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1.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284361

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the German context, there is hardly any quantitative data about the implementation of school tobacco polices that include the perspective of both teachers and students. The aim of the study is to investigate the associations between implemented school tobacco policies and the perceived prevalence of smoking at the level of school staff and adolescents. METHODS: The repeated cross-sectional study (2013 and 2017) is based on pooled responses of 13- to 17-year-old adolescents (N = 2393) and school staff (N = 85) from 25 schools located in the West German metropolitan region of Hanover. In linear regression models, average marginal effects (AMEs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) and robust standard errors for perceived tobacco prevalence are reported separately for school tobacco policies assessed by teachers and students (scale 0-6). All models were controlled for sociodemographic, school-, and smoking-specific covariates. RESULTS: On average, adolescents perceive a smoking prevalence of 30% ([Formula: see text]; s: 24.0) for their school. A comprehensive school tobacco policy is consistently associated with lower school smoking prevalence both from the point of view of teachers (AME: -3.54 CI95% -6.49 to -0.58) and students (AME: -1.69 CI95% -2.52 to -0.86). The number of smoking friends (e.g., "most of them are smokers" +14%: AME: 14.13 CI95% 10.46 to 17.80) and the type of school are the most relevant determinants of a high school smoking prevalence. School types with a nonacademic track report a 15% (AME: 15.03 CI95% 10.13 to 19.93) higher prevalence compared to grammar schools. DISCUSSION: Progressive school tobacco control policies should focus more on school types with nonacademic tracks, certain groups at risk, and those schools that do not strictly enforce school tobacco policies.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Tabaco , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Políticas , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
2.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48005

RESUMEN

A Organização Mundial da Saúde lançou nesta terça-feira (8) uma campanha mundial com duração de um ano para o Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco de 2021 – intitulada “Comprometa-se a parar de fumar durante a COVID-19”. O novo desafio da OMS via WhatsApp (Quit Challenge) e a publicação “101 razões para parar de fumar” foram divulgados hoje para marcar o início da campanha.


Asunto(s)
Organización Mundial de la Salud , Tabaco , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/organización & administración
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242691, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211779

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) has set the target to reduce premature mortalities from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by one-third. One of the ways to achieve this is through strengthening the countries' implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Community health workers (CHWs) involvement has shown promising results in the prevention of NCDs. This systematic review is aimed at critically evaluating the available evidence on the effectiveness of involving CHWs in smoking cessation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systemically searched PubMed and CENTRAL up to September 2019. We searched for published interventional studies on smoking cessation interventions using the usual care that complemented with CHWs as compared to the usual or standard care alone. Our primary outcome was abstinence of smoking. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study risks of bias. RESULT: We identified 2794 articles, of which only five studies were included. A total of 3513 smokers with 41 CHWs were included in the studies. The intervention duration range from 6 weeks to 30 months. The studies used behavioral intervention or a combination of behavioral intervention and pharmacological treatment. Overall, the smoking cessation intervention that incorporated involvement of CHWs had higher smoking cessation rates [OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.35, 2.83)]. Significant smoking cessation rates were seen in two studies. CONCLUSION: Higher smoking cessation rates were seen in the interventions that combined the usual care with interventions by CHWs as compared to the usual care alone. However, there were insufficient studies to prove the effectiveness. In addition, there was high heterogeneity in terms of interventions and participants in the current studies.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Humanos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028030

RESUMEN

Narrative messages are increasingly being used in the field of tobacco prevention. Our study is based on narrative persuasion and aims to analyze the psychological mechanisms that explain why the narrative voice is relevant to promote persuasive impact. An online experiment with a 2 (narrative voice) × 2 (message) factorial design was carried out. Participants (525 adult smokers) were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (first-person versus third-person narrative message). To increase the external validity of the study, two different messages were used within each condition. After reading the narrative message the mediating and dependent variables were evaluated. Participants who read the narrative in the first person experienced greater identification. Moreover, mediational analysis showed that both counterarguing and cognitive elaboration played a significant role in the relationship between narrative voice, identification, and persuasive impact. This study confirm that narrative voice is not only an anecdotal formal choice but that it indirectly affects variables related to tobacco prevention, due to the fact that first-person messages activate a mechanism of affective connection with the message (increasing the identification with the protagonist) that decreases resistance to prevention (the counterarguing process) while simultaneously stimulating reflection or cognitive elaboration.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Comunicación Persuasiva , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Narración
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-02.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52793

