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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2021-03-09. (OPAS-W/FPL/IM/21-0007).
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53357

RESUMEN

O Programa de Atenção Integrada para a Pessoa Idosa (ICOPE) foi desenvolvido pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) para atender às necessidades e demandas de saúde das populações idosas em todo o mundo. Em 2050, a proporção da população global com 60 anos ou mais quase dobrará. Nas Américas, a expectativa de vida aumentou 21,6 anos nas últimas seis décadas. No entanto, viver mais frequentemente significa enfrentar problemas de saúde acumulados durante a velhice. A transição demográfica afetará quase todos os aspectos da sociedade e criará novos e complexos desafios para os sistemas de saúde e assistência social. Portanto, é necessária uma abordagem transformadora na maneira como os sistemas de saúde e os serviços dentro deles são estruturados - para garantir cuidados de alta qualidade que sejam integrados, acessíveis e com foco nas necessidades e direitos das pessoas idosas. A atenção integrada, especialmente para as pessoas idosas e com condições crônicas de saúde, é amplamente aceita como um mecanismo para melhorar os resultados de saúde e a eficiência do sistema. O Manual ICOPE fornece orientações detalhadas para ajudar os profissionais de saúde e cuidadores da comunidade a colocar em prática a atenção integrada para a pessoa idosa, através do desenvolvimento de um plano de cuidados. Dessa forma, o manual auxilia na definição de metas centradas na pessoa e na integração de abordagens nos diferentes níveis de atenção. O plano de cuidados pode incluir várias intervenções para gerenciar declínios na capacidade intrínseca, fornecer assistência e apoio social, desenvolver capacidade para o automanejo e apoiar os cuidadores. A brochura ICOPE apresenta os destaques da abordagem ICOPE para facilitar a sua divulgação e favorecer uma ampla apresentação do método.


Asunto(s)
Anciano , Envejecimiento , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Dinámica Poblacional , Envejecimiento Saludable , Salud del Anciano , Personal de Salud , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Anciano , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva , Orientación , Psicoterapia , Remediación Cognitiva , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Geriatría , Incontinencia Urinaria , Sensación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Accidentes por Caídas , Prevención y Mitigación , Prevención de Accidentes
2.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 309-317, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351652

RESUMEN

Objectives. To examine whether lethal means counseling and provision of cable locks prompt safe firearm storage relative to control among firearm-owning members of the Mississippi National Guard.Methods. This randomized controlled trial utilized a 2 × 2 factorial design (lethal means counseling vs control, provision of cable locks vs no cable locks). Follow-up assessments took place at 3 and 6 months after baseline. Data were collected (n = 232; 87.5% male; mean age = 35.01 years; 77.2% White) from February 2018 through July 2020.Results. Relative to control, lethal means counseling and provision of cable locks resulted in greater adoption of several safe storage methods over time. Lethal means counseling outperformed control (3 months: 55.0% vs 39.0%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.91). Cable locks outperformed control at 3 and 6 months on number of storage methods (1.41 vs 1.11; d = 0.29 and 1.34 vs 1.16; d = 0.15, respectively) and locking devices (59.8% vs 29.9%; OR = 3.49 and 58.4% vs 35.8%; OR = 2.52, respectively)Conclusions. Lethal means counseling and cable locks can result in sustained changes in firearm storage.Public Health Implications. The military may benefit from lethal means counseling, perhaps administering at point of entry.Trial Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT03375099.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes , Consejo/métodos , Armas de Fuego , Personal Militar , Prevención de Accidentes/instrumentación , Prevención de Accidentes/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Armas de Fuego/normas , Armas de Fuego/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mississippi , Seguridad/normas , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238605, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064723

