMEN

Treatment of HIV infection is a lifelong process and associated with chronic diseases. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with individual antiretroviral drugs exposure among HIV-infected men in Taiwan. A total of 200 patients' data were collected with a mean age of 32.9. Among them, those who had CD4 positive cell number less than 350/mL were eligible to have highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Patients were divided into group-1 that contains 45 treatment-naïve participants, and group-2 that includes 155 HAART treatment-experienced participants. MetS prevalence between group-1 and group-2 was 18% and 31%, respectively. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) for the naïve and experienced groups were 4.7 ± 4.2 and 3.87 ± 5.92, respectively. High triglyceride (TG > 150 mg/dL) in group-1 and group-2 were 15.6% and 36.6% (p < 0.05), whereas, lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL < 39 mg/dL) in group-1 and group-2 presented as 76.7% versus 51% (p < 0.05), respectively. In group-2, treatment with protease inhibitors (PIs) resulted in higher TG levels when compared with non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and integrase inhibitors (InSTIs). The prevalence of MetS in the treatment-naïve group was lower than that of the treatment-experienced group; high TG level resulted in higher MetS prevalence in the treatment-experienced group. In contrast, the cardiovascular risk of FRS in the treatment-naïve group was higher than that of the treatment-experienced group, which may result from the low HDL level. Although group-1 participants have a higher risk of developing CVDs, in group-2, an increasing TG level in PIs user indicated higher CVDs risk. TG and HDL are two significant biofactors that required regular evaluation in HIV-positive individuals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome Metabólico , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199503

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: Handball is a popular sport among women whose practice can lead to marked health benefits but could also show a high injury risk. There is a lack of research on intermediate level female players. We aimed to identify the prevalence of sport injuries in amateur and young intermediate level female handball players and the potential influence of the sport category. Materials and Methods: A group of cadets, juvenile and senior female players of three handball clubs participating in the Spanish regional league were followed throughout the 2018-2019 season. Information on injuries and exposure was collected via questionnaires. Results: Out of 114 players (34 seniors, 33 juvenile and 47 cadets), 77 of them sustained at least one injury. Most of the injuries were either moderate or severe, regardless of the category. A total of 7.93, 5.93 and 4.16 injuries per 1000 h of exposure were registered in the senior, juvenile and cadet categories respectively. The risk of sustaining an injury was 2.14 times higher for senior players Confidence Interval (CI 95%: 1.51-3.03) and 1.92 higher for juvenile players (CI 95%: 1.32-2.78) when compared with cadets. Conclusions: Senior and young female handball athletes playing at an amateur and intermediate level, are exposed to a substantial risk of sustaining a moderate or severe injury. The players' category does not seem to have a great impact on the injury rate and on the characteristics of the sport injuries registered.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Deportes , Atletas , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199976

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Vaginitis causes vulvovaginal symptoms, including itching, irritation, vaginal discharge, burning, or foul odor. It is one of the most common diseases encountered in gynecologic practice. Hypoestrogenism due to menopause has a considerable negative effect on vaginal health and leads to changes in the vaginal pH and vaginal microflora, which are related to a change in the causes and microorganisms of vaginitis. Thus the aim here was to investigate the prevalence of pathogens and other microorganisms in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal symptoms, using an STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test and routine culture of vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: From January 2018 to December 2019, records of patients diagnosed with vaginitis at Changwon Gyeongsang National University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects were categorized into Group A and Group B, respectively. and the data of symptoms, general characteristics, and results of both STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test and routine culture of vaginal discharge were retrieved. Results: On the STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test, Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common microorganism in both groups. Ureaplasma parvum was the second most common one, followed by Candida speceies. On the routine culture of vaginal discharge, Escherichia coli was the most common aerobic bacterial microorganism in both groups, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS). There was no significant difference between the two groups. Pathogens and other microorganisms of patients with vulvovaginal symptoms that showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups were Ureaplasa parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticulum, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of pathogens and other microorganisms in menopausal women with vulvovaginal symptoms did not show a significant difference from premenopausal women. Therefore, management strategies for patients with vulvovaginal symptoms should be developed through accurate diagnosis using appropriate diagnostic methods.