RESUMEN

Este conjunto de herramientas se preparó a partir del módulo 4 de capacitación de la OMS sobre el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de salud para tratar la dependencia del tabaco a nivel de la atención primaria. La publicación está dirigida a los prestadores de atención primaria, y su objetivo es servir de guía de referencia rápida para ayudarles a suministrar intervenciones breves contra el consumo de tabaco como parte de su práctica habitual. El contenido de esta caja de herramientas se divide de la siguiente manera: 1. El consumo de tabaco: Una dependencia letal 2. Papel protagónico del personal de salud en el control del tabaco 3. Aspectos básicos del consumo y la dependencia del tabaco 4. Modelo de las 5A para ayudar a las personas que están listas para dejar de fumar 5. Modelo de las 5R para aumentar la motivación para dejar de fumar 6. Uso de las 5A para evitar la exposición al humo de tabaco


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Tabaco , Violencia , Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036327

RESUMEN

Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in the home is largely associated with socio-economic disadvantage. Disadvantaged parents face specific challenges creating a smoke-free home, often caring for children in accommodation without access to outdoor garden space. Existing smoke-free home interventions largely fail to accommodate these constraints. Innovative approaches are required to address this inequality. In this two-phase study, we engaged with parents living in disadvantaged areas of Edinburgh, Scotland, to explore tailored approaches to creating a smoke-free home and develop and pilot-test an intervention based on their views and preferences. In Phase 1, qualitative interviews with 17 parents recruited from Early Years Centres explored alternative approaches to smoke-free home interventions. In Phase 2, an intervention based on parents' views and preferences was pilot-tested with parents recruited through Early Years and Family Nurse Partnership centres. Seventeen parents took part in an interview to share their views/experiences of the intervention. Data from both study phases were thematically analysed. Phase 1 findings suggested that parents associated nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with quit attempts but supported the idea of NRT use for temporary abstinence to create a smoke-free home, viewing this as a safer option than using e-cigarettes indoors. In Phase 2, 54 parents expressed an interest in accessing NRT to create a smoke-free home, 32 discussed NRT product choice during a home visit from a smoking adviser, and 20 collected their free NRT prescription from the pharmacy. NRT was used for up to 12 weeks in the home, with ongoing advice available from pharmacy staff. During qualitative interviews (n = 17), parents self-reported successfully creating a smoke-free home, quitting smoking, and reduced cigarette consumption, often exceeding their expectations regarding changes made. The intervention was acceptable to parents, but the multi-step process used to access NRT was cumbersome. Some participants were lost to this process. Parents living in disadvantaged circumstances may benefit from access to NRT for temporary abstinence in the home to assist them to protect their children from SHS exposure. Further research using a more streamlined approach to NRT access is required to determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this approach.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/prevención & control , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Padres/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Escocia/epidemiología , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco
7.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S26-S30, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069185

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of a hospital is to promote/improve and restore health, thus smoking, whether in its passive or active form, should be banned in all hospital premises for the benefit of employees and patients alike. The Global Network for Tobacco Free Healthcare Services (GNTH) is an international non-profit association formed in 1999. The GNTH's mission is to implement tobacco-free policies to create a healthy workplace and patients' environment; help physicians, nurses, and other healthcare workers to stop smoking; and educate all caregivers about tobacco dependence treatment and support them in providing smoking cessation interventions. METHODS: Implementation standards and a system of their self-audit for all participating hospitals were developed by the GNTH. We describe both the international and Czech networks, recommended methods for programme implementation and results of self-audit questionnaires completed by Czech participating hospitals. RESULTS: Worldwide, there are 19 national networks with 1,672 members including 56 gold forum members. To date, the largest network has been formed in France (670 members), followed by Spain (580) and Taiwan (209). After the first Czech institution (Prague-based General University Hospital) joined GNTH in 2010, the Czech Republic established its national network in 2017 currently comprising 10 members, of this number 1 gold, 3 silver and 6 bronze national certification level members. The main barriers to better outcomes in the Czech Republic include smoking on outdoor hospital grounds, lack of pharmacotherapy reimbursement and time, and inadequate staff education in the field of tobacco dependence treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The Global Network's mission is to advocate, recruit and enable healthcare services and professionals to implement and sustain effective tobacco management and cessation policies in accordance with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). A systematic approach supports the quality of care and treatment outcomes for patients as well as healthy workplace conditions for the staff.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Política para Fumadores , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD010216, 2020 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052602