RESUMEN

To "put oneself in the place of other road users" may improve understanding of the global traffic situation. It should be useful enabling drivers to anticipate and detect obstacles in time to prevent accidents to other road users, especially those most vulnerable. We created a pioneering Hazard Perception and Prediction test to explore this skill in different road users (pedestrians, cyclists and drivers), with videos recorded in naturalistic scenarios: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car. There were 79 participants (30 pedestrians, 14 cyclists, 13 novice drivers and 22 experienced drivers). Sixty videos of hazardous traffic situations were presented, divided into 2 blocks of 30 videos each: 10 walking, 10 riding a bicycle, 10 driving a car. In each situation presented, we evaluated the performance of the participants carrying out the task of predicting the hazard and estimating the risk. In the second block, after they had carried out the task, we gave them feedback on their performance and let them see the whole video (i.e., checking what happened next). The results showed that the holistic test had acceptable psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = .846). The test was able to discriminate between the different conditions manipulated: a) between traffic hazards recorded from different perspectives: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car; b) between participants with different user profiles: pedestrians, cyclists and drivers; c) between the two test blocks: the first evaluation only and the second combining evaluation with this complex intervention. We found modal bias effects in both Hazard Perception and Prediction; and in Risk Estimation.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Accidentes de Tránsito/psicología , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Ciclismo/psicología , Caminata/psicología , Prevención de Accidentes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Concienciación , Conducta Peligrosa , Femenino , Salud Holística , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Peatones/psicología , Adulto Joven
4.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 410-417, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072217

RESUMEN

Risk assessment is an essential component of the occupational health and safety event prevention activity.The purpose of this study is to choose the most appropriate risk assessment method for hospitals. The main methods were compared. There are many assessment methods, each with its advantages and disadvantages, but none has been adapted to the specificities of hospital activity. We adapted the workplace assessment sheet from the INCDPM (National Research and Development Institute for Labor Protection Bucharest) method to the specific of the hospital units and used this method at the level of jobs, within the hospital's departments, calculating the global risk level per job position, workplace (department), and hospital. The clinical departments global risk level exceeds the average (3.00) for all jobs, but does not exceed, however, 3.50, representing an acceptable security level. For assess the psychosocial risks we used the ELVIE method. Looking ahead, the methods should be adapted to allow both numerical presentation of the results and graphic.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes , Accidentes , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Personal de Hospital , Medición de Riesgo , Lugar de Trabajo , Accidentes/psicología , Humanos , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238443, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017446

RESUMEN

For the complicated operation process, many risk factors, and long cycle of urban logistics, it is difficult to manage the security of urban logistics and it enhances the risk. Therefore, to study a set of effective management mode for the safe operation of urban logistics and improve the risk prediction mechanism, is the primary research item of urban logistics security management. This paper summarizes the risk factors to public security in the process of urban logistics, including pick up, warehouse storage, transport, and the end distribution. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to predict accidents, and the Apriori algorithm is used to analyze the combination of high-frequency risk factors. The results show that the method of combining GRNN with PSO is effective in accident prediction and has a powerful generalization ability. It can prevent the occurrence of unnecessary urban logistics public accidents, improve the ability of relevant departments to deal with emergency incidents, and minimize the impact of urban logistics accidents on social and public security.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Medidas de Seguridad/organización & administración , Prevención de Accidentes , Accidentes , Algoritmos , China , Ciudades , Urgencias Médicas , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Organización y Administración , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Metas enferm ; 23(8): 59-65, oct. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-196933

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: conocer las características de las caídas registradas en el hospital, las características de los sujetos que sufrieron caídas y las causas y consecuencias de las mismas. MÉTODO: estudio descriptivo transversal llevado a cabo de forma retrospectiva, a través de la revisión de los registros de caídas de los pacientes hospitalizados en las Unidades de Convalecencia, Neurorrehabilitación, Cuidados Paliativos, Agudos y Hospital de día del Hospital San Juan de Dios (Zaragoza), en el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2013 hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2017. Los registros de caídas revisados correspondían a pacientes hospitalizados en las unidades comentadas en el periodo del estudio (2013-2017), que hubieran sufrido una o más caídas, con edad entre 20-80 años. Se excluyeron los registros con información incompleta. Los registros se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria. RESULTADOS: predominaron las caídas en sujetos con edad media (DE) de 76 (16) años, con ingreso en la Unidad de Convalecencia (n= 291 caídas; 53,7%), de entidad diagnóstica vascular (n= 145 caídas; 26,8%). Las caídas se produjeron con mayor frecuencia en pacientes que requerían ayuda parcial o total (n= 328 caídas; 60,5%). En el 30,3% (n= 164 caídas) de las caídas el paciente tenía barandillas de seguridad. En el 80,8% de los casos de caídas los pacientes tomaban uno o más fármacos asociados a riesgo de caídas. Predominaron las ocasionadas en la habitación (n= 395; 72,9%), sin acompañante (n= 376; 69,4%), y estando el paciente en reposo (n= 301 caídas; 55,5%). En el 32,8% (n= 178 caídas) de las caídas el paciente tuvo alguna consecuencia, aunque prevalecieron las de índole leve. CONCLUSIONES: este estudio ha permitido identificar las características de las caídas, el tipo de pacientes que las sufren con mayor frecuencia, las posibles causas y las consecuencias de las mismas. Es necesario promover acciones que disminuyan el riesgo de caídas, ya que la seguridad del paciente requiere reducir al máximo dicho riesgo y minimizando las consecuencias en caso de suceso


