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1.
Euro Surveill ; 29(14)2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577806

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of strengthening health protection worldwide. To address this as a public health priority in Ireland, between December 2021 and October 2022 the first national Health Protection Strategy (2022-2027) for the Irish Health Service Executive (HSE) was developed. We describe the approach taken to develop a first national health protection strategy for Ireland, and highlight the key lessons learned. Key steps in strategy formation included detailed stakeholder analysis, exploration of the context for the strategy and development of a comprehensive consultation plan. Two stakeholder consultation workshops were held. The first focused on defining strategic vision, aim and objectives, the second verified objectives and identified enablers. A subsequent e-consultation invited feedback from wider stakeholders. The published strategy outlines 10 strategic objectives and 11 enablers. Key lessons identified from the strategy development process include the importance of clear leadership and oversight, the value of identifying the context for change, ensuring adequate consultation planning, taking a multidisciplinary approach with strong stakeholder engagement and the need to maintain a strategic perspective. Lessons from our experience can support colleagues internationally to strategically set out their priorities for health protection beyond COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Prioridades en Salud , Pandemias , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública
3.
Eur Respir Rev ; 33(172)2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599674

RESUMEN

Respiratory health has become a prevailing priority amid the diverse global health challenges that the 21st century brings, due to its substantial impact on individuals and communities on a global scale. Due to rapid advances in medicine, emerging knowledge gaps appear along with new challenges and ethical considerations. While breakthroughs in medical science can bring about encouraging possibilities for better treatments and interventions, they also lead to unanswered questions and areas where further research is warranted. A PubMed search on the topic "global respiratory health priorities" between the years 2000 and 2023 was conducted, which returned 236 articles. Of these, 55 were relevant and selected for inclusion in this article. The selection process took into account literature reviews, opinions from expert groups and careful analysis of existing gaps and challenges within the field; our selection encompasses specific infectious and noninfectious respiratory conditions in both adults and children. The global respiratory health priorities identified were selected on the basis that they have been recognised as critical areas of investigation and potential advancement and they span across clinical, translational, epidemiological and population health domains. Implementing these priorities will require a commitment to fostering collaboration and knowledge-sharing among experts in different fields with the ultimate aim to improve respiratory health outcomes for individuals and communities alike.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Prioridades en Salud , Niño , Humanos
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 9(4): e270-e274, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492580

RESUMEN

Morbidity and mortality associated with bereavement is an important public health issue, yet economic and resource investments to effectively implement and sustain integrated bereavement services are sorely lacking at national and global levels. Although bereavement support is a component of palliative care provision, continuity of care for bereaved individuals is often not standard practice in palliative and end-of-life contexts. In addition to potentially provoking feelings of abandonment, failure to extend family-centred care after a patient's death can leave bereaved families without access to crucial psychosocial support and at risk for illnesses that exacerbate the already substantial public health toll of interpersonal loss. The effect of inadequate bereavement care disproportionately disadvantages vulnerable groups, including those living in resource-constrained settings. We build on available evidence and previous recommendations to propose a model for transitional care, firmly establishing bereavement care services within health-care institutions, while respecting their finite resources and the need to ultimately transition grieving families to supports within their communities. Key to the transitional bereavement care model is the bolstering of community-based supports through development of compassionate communities and upskilling of professional services for those with more substantial bereavement support needs. To achieve this goal, interprofessional health workers, institutions, and systems must shift bereavement care from an afterthought to a public health priority.


Asunto(s)
Aflicción , Cuidados Paliativos al Final de la Vida , Humanos , Prioridades en Salud , Salud Pública , Apoyo Social
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 784, 2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481197