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. People who smoke report using ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organisations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthcare providers and regulators want to know if ECs can help people quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This review is an update of a review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect and safety of using electronic cigarettes (ECs) to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant records to January 2020, together with reference-checking and contact with study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and randomized cross-over trials in which people who smoke were randomized to an EC or control condition. We also included uncontrolled intervention studies in which all participants received an EC intervention. To be included, studies had to report abstinence from cigarettes at six months or longer and/or data on adverse events (AEs) or other markers of safety at one week or longer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcome measures were abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, AEs, and serious adverse events (SAEs). Secondary outcomes included changes in carbon monoxide, blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, lung function, and levels of known carcinogens/toxicants. We used a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. For continuous outcomes, we calculated mean differences. Where appropriate, we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We include 50 completed studies, representing 12,430 participants, of which 26 are RCTs. Thirty-five of the 50 included studies are new to this review update. Of the included studies, we rated four (all which contribute to our main comparisons) at low risk of bias overall, 37 at high risk overall (including the 24 non-randomized studies), and the remainder at unclear risk. There was moderate-certainty evidence, limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than in those randomized to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (risk ratio (RR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25 to 2.27; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 1498 participants). In absolute terms, this might translate to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 2 to 8). There was low-certainty evidence (limited by very serious imprecision) of no difference in the rate of adverse events (AEs) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.19; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 485 participants). SAEs occurred rarely, with no evidence that their frequency differed between nicotine EC and NRT, but very serious imprecision led to low certainty in this finding (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.41: I2 = n/a; 2 studies, 727 participants). There was moderate-certainty evidence, again limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than to non-nicotine EC (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.92; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 802 participants). In absolute terms, this might again lead to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 0 to 12). These trials used EC with relatively low nicotine delivery. There was low-certainty evidence, limited by very serious imprecision, that there was no difference in the rate of AEs between these groups (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.36; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 346 participants). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether rates of SAEs differed between groups, due to very serious imprecision (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.19; I2 = n/a; 4 studies, 494 participants). Compared to behavioural support only/no support, quit rates were higher for participants randomized to nicotine EC (RR 2.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 5.04; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 2312 participants). In absolute terms this represents an increase of six per 100 (95% CI 1 to 14). However, this finding was very low-certainty, due to issues with imprecision and risk of bias. There was no evidence that the rate of SAEs varied, but some evidence that non-serious AEs were more common in people randomized to nicotine EC (AEs: RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.31; I2 = 28%; 3 studies, 516 participants; SAEs: RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 6.96; I2 = 17%; 5 studies, 842 participants). Data from non-randomized studies were consistent with RCT data. The most commonly reported AEs were throat/mouth irritation, headache, cough, and nausea, which tended to dissipate over time with continued use. Very few studies reported data on other outcomes or comparisons and hence evidence for these is limited, with confidence intervals often encompassing clinically significant harm and benefit. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that ECs with nicotine increase quit rates compared to ECs without nicotine and compared to NRT. Evidence comparing nicotine EC with usual care/no treatment also suggests benefit, but is less certain. More studies are needed to confirm the degree of effect, particularly when using modern EC products. Confidence intervals were wide for data on AEs, SAEs and other safety markers. Overall incidence of SAEs was low across all study arms. We did not detect any clear evidence of harm from nicotine EC, but longest follow-up was two years and the overall number of studies was small. The main limitation of the evidence base remains imprecision due to the small number of RCTs, often with low event rates. Further RCTs are underway. To ensure the review continues to provide up-to-date information for decision-makers, this review is now a living systematic review. We will run searches monthly from December 2020, with the review updated as relevant new evidence becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the review's current status.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Nicotina , Agonistas Nicotínicos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Sesgo , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administración & dosificación , Sesgo de Publicación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco , Vapeo
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Noncigarette tobacco use is increasing. In this study, we reexamined (1) parental knowledge or suspicion of their children's tobacco use and (2) associations of household tobacco-free rules with youth initiation. METHODS: Participants were youth (aged 12-17) in waves 1 to 4 (2013-2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. A pseudo cross-sectional time-series analysis (N = 23 170) was used to examine parent or guardian knowledge or suspicion of their child's tobacco use according to youth-reported use categories: cigarette only, electronic cigarette only, smokeless tobacco only, noncigarette combustible only, and poly use. A longitudinal analysis among wave 1 never users (n = 8994) was used to examine rules barring tobacco inside the home and whether parents talked with youth about not using tobacco as predictors of youth tobacco initiation after 1 to 3 years. Survey-weighted multivariable models were adjusted for tobacco use risk factors. RESULTS: In all waves, parents or guardians much less often knew or suspected that their children used tobacco if youth only reported use of electronic cigarettes, noncigarette combustible products, or smokeless tobacco compared with cigarettes. Youth tobacco initiation was lower when youth and parents agreed that rules prohibited all tobacco use throughout the home (1-year adjusted odds ratio: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.94) but not when parents talked with youth about tobacco (adjusted odds ratio: 1.08; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Many parents are unaware of their children's noncigarette tobacco use. Setting expectations for tobacco-free environments appears more effective at preventing youth tobacco initiation than parents advising children not to use tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Padres , Política para Fumadores , Uso de Tabaco , Adolescente , Niño , Intervalos de Confianza , Estudios Transversales , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Fumar/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47858