OBJECTIVE: to understand the characteristics of falls recorded in hospital and of the subjects suffering falls, and their causes and consequences. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted retrospectively, through the review of falls recorded among patients hospitalized in the Units of Recovery, Neurorehabilitation, Palliative Care, Acute Care, and Day Hospital from the Hospital San Juan de Dios (Zaragoza), between January, 1st, 2013 and September, 30th, 2017. The records of falls reviewed corresponded to 20-to-80-year old patients hospitalized in the above mentioned units during the period of the study (2013-2017), who had suffered one or more falls. Those records with incomplete information were excluded. Records were randomly selected. RESULTS: falls prevailed among patients with a mean age (SD) of 76 (16) years, admitted to the Recovery Unit (n= 291 falls; 53.7%), with vascular diagnosis (n= 145 falls; 26.8%). Falls were more frequent among patients who required partial or total help (n= 328 falls; 60.5%). In 30.3% of falls (n= 164 falls), the patient had bed safety rails. In 80.8% of cases, patients were taking one or more drugs associated with risk of falls. The majority of falls occurred in their room (n= 395; 72.9%), without company (n= 376; 69.4%), and with the patient at rest (n= 301 falls; 55.5%). In 32.8% of falls (n= 178 falls), the patient had some consequence, though these were mostly mild. CONCLUSIONS: this study has allowed to identify the characteristics of falls, the type of patients who suffer them most frequently, their likely causes and their consequences. It is necessary to promote actions that reduce the risk of falls, because patient safety requires reducing said risk to the maximum, and to minimize their consequences in case these happen


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Hospitalización , Seguridad del Paciente , Atención de Enfermería/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Prevención de Accidentes/métodos
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 645-653, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925616

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of accidental drug-related deaths and suicides classified as pregnancy-related from 2013 to 2014 (preimplementation of standardized criteria) and 2015 to 2016 (postimplementation). METHODS: Based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention pregnancy-related death criteria, the Utah Perinatal Mortality Review Committee developed a standardized evaluation tool to assess accidental drug-related death and suicide beginning in 2015. We performed a retrospective case review of all pregnancy-associated deaths (those occurring during pregnancy or 1 year postpartum for any reason) and pregnancy-related deaths (those directly attributable to the pregnancy or postpartum events) evaluated by Utah's Perinatal Mortality Review Committee from 2013 to 2016. We compared the proportion of accidental drug-related deaths and suicides meeting pregnancy-related criteria preimplementation and postimplementation of a standardized criteria checklist tool using Fisher's exact test. We assessed the change in pregnancy-related mortality ratio in Utah from 2013 to 2014 and 2015 to 2016 using test of trend. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2016, there were 80 pregnancy-associated deaths in Utah (2013-2014: n=40; 2015-2016: n=40), and 41 (51%) were pregnancy-related (2013-2014: n=15, 2015-2016: n=26). In 2013-2014 (preimplementation), 12 women died of drug-related deaths or suicides, and only two of these deaths were deemed pregnancy-related (17%). In 2015-2016 (postimplementation), 18 women died of drug-related deaths or suicide, and 94% (n=17/18) of these deaths met one or more of the pregnancy-related criteria on the checklist (P<.001). From 2013 to 2014 to 2015-2016, Utah's overall pregnancy-related mortality ratio more than doubled, from 11.8 of 100,000 to 25.7 of 100,000 (P=.08). CONCLUSION: After application of standardized criteria, the Utah Perinatal Mortality Review Committee determined that pregnancy itself was the inciting event leading to the majority of accidental drug-related deaths or suicides among pregnant and postpartum women. Other maternal mortality review committees may consider a standardized approach to assessing perinatal suicides and accidental drug-related deaths.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes , Abuso de Medicamentos , Revisión por Pares/normas , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Trastornos Puerperales/mortalidad , Suicidio , Adulto , Comités Consultivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso de Medicamentos/mortalidad , Abuso de Medicamentos/prevención & control , Fracaso de Rescate en Atención a la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Mortalidad Materna/tendencias , Mortalidad , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/mortalidad , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Suicidio/prevención & control , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Utah/epidemiología
11.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(4): 236-243, jul.-ago. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-196688