Asunto(s)
Posmenopausia , Vaginitis por Trichomonas , Femenino , Humanos , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
J Med Vasc ; 46(4): 163-170, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238510

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with a high incidence of venous thromboembolism questioning the utility of a systematic screening for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalised patients. METHODS: In this prospective bicentric controlled study, 4-point ultrasound using a pocket device was used to screen for DVT, in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and controls admitted for acute medical illness not related to COVID-19 hospitalised in general ward, in order to assess the utility of a routine screening and to estimate the prevalence of VTE among those patients. RESULTS: Between April and May 2020, 135 patients were screened, 69 in the COVID+ group and 66 in the control one. There was no significant difference in the rate of proximal DVT between the two groups (2.2% vs. 1.5%; P=0.52), despite the high rate of PE diagnosed among COVID-19 infected patients (10.1% vs. 1.5%, P=0.063). No isolated DVT was detected, 37.5% of PE was associated with DVT. Mortality (7.2% vs. 1.5%) was not different (P=0.21) between COVID-19 patients and controls. CONCLUSION: The systematic screening for proximal DVT was not found to be relevant among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in general ward despite the increase of VTE among this population. Further studies are needed to confirm the hypothesis of a local pulmonary thrombosis which may lead to new therapeutic targets.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Programas de Detección Diagnóstica , Hospitalización , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Trombosis de la Vena/diagnóstico por imagen , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidad , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Procedimientos Innecesarios , Trombosis de la Vena/epidemiología
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 384, 2021 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244469

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed humans to the highest physical and mental risks. Thus, it is becoming a priority to probe the mental health problems experienced during the pandemic in different populations. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the prevalence of postpandemic mental health problems. Seventy-one published papers (n = 146,139) from China, the United States, Japan, India, and Turkey were eligible to be included in the data pool. These papers reported results for Chinese, Japanese, Italian, American, Turkish, Indian, Spanish, Greek, and Singaporean populations. The results demonstrated a total prevalence of anxiety symptoms of 32.60% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.10-36.30) during the COVID-19 pandemic. For depression, a prevalence of 27.60% (95% CI: 24.00-31.60) was found. Further, insomnia was found to have a prevalence of 30.30% (95% CI: 24.60-36.60). Of the total study population, 16.70% (95% CI: 8.90-29.20) experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Subgroup analysis revealed the highest prevalence of anxiety (63.90%) and depression (55.40%) in confirmed and suspected patients compared with other cohorts. Notably, the prevalence of each symptom in other countries was higher than that in China. Finally, the prevalence of each mental problem differed depending on the measurement tools used. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of mental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic by using a fairly large-scale sample and further clarified that the heterogeneous results for these mental health problems may be due to the nonstandardized use of psychometric tools.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , India , Japón , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(7): 1301-1308, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192932

RESUMEN

AIMS: Although lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are well-documented, few large-scale studies have investigated thoracolumbar transitional vertebrae (TLTV) and spinal numerical variants. This study sought to establish the prevalence of numerical variants and to evaluate their relationship with clinical problems. METHODS: A total of 1,179 patients who had undergone thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic CT scanning were divided into groups according to the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and the presence or absence of TLTV or LSTV. The prevalence of spinal anomalies was noted. The relationship of spinal anomalies to clinical symptoms (low back pain, Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire) and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) was also investigated. RESULTS: Normal vertebral morphology (12 thoracic and five lumbar vertebrae without TLTV and LSTV) was present in 531 male (76.7%) and 369 female patients (75.8%). Thoracolumbar transitional vertebrae were present in 15.8% of males and 16.0% of females. LSTV were present in 7.1% of males and 9.0% of females. The prevalence of the anomaly of 16 presacral mobile vertebrae (total number of thoracolumbar vertebrae and TLTV) without LSTV was 1.0% in males and 4.1% in females, and that of the anomaly of 18 vertebrae without LSTV was 5.3% in males and 1.2% in females. The prevalence of DS was significantly higher in females with a total of 16 vertebrae than in those with normal morphology. There was no significant correlation between a spinal anomaly and clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: Overall, 24% of subjects had anomalies in the thoracolumbar region: the type of anomaly differed between males and females, which could have significant implications for spinal surgery. A decreased number of vertebrae was associated with DS: numerical variants may potentially be a clinical problem. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(7):1301-1308.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar/etiología , Vértebras Lumbares/anomalías , Espondilolistesis/etiología , Vértebras Torácicas/anomalías , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Espondilolistesis/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagen
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205134