RESUMEN

Este ano, relações entre fumar e maior exposição ao coronavírus também são abordadas em campanha de conscientização


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco , Instituciones Oncológicas
11.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47864

RESUMEN

A organização aponta a relação entre o fim do hábito de fumar e a redução de riscos de infecção e sintomas graves do coronavírus


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Organización Mundial de la Salud
12.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47848

RESUMEN

Informação é de pesquisa do INCA, apresentada durante webinar em comemoração ao Dia Nacional de Combate ao Fumo


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco
13.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47850

RESUMEN

"Cigarro: a indústria fica com os lucros, você paga pelos prejuízos". Esta é uma das mensagens da nova fase da campanha Conta do Cigarro, da ACT Promoção da Saúde, que mostra os custos do tabagismo para a saúde e apoia o processo que tramita na 1ª Vara Federal de Porto Alegre pedindo ressarcimento aos cofres públicos. A ação judicial inédita, apresentada ano passado pela Advocacia Geral da União, pede também a responsabilização civil da indústria do cigarro


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaquismo , Industria del Tabaco
14.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47851

RESUMEN

O tabagismo é considerado pela OMS uma epidemia mundial que mata 8 milhões de pessoas por ano


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Pandemias
15.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47857

RESUMEN

41% dos entrevistados disseram ter largado o cigarro por causa da pandemia


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Reino Unido
16.
Rev Prat ; 70(2): 191-194, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877139

RESUMEN

Preventing tobacco sales to minors. Since 2009, selling tobacco products in France to minors less than 18 years of age is forbidden by law, but this law is poorly enforced even though tobacco use mainly begins at adolescence. The aim of this study was to identify measures implemented by foreign countries leading to a better enforcement of tobacco sale ban to minors. The main measures are: organizing tobacco retailers training programs; using automated age-verification systems; requiring a valid photo ID from anyone who looks under the age of 25; developing communication campaigns directed to the general public in order to explain and promote age control for customers. Furthermore, in all studied countries, the only effective controls rely on "mystery shopping" with underage shoppers accompanied by dedicated inspectors, attempting to purchase tobacco products. In case of non-compliance with the law, these controls must lead to dissuasive financial as well as administrative penalties. In all studied countries, an efficient implementation of these measures has led to reduced tobacco sales to minors, and thus contributed to bring down underage smoking.