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: Analizar el perfil de los pacientes que sufren caídas en el entorno hospitalario. MÉTODO: Estudio longitudinal, de seguimiento prospectivo de una cohorte de pacientes reclutada de mayo de 2014 a marzo de 2016. Participaron 5 hospitales de agudos de la Comunidad de Andalucía de unidades médicas, quirúrgicas y cuidados intensivos. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 16 años. Las variables de caracterización fueron: edad, sexo, unidad, estancia, medidas preventivas; y las de resultado: nivel de conciencia, déficits sensoriales, movilidad, número de caídas, circunstancias y consecuencias, medicamentos, caídas previas. RESULTADOS: Se reclutaron 1.247 pacientes, de los que 977 completaron el estudio. La incidencia de caídas fue del 2,35%. La edad media de las personas que sufrieron caídas fue de 73,6 años (p = 0,015). El evento aconteció sobre todo en las mujeres (56,5%) y en las unidades médicas (79%). Las caídas ocasionaron daños menores. La reordenación del mobiliario demostró ser la única medida protectora (OR=3,95; IC95% 1,46-10,68; p = 0,015). Los factores predictivos del suceso fueron: haber ingresado en el hospital tras una caída (HR=5,88; IC95% 3,23-10,67; p < 0,001), seguido de problemas visuales, ir al baño con frecuencia y haber sufrido caídas previas. CONCLUSIONES: El perfil del paciente que sufre caídas en el hospital se presenta como mayor de 70 años, mujer, ingresada en una unidad médica, durante el turno de noche, estando en cama y solo, sin deterioro del nivel de conciencia y con antecedentes de caídas


AIMS: To analyse the profile of patients suffering from falls in the hospital environment. METHOD: Longitudinal study, prospective follow-up of a cohort of patients recruited from May 2014 to March 2016. Medical, surgical and intensive care units of 5 acute hospitals of the Community of Andalusia participated. Patients older than 16 years were included. The variables of characterization were: age, sex, unit, stay, preventive measures, and those of result: level of consciousness, sensory deficits, mobility, number of falls, circumstances and consequences, medications, previous falls. RESULTS: 1,247 patients were recruited, of whom 977 completed the study. The incidence of falls was 2.35%. The average age of the faller was 73.6 years (P=.015). The event occurred mostly in women (56.5%) and in medical units (79%). The falls caused minor damage. Rearrangement of the furniture proved to be the only protective measure (OR= 3.95, 95% CI 1.46-10.68, P=.015). The predictors of the event were: having been admitted to the hospital after a fall (HR= 5.88, 95% CI 3.23-10.67, P<.001), followed by visual problems, frequent visits to the bathroom and having suffered previous falls. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of the patient suffering falls in the hospital is presented as aged over 70 years old, female, admitted to a medical unit, during the night shift, being in bed and alone, without impaired level of consciousness and with a history of falls


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Hospitalización , Rol de la Enfermera , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Atención de Enfermería , Administración de la Seguridad , Prevención de Accidentes , Cuidadores , Estudios Prospectivos , Intervalos de Confianza , Oportunidad Relativa , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730254

RESUMEN

The injection of laboratory animals with pathogenic microorganisms poses a significant safety risk because of the potential for injury by accidental needlestick. This is especially true for researchers using invertebrate models of disease due to the required precision and accuracy of the injection. The restraint of the greater wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) is often achieved by grasping a larva firmly between finger and thumb. Needle resistant gloves or forceps can be used to reduce the risk of a needlestick but can result in animal injury, a loss of throughput, and inconsistencies in experimental data. Restraint devices are commonly used for the manipulation of small mammals, and in this manuscript, we describe the construction of two devices that can be used to entrap and restrain G. mellonella larvae prior to injection with pathogenic microbes. These devices reduce the manual handling of larvae and provide an engineering control to protect against accidental needlestick injury while maintaining a high rate of injection.