RESUMEN

This observational study evaluated SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence and related clinical, demographic, and occupational factors among workers at the largest tertiary care University-Hospital of Northwestern Italy and the University of Turin after the first pandemic wave of March-April 2020. Overall, about 10,000 individuals were tested; seropositive subjects were retested after 5 months to evaluate antibodies waning. Among 8769 hospital workers, seroprevalence was 7.6%, without significant differences related to job profile; among 1185 University workers, 3.3%. Self-reporting of COVID-19 suspected symptoms was significantly associated with positivity (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.07, 95%CI: 1.76-2.44), although 27% of seropositive subjects reported no previous symptom. At multivariable analysis, contacts at work resulted in an increased risk of 69%, or 24% for working in a COVID ward; contacts in the household evidenced the highest risk, up to more than five-fold (OR 5.31, 95%CI: 4.12-6.85). Compared to never smokers, being active smokers was inversely associated with seroprevalence (OR 0.60, 95%CI: 0.48-0.76). After 5 months, 85% of previously positive subjects still tested positive. The frequency of SARS-COV-2 infection among Health Care Workers was comparable with that observed in surveys performed in Northern Italy and Europe after the first pandemic wave. This study confirms that infection frequently occurred as asymptomatic and underlines the importance of household exposure, seroprevalence (OR 0.60, 95%CI: 0.48-0.76).


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203044

RESUMEN

Frailty is common in older hospitalised patients and may be associated with micronutrient malnutrition. Only limited studies have explored the relationship between frailty and vitamin C deficiency. This study investigated the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency and its association with frailty severity in patients ≥75 years admitted under a geriatric unit. Patients (n = 160) with a mean age of 84.4 ± 6.4 years were recruited and underwent frailty assessment by use of the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS). Patients with an EFS score <10 were classified as non-frail/vulnerable/mildly frail and those with ≥10 as moderate-severely frail. Patients with vitamin C levels between 11-28 µmol/L were classified as vitamin C depleted while those with levels <11 µmol/L were classified as vitamin C deficient. A multivariate logistic regression model determined the relationship between vitamin C deficiency and frailty severity after adjustment for various co-variates. Fifty-seven (35.6%) patients were vitamin C depleted, while 42 (26.3%) had vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower among patients who were moderate-severely frail when compared to those who were non-frail/vulnerable/mildly frail (p < 0.05). After adjusted analysis, vitamin C deficiency was 4.3-fold more likely to be associated with moderate-severe frailty (aOR 4.30, 95% CI 1.33-13.86, p = 0.015). Vitamin C deficiency is common and is associated with a greater severity of frailty in older hospitalised patients.


Asunto(s)
Deficiencia de Ácido Ascórbico/epidemiología , Anciano Frágil , Fragilidad/complicaciones , Hospitalización , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Deficiencia de Ácido Ascórbico/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205679

RESUMEN

A protective effect of vegan diets on health outcomes has been observed in previous studies, but its impact on diabetes is still debated. The aim of this review is to assess the relationship between vegan diets and the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) along with its effect on glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. In accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, Pubmed and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched for all relevant studies. Seven observational and eight randomized controlled (RCTs) studies were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for RCTs. We found that a vegan diet is associated with lower T2D prevalence or incidence and in T2D patients decreases high glucose values and improves glucose homeostasis, as reported from the majority of included studies. This approach seems to be comparable to other recommended healthful eating models, but as it may have potential adverse effects associated with the long-term exclusion of some nutrients, appropriate nutritional planning and surveillance are recommended, particularly in specific groups of diabetic patients such as frail elderly, adolescents, and pregnant or breastfeeding women.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Dieta Vegana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Control Glucémico , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Prevalencia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
17.
J Autoimmun ; 122: 102682, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214763