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Promoting the uptake of vaccination for infectious diseases such as COVID-19 remains a global challenge, necessitating collaborative efforts between public health units (PHUs) and communities. Applied behavioural science can play a crucial role in supporting PHUs' response by providing insights into human behaviour and informing tailored strategies to enhance vaccination uptake. Community engagement can help broaden the reach of behavioural science research by involving a more diverse range of populations and ensuring that strategies better represent the needs of specific communities. We developed and applied an approach to conducting community-based behavioural science research with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse populations to guide PHUs in tailoring their strategies to promote COVID-19 vaccination. This paper presents the community engagement methodology and the lessons learned in applying the methodology. METHODS: The community engagement methodology was developed based on integrated knowledge translation (iKT) and community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. The study involved collaboration with PHUs and local communities in Ontario, Canada to identify priority groups for COVID-19 vaccination, understand factors influencing vaccine uptake and co-design strategies tailored to each community to promote vaccination. Community engagement was conducted across three large urban regions with individuals from Eastern European communities, African, Black, and Caribbean communities and low socioeconomic neighbourhoods. RESULTS: We developed and applied a seven-step methodology for conducting community-based behavioural science research: (1) aligning goals with system-level partners; (2) engaging with PHUs to understand priorities; (3) understanding community strengths and dynamics; (4) building relationships with each community; (5) establishing partnerships (community advisory groups); (6) involving community members in the research process; and (7) feeding back and interpreting research findings. Research partnerships were successfully established with members of prioritized communities, enabling recruitment of participants for theory-informed behavioural science interviews, interpretation of findings, and co-design of targeted recommendations for each PHU to improve COVID-19 vaccination uptake. Lessons learned include the importance of cultural sensitivity and awareness of sociopolitical context in tailoring community engagement, being agile to address the diverse and evolving priorities of PHUs, and building trust to achieve effective community engagement. CONCLUSION: Effective community engagement in behavioural science research can lead to more inclusive and representative research. The community engagement approach developed and applied in this study acknowledges the diversity of communities, recognizes the central role of PHUs, and can help in addressing complex public health challenges.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Pública , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Prioridades en Salud , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Ontario
7.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(3): 670-676, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504402

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Priority Setting Partnerships (PSP's) using the James Lind Alliance (JLA) methodology, bring together health professionals, patients and parents/carers to identify and prioritise unanswered questions that can be addressed by future research projects. To identify and prioritise the top 10 unanswered research priorities in digital technology for adolescents and young people (AYP) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A steering group (SG) consisting of AYP with IBD, their parents/carers, representatives from two charities (Crohn's & Colitis UK, Crohn's in Childhood Research Association), patient information forum and paediatric and adult and primary care healthcare professionals was established in 2021. The SG agreed the protocol, and scope of the PSP and oversaw all aspects. SG meetings were chaired by a JLA advisor and followed the established JLA methodology. RESULTS: The initial survey generated 414 in-scope questions from 156 respondents, thematically categorised into 10 themes and consolidated into 92 summary questions by the SG. A comprehensive literature review followed by SG deliberation narrowed the unanswered summary questions to 45, for the interim prioritising survey. One hundred and two respondents ranked their top 10 research questions. Outputs generated top 18 research priorities presented at a final virtual prioritisation workshop, facilitated by JLA advisors and attended by key stakeholders, ranked into top 10 research priorities. DISCUSSION: The top 10 research priorities will encourage researchers to undertake research that addresses these areas of unmet need for AYP living with IBD, their parents/carers and their healthcare professionals, thereby facilitating improved patient care.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Tecnología Digital , Prioridades en Salud , Conducta Cooperativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Investigación , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(3): e081400, 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485482

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The school food system varies widely between schools and across the UK. There is a need to understand evidence gaps in school food research to allow the development, implementation and evaluation of policies and interventions to support children's healthy eating at school. This study aimed to conduct a priority setting exercise to co-produce research priorities in relation to the UK school food system. METHODS: The James Lind Alliance process informed this priority setting exercise; all key steps engaged a wide range of UK school food stakeholders (including teachers, parents, principals, school governors, policymakers, caterers). An initial online stakeholder survey identified perceived research priorities. In a second survey, stakeholders were asked to rank these priorities. Lastly, an online priority setting workshop with stakeholders elicited the most important research priorities. RESULTS: In 2021, school food stakeholders (n=1280) completed the first survey, from which 136 research priorities were identified. In the second survey, participants (n=107) ranked these research priorities regarding their importance. Lastly, 30 workshop participants discussed and reached consensus on the research priorities. After final refinement by the research team, 18 priorities resulted, with the top 10 being related to the provision of free school meals (effectiveness of cost-effectiveness of different levels of eligibility, including universal provision), implementation of policy (including improving uptake) and food standards, issues around procurement, leadership, inequalities, social norms, the eating environment, food culture throughout the school setting and healthy eating. CONCLUSION: The top 10 research priorities were elicited through a rigorous approach, including a wide range of stakeholders across the UK. These should be considered by policymakers, researchers and others to inform research, evidence-based policy development and, ultimately, improve the UK school food system.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Niño , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Instituciones Académicas , Padres , Reino Unido , Prioridades en Salud
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 131, 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486232