Asunto(s)
Inyecciones/instrumentación , Microbiología/instrumentación , Mariposas Nocturnas/microbiología , Prevención de Accidentes , Animales , Descontaminación/instrumentación , Equipo Reutilizado , Larva/microbiología
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1064, 2020 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Education is a pivot included Decade of Action for Road Safety initiative, which has reduced deaths caused by accidents in developed countries. Given the circumstances of each country, a proper education program is necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop the National Road Traffic Safety Education Program (NRTSEP) and reduce Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs). METHODS: This study used a qualitative approach and was conducted in Iran. Data were obtained through sixteen semi-structured in-depth interviews from indifferent road safety and health promotion field experts as well as eleven focus group discussion (FGD) sessions conducted with participants from general population. Inductive qualitative content analysis was used to converge and compare themes through data. The initial pattern of the program was developed and subsequently, the designed program was validated and finalized by two-step Delphi method for the consensus of expert opinion. RESULTS: The following six main themes emerged from the analysis: target groups, program content, educational methods, instructors, resources and evaluation. The target group consisted of children, youth, parents, teachers, elderly, motorcyclists, cyclists, pedestrians, drivers, driver license applicants, instructors and administrators of driving schools, and specific groups such as the disabled, managers at different levels, and policymakers. The content of the program consisted of 27 items, including traffic laws and regulations, first aid, and medical emergencies. Educational practices and authorities were determined based on the target group and educational content. The most important resources of the program were human force and other cases, which can be managed in case of a lead agency. In the evaluation dimension, the cases such as mortality rate, hospitalization, behavioral changes, and other cases can be considered. CONCLUSIONS: The designed program should be implemented for all target groups for road safety promotion. The proper content was provided with proper educational methods and instructors for the target groups. A lead agency is needed to provide the resources and funding to run the program.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes/métodos , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducción de Automóvil/educación , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Técnica Delfos , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Desarrollo de Programa , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto Joven
14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 971-989, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612356

RESUMEN

Purpose: Approximately, 14% of older adults aged 65 years and over experience a fall within 1 month post-hospital discharge. Adequate self-management may minimize the impact of these falls; however, research is lacking on why some older adults engage in self-management to prevent falls while others do not. Methods: We conducted a scoping review to identify barriers and facilitators to older adults participating in fall-prevention strategies after transitioning home from acute hospitalization. Eligibility criteria were peer-reviewed journal articles published during 2009-2019 which were written in English and contained any of the following keywords or their synonyms: "fall-prevention," "older adults," "post-discharge" and "transition care." We systematically and selectively summarized the findings of these articles using the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines and the PRISMA-ScR reporting guidelines. Seven bibliographic databases were searched: PubMed/MEDLINE, ERIC, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We used the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behavior (COM-B) model of health behavior change as a framework to guide the content, thematic analysis, and descriptive results. Results: Seventeen articles were finally selected. The most frequently mentioned barriers and facilitators for each COM-B dimension differed. Motivation factors include such as older adults lacking inner drive and self-denial of being at risk for falls (barriers) and following-up with older adults and correcting inaccurate perceptions of falls and fall-prevention strategies (facilitators). Conclusion: This scoping review revealed gaps and future research areas in fall prevention relative to behavioral changes. These findings may enable tailoring feasible fall-prevention interventions for older adults after transitioning home from acute hospitalization.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes/métodos , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Accidentes Domésticos/prevención & control , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
15.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(5): 514-526, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573377

RESUMEN

This study aims to conceptualize the key stakeholders in emergency management of childcare facilities for applicable nations by referring to the Korean case. Qualitative content analysis is the main methodology used. Unique features are gathered from the Korean literature on childcare facilities and then summarized; however, universal principles from the English language literature on international childcare facilities are emphasized. The analysis of five major stakeholders in Korean childcare facilities, namely, governments, community personnel, parents, childcare providers, and children, shows that their current efforts are directed only at general safety management. Multi-hazard management or an integrated approach in terms of social work is thus provided as an alternative for not only Korea but also other nations.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes/normas , Jardines Infantiles/organización & administración , Jardines Infantiles/estadística & datos numéricos , Guías como Asunto , Administración de la Seguridad/organización & administración , Administración de la Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención de Accidentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , República de Corea
16.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(5): 311-318, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493890