RESUMEN

The variability in resolution of SARS-CoV-2-infections between individuals neither is comprehended, nor are the long-term immunological consequences. To assess the long-term impact of a SARS-CoV-2-infection on the immune system, we conducted a prospective study of 80 acute and former SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and 39 unexposed donors to evaluate autoantibody responses and immune composition. Autoantibody levels against cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), a specific predictor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), were significantly (p = 0.035) elevated in convalescents only, whereas both acute COVID-19 patients and long-term convalescents showed critically increased levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase (TG), a specific predictor of celiac disease (CD) (p = 0.002). Both, anti-CCP and anti-TG antibody levels were still detectable after 4-8 months post infection. Anti-TG antibodies occurred predominantly in aged patients in a context of a post-SARS-CoV-2-specific immune composition (R2 = 0.31; p = 0.044). This study shows that increased anti-CCP and anti-TG autoantibody levels can remain long-term after recovering even from mildly experienced COVID-19. The inter-relationship of the lung as viral entry side and RA- and CD-associated autoimmunity indicates that a SARS-CoV-2-infection could be a relevant environmental factor in their pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Autoanticuerpos/sangre , COVID-19/inmunología , Péptidos Cíclicos/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Antiproteína Citrulinada/sangre , Anticuerpos Antiproteína Citrulinada/inmunología , Artritis Reumatoide/inmunología , Autoanticuerpos/inmunología , Autoantígenos/inmunología , Enfermedad Celíaca/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transglutaminasas/inmunología , Adulto Joven
18.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2489, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231705

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in Brazilian studies over a period of years (2000-2020), as well as point out relevant aspects of this enigmatic organism. We performed a literature search using six sources of international databases. The data were divided into diagnostic by parasitological and molecular techniques, and relevant aspects. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 52 studies were included in the final analysis. The occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in Brazil ranged from 0.5% to 86.6%, as determined using parasitological techniques. The highest occurrence was in the North (27.3%) and the lowest, in the Midwest region (13.4%). In Brazil, most studies have employed molecular techniques and are concentrated in the Southeast region. The Blastocystis sp. subtype ST3 had the highest average positivity, followed by ST1 and ST2. These findings represent a panorama that reflects the reality of Brazil; thus, we believe that the effectiveness of parasitological diagnosis should be considered with regard to making an appropriate choice of technique for detecting Blastocystis sp. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of further studies in the context of molecular epidemiology with regard to this genus. Blastocystis sp. is not well understood yet, and very little information regarding this genus is available; hence, further research regarding this genus is urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Blastocystis/genética , Infecciones por Blastocystis/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Blastocystis/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , ADN Protozoario , Heces , Variación Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalencia
19.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 7992580, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234884

RESUMEN

Background: Anxious people appear to exaggerate the severity of aversive experiences such as anxiety and pain. Anxiety towards dental procedures is a common difficulty that may be experienced by dental patients all over the world. The goal of the study is to find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and its associated factors in Chinese adult patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 183 dental adult patients whose age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Demographic details, first and most recent dental visits with experience, the MDAS, and the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) were obtained. Data were analyzed by frequency analysis, chi-square test, and Spearman correlation test. Results: Most of the respondents were female (68.9%) and 30-45 years age group. The mean total score for dental anxiety on the MDAS was 13.63 (3.1). 80.3% of participants suffered from moderate or high dental anxiety. Age must show a strong association with dental anxiety among the participants (p=0.011). The first dental visit experience, the frequency of the dental visit, most recent dental experience, length of time since the most recent dental visit, and postponement of the dental visit are strongly associated with the MDAS score (p=0.001). Conclusions: The MDAS score exhibits that Chinese adult patients have significant dental anxiety and phobia. Identifying patients with dental anxiety as soon as possible is essential to providing better dental care.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico/epidemiología , Dolor/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/etiología , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
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