Asunto(s)
Menores , Tabaco , Adolescente , Comercio , Francia , Humanos , Fumar , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1478, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993598

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Four decades of population-based tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial reduction in smoking prevalence in Australia. However, smoking prevalence is still double in socially disadvantaged groups compared to those that are not. But not all tobacco control strategies successfully used in the general population is effective in specific high-risk population groups. Hence, an effective way to reduce smoking in high risk population groups may include targeting them specifically to identify and support smokers to quit. In this backdrop, we examined whether tobacco control interventions at the population-level are more effective in increasing life expectancy among Australians compared to interventions targeting a high risk group or a combination of the two when smoking prevalence is reduced to 10 and 0% respectively. METHODS: Using the risk percentiles approach, analyses were performed separately for men and women using data from various sources such as the 2014-15 National Health Survey linked to death registry, simulated data for high risk groups, and the Australian population and deaths data from the census. Indigenous status was simulated by preferentially assigning those who are indigenous to lower SES quintiles. The age-sex distribution of mental disorder status was simulated using its distribution from 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Survey with 25.9% of mentally ill being assigned to current smoking category and the rest to non-smoking category. The age-sex distribution of prisoners was simulated based on 2014 ABS Prisoners Australia survey with 74% of prisoners being assigned to current smoker category and the rest to non-smoker category. Homelessness status was simulated according to age, sex and indigenous status for 2011 census with all homeless being allocated to the lowest SES category. The age-sex distribution of total cholesterol level was simulated based on 2011-13 Australian Health Survey. RESULTS: The results showed that the combined approach for reducing smoking is most effective for improving life expectancy of Australians particularly for the socially disadvantaged and mentally ill groups both of which have high fraction of smokers in the population. For those who were mentally ill the gain in ALE due to reduction of smoking to 10% was 0.53 years for males and 0.36 years for females which were around 51 and 42% respectively of the maximal gains in ALE that could be achieved through complete cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting high-risk population groups having substantial fraction of smokers in the population can strongly complement the existing population-based smoking reduction strategies. As population and high risk approaches are both important, the national prevention policies should make judicious use of both to maximize health gain.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dinámica Poblacional , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933121

RESUMEN

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) developed by the State Parties to the World Health Organization was ratified in Slovakia in 2004 and in Finland in 2005. The aim of this study was to explore and compare compliance with the FCTC in Finland and Slovakia. This is a two-country comparative study of tobacco control policy based on implementation of the FCTC in Slovakia and Finland. Compliance with the FCTC was measured similarly in Slovakia and Finland in terms of their institutional structure supporting a smoking free environment and implementation of selected articles of the FCTC. In Finland the responsibilities for anti-tobacco policy are clearly assigned. Slovakia does not have specifically responsible institutions. Finland has a clear plan for achieving the goal of a smoking-free country based on empirical evidence. Slovakia meets only the minimum standard resulting from its commitment as ratified in the FCTC and data are out of date or missing completely.


Asunto(s)
Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Comparación Transcultural , Finlandia , Regulación Gubernamental , Cooperación Internacional , Eslovaquia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
19.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 757-763, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895659

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the experience of specific oral and dental symptoms or side effects as reported by patients following the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved paper-based confidential survey questionnaires accessible for a period of 8 months to patients attending the School of Dentistry Dental Clinic, Griffith University, Australia. This study recorded demography, smoking history, NRT use history, and specific oral and systemic symptoms. The data was assessed and grouped into three divisions: those with no history of NRT use, current and former users of NRT, and current users of NRT. RESULTS: Current users of NRT reported a statistically significantly higher incidence of all oral symptoms and increased incidence of systemic symptoms, as compared to those with no history of NRT use. There was no statistically significant difference between current and former users of NRT for almost all symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A correlative relationship has been observed between the use of NRT products and patients' reported oral symptoms. This study showed a statistically significantly higher incidence of oral symptoms in current and former NRT users. The reported oral side effects and compounding risk profiles show an imperative need for further research into nicotine replacement therapy products' impact on oral health status and treatment outcomes in dental patients using NRT.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco , Australia , Humanos , Nicotina , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
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