RESUMEN

Objectives Comprehensive community sports clubs (CCSCs), of which more than 3,500 exist in Japan, have the potential to contribute to healthy aging in older adults, but their effect on this population has not, thus far, been well explored. This study aimed to investigate the current environment affecting seniors at Japanese CCSCs and to examine issues identified by the analysis.Methods Data were collected from the FY 2016 Survey Results on Comprehensive Community Sports Clubs, conducted by the Japan Sports Agency. A total of 2,444 clubs were divided equally into four groups after calculating the proportion of senior members (ages 60 and over) per total number of members in each club. The groups were then ranked from lowest to highest according to proportion of senior members: Groups A, B, C and D. Additionally, the 2,444 clubs were classified into six regions according to location. Group designation (A to D) and regional classification were used as independent variables. The dependent variables were categorized as follows: basic information (e.g. total number of members), crisis management and accident prevention measures (13 specific items in total), and each club's compliance with legal obligations.Results Study results revealed that Group D, containing the highest proportion of senior members, had fewer total members, lower monthly membership fees, lower annual club income, less annual club budget apportioned to each member, and fewer instructors than other groups. Regarding crisis management and accident prevention measures, Group D had lower completion rates on 6 items (health certificate submissions, liability insurance enrollment, safety workshop implementation, heatstroke prevention, liaison with healthcare professionals, and AED availability). Group D also showed a lower rate of compliance with legal obligations than other groups. In comparisons between the six regions, the median proportion of senior members was found to be highest in Chugoku-Shikoku and lowest in Chubu, although each median ranged from only 20% to 30%. Regarding crisis management and accident prevention measures, clubs in Kanto region had the highest completion rates for 10 items, whereas clubs in Kinki region had the lowest completion rates for 8 items.Conclusion The CCSCs with higher proportions of senior members had smaller budgets, fewer members and staff, and delayed implementation of crisis management and accident prevention measures. Regional disparities were also observed both in club scale and management of medical and safety issues. Although our study identified several shortcomings in this area, medical and safety management implementation is an important consideration for CCSCs with high proportions of senior members, as these members are at higher risk for disease and frailty. Affected CCSCs and relevant authorities should therefore acknowledge and address this issue cooperatively.


Asunto(s)
Centros de Acondicionamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención de Accidentes , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Femenino , Centros de Acondicionamiento/economía , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Riesgo , Administración de la Seguridad , Deportes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234564, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525933

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Single vehicle run-off crashes in urban areas constitute a growing problem that deserves more attention from authorities and researchers. This study aims to detect geometric road design risk factors characterizing places where urban run-off crashes might happen. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in the urban area of Valladolid (Spain) with data corresponding to a four-year period. Logistic regression models were used to analyze data, considering different variables related to design parameters in the models: type of intersection, radius of curvature, width of the pavement, width of the traffic lane, number of lanes for traffic in the same direction, direction of the traffic, length of the previous straight section, distance to the previous traffic light, slope, and finally, priority regulation. Two different scenarios were investigated: intersections and curves. RESULTS: The Adjusted Odds-Ratio of a run-off crash was five times higher in double direction roads with median strip than in one-way urban roads, for both curves and intersections, and almost nine times higher on road sections with previous straight lengths greater than 500 meters. Specific risk factors for intersections are "number of lanes for traffic in the same direction" (the odds of a run-off crash are more than five times higher on a road with two or more lanes), "length of preceding straight section" (the odds on road sections with lengths greater than 500 meters are more than nine times that of road sections with a length of less than 150 meters). For curves, specific factors are "width of the traffic lane" (the odds of a run-off crash on curves with lanes wider than 3.75m are more than six times higher) and "priority regulation" (the odds of a run-off crash increases more than twelve times on road sections with traffic light regulation over those without any regulation). CONCLUSIONS: The current study identifies urban road configurations that might require redesigning with the aim of decreasing the odds of a run-off crash, or the implementation of passive protective systems to mitigate their consequences. Specifically, intersections in two direction roads with median strip, more than two lanes per direction and a long preceding straight section, as well as curves with wide lanes and traffic light regulation, are the places that require attention.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes/métodos , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Planificación de Ciudades/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Estudios de Casos y Controles , España
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414127