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infection with parasitic nematodes (helminths), particularly those of the order Strongylida (such as Haemonchus contortus), can cause significant and burdensome diseases in humans and animals. Widespread drug (anthelmintic) resistance in livestock parasites, the absence of vaccines against most of these nematodes, and a lack of new and effective chemical entities on the commercial market demands the discovery of new anthelmintics. In the present study, we searched the Global Health Priority Box (Medicines for Malaria Venture) for new candidates for anthelmintic development. METHODS: We employed a whole-organism, motility-based phenotypic screening assay to identify compounds from the Global Health Priority Box with activity against larvae of the model parasite H. contortus, and the free-living comparator nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Hit compounds were further validated via dose-response assays, with lead candidates then assessed for nematocidal activity against H. contortus adult worms, and additionally, for cytotoxic and mitotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. RESULTS: The primary screen against H. contortus and C. elegans revealed or reidentified 16 hit compounds; further validation established MMV1794206, otherwise known as 'flufenerim', as a significant inhibitor of H. contortus larval motility (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 18 µM) and development (IC50 = 1.2 µM), H. contortus adult female motility (100% after 12 h of incubation) and C. elegans larval motility (IC50 = 0.22 µM). Further testing on a mammalian cell line (human hepatoma HepG2 cells), however, identified flufenerim to be both cytotoxic (half-maximal cytotoxic concentration [CC50] < 0.7 µM) and mitotoxic (half-maximal mitotoxic concentration [MC50] < 0.7 µM). CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro efficacy of MMV1794206 against the most pathogenic stages of H. contortus, as well as the free-living C. elegans, suggests the potential for development as a broad-spectrum anthelmintic compound; however, the high toxicity towards mammalian cells presents a significant hindrance. Further work should seek to establish the protein-drug interactions of MMV1794206 in a nematode model, to unravel the mechanism of action, in addition to an advanced structure-activity relationship investigation to optimise anthelmintic activity and eliminate mammalian cell toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos , Antiinfecciosos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Insecticidas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , Caenorhabditis elegans , Prioridades en Salud , Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Mamíferos
12.
Med J Aust ; 220(3): 136-137, 2024 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368553
13.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 95-100, 2024 Jan 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322541

RESUMEN

Disease control priority (DCP) is an important public health intervention strategy. Diseases that should be prioritized for prevention and control are first screened with a series of criteria, including the severity of the disease burden, the effectiveness of disease control technologies, the prevention and control capacity of the existing health system, etc. Then, the prevention and control technologies for these diseases undergo qualitative evaluation (eg, face-to-face interviews, expert consultation, workshops, etc) and quantitative evaluation (eg, cost-benefit analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, etc). Finally, the public health initiatives that should be prioritized are identified. From the conception of the idea, to the formal proposition of the concept, to guidance for practice, DCP has gone through more than 70 years of development. Through DCP, significant contributions has been made to improving the efficiency of health care service systems and promoting the health of populations in developing countries. Herein, we systematically reviewed the background, development history, realization method, and practical applications of DCP, focusing on exploring the application potential of DCP in health governance and providing technical support and decision-making reference for the comprehensive promotion of the Healthy China Initiative.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Prioridades en Salud , Salud Pública , China , Estado de Salud
15.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(1): e2299, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277411

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gastroschisis has increased worldwide over several decades; however, there are significant gaps in understanding risk factors for development of the defect, particularly those that might be modifiable. Despite advances in survival, little is known about longer-term outcomes for affected individuals. METHODS: On April 27- and 28, 2023, the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and March of Dimes sponsored a meeting entitled "Public Health Priorities for Gastroschisis". The meeting goals were to review current knowledge on gastroschisis, discuss research gaps, and identify future priorities for public health surveillance, research, and action related to gastroschisis. Meeting participants encompassed a broad range of expertise and experience, including public health, clinical care of individuals with gastroschisis, affected individuals and families, and representatives from professional organizations and federal agencies. RESULTS: Several goals were identified for future public health surveillance and research, including focused theory-driven research on risk factors and increased study of longer-term effects of gastroschisis through improved surveillance. Certain public health actions were identified, that which could improve the care of affected individuals, including increased education of providers and enhanced resources for patients and families. CONCLUSIONS: These efforts may lead to an improved understanding of pathogenesis, risk factors, and outcomes and to improved care throughout the lifespan.


Asunto(s)
Gastrosquisis , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Gastrosquisis/prevención & control , Gastrosquisis/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Prioridades en Salud , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
17.
Vet Rec ; 194(2): 53, 2024 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240428
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 84, 2024 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38273236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women who use or are in treatment for drug use during the perinatal period often have complex needs and presenting comorbidity. Women who use opioids during pregnancy, and their infants, experience poor outcomes. Drug use by women during pregnancy is a public health priority. This scoping review aimed to (1) map clinical guidelines, treatment protocols and good practice guidance across the UK for women who use or are in treatment for drug use during the perinatal period, (2) identify recommended best practice across health and social care for optimising outcomes and reducing inequalities for these women and (3) identify potential gaps within guidance. METHODS: We followed the Joanna Briggs International (JBI) guidance on scoping reviews and PRISMA Scr extension. A registered protocol, containing a clear search strategy, inclusion, and exclusion criteria was adhered to. Reviewers double screened 25%, discussing disagreements. Data were extracted using a predefined template and charted in tables. Recommendations for best practice were organised around agreed categories. RESULTS: Of 968 documents screened, 111 met the inclusion criteria. The documents included UK-wide, national, regional, and organisational policy documents. They varied in the degree they were relevant to women who use or are in treatment for drug use during the perinatal period, the settings to which they applied, and their intended users. Most were created without patient or public involvement and lacked any clear evidence base. Overall, documents recommended an integrated model of care with a lead professional, clear referral pathways and information sharing between agencies. Guidance suggested referrals should be made to specialist midwives, drug, and social care services. A holistic assessment, inclusive of fathers / partners was suggested. Recent documents advocated a trauma-informed care approach. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) was recommended throughout pregnancy where required. Potential gaps were identified around provision of support for women postnatally, especially when their baby is removed from their care. CONCLUSIONS: This synthesis of recommended practice provides key information for practitioners, service providers and policy makers. It also highlights the need for guidelines to be evidence-based, informed by the experiences of women who use or are in treatment for drug use during the perinatal period, and to address the support needs of postnatal women who have their babies removed from their care.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Embarazo , Lactante , Humanos , Femenino , Políticas , Política Organizacional , Investigación Cualitativa , Prioridades en Salud
19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 1, 2024 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167334

RESUMEN

The recent 78th United Natiions General Assembly (UNGA) declaration relaunched a new health priority and political commitment in accelerating Universal Health Coverage (UHC), adopted by the United Nations (UN) in 2015 and are intended to be met by 2030. At mid-way point of UHC implementation, we advocate for the much needed programmatic implementation research, evidence-based interventions (EBIs) policies and strategies leadership and management capacity building to enable robust, resilient and sustainable multi-sectoral partnerships, integrated coordination and governance mechanisms capabilities in accelerating UHC package mainly infectious diseases of poverty elimination and eradication agenda.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Humanos , Naciones Unidas , Prioridades en Salud , Pobreza , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 55, 2024 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Community-based health programmes have been a cornerstone of primary care in Laos for decades. The study presented here aimed to document prospects for the development of current programmes, considering perceptions about health and health care priorities in the communities, implementation challenges, the policy landscape and opportunities associated with the availability of new technologies. METHODS: The research design primarily involved qualitative in-depth interviews with stakeholders (n = 35) responsible for the planning, management, or implementation of community-based care in Laos at different levels of the health system. These included health managers at central departments or institutes of the Ministry of Health, provincial health departments, district health offices, heads of health centres, village health volunteers, community representatives, and international stakeholders. RESULTS: There was consensus that service delivery is still a challenge in many areas, due to geographic inaccessibility of health facilities, communication barriers, health-seeking behaviour, trust, and gender discrimination, particularly among ethnic minorities. In these settings, community health workers have the potential to extend the reach of the formal health system, acting as cultural brokers across sectors of society, ethnicities, and worldviews. To maximise impact, planners need to carefully consider the implementation model, financing arrangements, health system integration, and changing health priorities in the communities. CONCLUSIONS: This study examined challenges to, and opportunities for, the expansion and health system integration of community-based care in Laos. Further development and horizontal integration of community-based care remains a complex financing and governance challenge, although the renewed emphasis on primary care and the ongoing process of decentralisation provide a favourable policy environment in the country to sustain and potentially expand existing programmes.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Gobierno , Prioridades en Salud , Humanos , Laos , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud
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