RESUMEN

Escalator accidents not only happen frequently but also have cascading effects. The purpose of this study is to block the formation of cascading accident networks by identifying and preventing critical hazards. A modified five-step task-driven method (FTDM) is proposed to break down passenger-related cascading escalator accidents. Three complex network parameters in complex network theory are utilized to identify critical and non-critical Risk Passenger Behavior (RPB) hazards and Other Hazards related with Risk Passenger Behavior (OH-RPB) in accident chains. A total of 327 accidents that occurred in the Beijing metro rail transit (MRT) stations were used for case studies. The results are consistent in critical and non-critical RPB and OH-RPB and prove that through combination of FTDM accident investigation model and complex network analysis method, critical and non-critical RPB and OH-RPB in a complicated cascading hazards network can be identified. Prevention of critical RPB can block the formation of cascading accident networks. The method not only can be used by safety manager to make the corresponding preventive measures according to the results in daily management but also the findings can guide the allocation of limited preventive resources to critical hazards rather than non-critical hazards. Moreover, the defects of management plan and product design can be re-examined according to the research results.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes , Accidentes , Ascensores y Escaleras Mecánicas , Beijing , Humanos , Vías Férreas , Asunción de Riesgos
19.
Ergonomics ; 63(6): 769-786, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323610

RESUMEN

To prevent single-bicycle crashes, this study is the first to evaluate effects of slanted kerbstones, edge lines, shoulder strips, and edge strips on cycling behaviour of cyclists ≥50 years. In Experiment 1, 32 participants cycled on a control path and paths with edge lines, slanted kerbstones, and three types of 0.5 m wide shoulder strips (with grey artificial grass, green artificial grass, or concrete street-print). In Experiment 2, 30 participants cycled a different route including a control path and paths with edge lines or 0.3 m white edge strips. Cyclists rode closer to the main cycle path's edge in the shoulder strips conditions, although the presence of these strips resulted in a larger total distance to the verge compared to the control condition. Furthermore, cyclists cycled further from the verge in the edge strip condition than the control condition. Safety implications of the shoulder and edge strips are considered to be positive. Practitioner Summary: Older cyclists have a high risk for single-bicycle crashes (e.g. riding into the verge). In two experiments, cyclists ≥50 years cycled a route where different treatments were applied on a cycle path. Shoulder and edge strip treatments were related to more efficient path use and safer distances from the verge. Abbreviations: AGS: artificial grass strip; CL: control location; CSS: concrete street-print strip; ELC: edge line continuous; ELI: edge line intermittent; LP: lateral position; SDLP: standard deviation of the lateral position; SK: slanted kerbstones; WCES: white chippings edge strip.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes/métodos , Ciclismo , Planificación Ambiental , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 21(5): 303-307, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319811

RESUMEN

Objective: Recent changes in FMVSS have led to the utilization of side air curtains to provide occupant retention during rollover events. However, the safety advantage provided by the air curtains relies on the vehicle system's ability to detect the rollover event and deploy the curtains. The purpose of this study is to identify crash and vehicle characteristics in motor vehicle rollovers that influence side air curtain deployment and occupant outcomes. The current study aims to improve the understanding of rollover events and inspire more robust air curtain deployment strategies.Methods: Study data were extracted from rollover cases documented in the NASS-CDS data set from 2011 to 2015. Vehicle model years of 2011 or later with side air curtains installed were examined. The presence of a rollover sensor in each vehicle was determined from vehicle content data available on the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's crash rating website. The resulting data set contained 14,003 weighted cases of rollover accidents in which the side air curtain did not deploy (40 raw count) and 23,178 cases of deployment (80 raw count).Results: Several crash event and vehicle characteristics were similar for the nondeployed and deployed groups, including number of quarter turns, primary location of damage, initiating event for the rollover, and vehicle model year. However, the nondeployed group included significantly more passenger vehicle body types (vs. SUV or truck) and had a significantly lower rate of rollover sensor presence. Presence of a rollover sensor increased the odds air curtain deployment by a factor of 36.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.06-265). Cases in which both side air curtains deployed resulted in a higher frequency of injured occupants (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] ≥ 3). However, rollover events resulting in these injuries were also associated with higher rates of impact with another object or vehicle and damage to the roof of the vehicle, suggesting a higher energy event.Conclusions: Nondeployment of the side curtain airbags in rollovers occurred more frequently in vehicles without dedicated rollover sensors, which were most frequently passenger vehicles.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes/instrumentación , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Vehículos a Motor/estadística & datos numéricos
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