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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20471, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580705

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a screening tool designed to identify detained people at increased risk for COVID-19 mortality, the COVID-19 Inmate Risk Appraisal (CIRA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample (development) and a case-control sample (validation). SETTING: The two largest Swiss prisons. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Development sample: all male persons detained in Pöschwies, Zurich (n = 365); (2) Validation sample: case-control sample of male persons detained in Champ-Dollon, Geneva (n = 192, matching 1:3 for participants at risk for severe course of COVID-19 and participants without risk factors). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The CIRA combined seven risk factors identified by the World Health Organization and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as predictive of severe COVID-19 to derive an absolute risk increase in mortality rate: Age ≥60 years, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic respiratory disease, immunodeficiency and cancer. RESULTS: Based on the development sample, we proposed a three-level classification: average (<3.7), elevated (3.7-5.7) and high (>5.7) risk. In the validation sample, the CIRA identified all individuals identified as vulnerable by national recommendations (having at least one risk factor). The category “elevated risk” maximised sensitivity (1) and specificity (0.97). The CIRA had even higher capacity in discriminating individuals vulnerable according to clinical evaluation (a four-level risk categorisation based on a consensus of medical staff). The category “elevated risk” maximised sensitivity and specificity (both 1). When considering the individuals classified as extremely high risk by medical staff, the category “high risk” had a high discriminatory capacity (sensitivity =0.89, specificity =0.97). CONCLUSIONS: The CIRA scores have a high discriminative ability and will be important in custodial settings to support decisions and prioritise actions using a standardised valid assessment method. However, as knowledge on risk factors for COVID-19 mortality is still limited, the CIRA may be considered preliminary. Underlying data will be updated regularly on the website (http://www.prison-research.com), where the CIRA algorithm is freely available.


Asunto(s)
/etiología , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo/normas , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prisiones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Suiza
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(1): 177, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400568
4.
Harefuah ; 160(1): 4-7, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Hebreo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474871

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The case presented discusses a prisoner, Y, in his mid-sixties with longstanding medical conditions, who was sentenced to prolonged incarceration. Y refused conventional medicine because he believed that his medical condition was exacerbated by this treatment and only complementary alternative medicine (CAM) would be helpful. He therefore demanded to be treated only by CAM. He was ready to pay for the treatment out of his own pocket. In the prison where Y was previously incarcerated over the course of 12 years, he had access to CAM remedies which were purchased by his family. After being transferred to the current facility, Y was denied access to these remedies by the prison physicians. He appealed in court against this decision and was supported by a CAM specialist, who ascertained that the remedies under consideration were not hazardous to Y's health. This case report discusses the ethical aspects of a prisoner's autonomy to choose medical treatment even when his/her autonomy has been severely curtailed by virtue of the incarceration.


Asunto(s)
Prisioneros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113669, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401092

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze the possible impacts on the prison population's mental health in the context of the new COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative study was carried out following a lexical and content analysis using the software IRaMuTeQ, version 0.7 alpha 2, in the speech of the short communication and headlines from newspapers. Three groups emerged from the analysis: "spatial conditions for infection" (39.2% of the text segments); "disease outbreaks in prisons" (30,4%) and "public responsibility" (30,4%). Precarious conditions of prisons, high rate of infections and psychiatric illnesses, and lack of government assistance are issues that should be given special attention in order to formulate health promotion and prevention policies focusing on mental health in prison population.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , /prevención & control , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Asistencia Pública , Factores de Riesgo
8.
J Urban Health ; 98(1): 53-58, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337529

RESUMEN

People in prison are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease due to close living conditions and the lack of protective equipment. As a result, public health professionals and prison administrators seek information to guide best practices and policy recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using latent profile analysis, we sought to characterize Texas prisons on levels of COVID-19 cases and deaths among incarcerated residents, and COVID-19 cases among prison staff. This observational study was a secondary data analysis of publicly available data from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TBDJ) collected from March 1, 2020, until July 24, 2020. This project was completed in collaboration with the COVID Prison Project. We identified relevant profiles from the data: a low-outbreak profile, a high-outbreak profile, and a high-death profile. Additionally, current prison population and level of employee staffing predicted membership in the high-outbreak and high-death profiles when compared with the low-outbreak profile. Housing persons at 85% of prison capacity was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 infection and death. Implementing this 85% standard as an absolute minimum should be prioritized at prisons across the USA.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Pandemias/prevención & control , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/normas , Salud Pública/normas , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Dinámica Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Texas/epidemiología
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 277-285, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351663

RESUMEN

Objectives. To examine the dual disproportionality that individuals with serious mental illness and people of color (PoC) occupy in the criminal-legal system.Methods. This study follows a cohort of 623 individuals who screened positive for mental health issues at booking in 8 Midwestern jails in 2017. We followed individuals through the jails' practices of jail-based mental health treatment, and we used Medicaid billing data to assess community-based behavioral health treatment engagement in the postyear period after jail release. The aim was to examine if an individual's race/ethnicity was associated with their access to jail- and community-based mental health treatment.Results. We did not find any racial disparities in jail-based treatment, although 3 community-based outcomes significantly differed. Compared with PoC, White people had 1.9 times greater odds of receiving community-based mental health and substance use treatment and 4.5 times greater odds of receiving co-occurring disorder treatment.Conclusions. Barriers that individuals released from jail face adversely affect PoC, resulting in reduced access to treatment. Critical race theory can expose the assumptions and functions of systems of care and the possible reproduction of implicit bias in potential solutions.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Racismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medio Oeste de Estados Unidos , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
Semergen ; 47(1): 47-55, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358541

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Review of control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in penitentiary institutions in Spain and other countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review a comprehensive literature search in Global Health, SCOPUS, Medline and EMBASE was performed using relevant keywords and medical descriptors (MeSH) related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and prisons. National and international recommendations and guides were examined as well as documents published by some countries. RESULTS: The key points of the guides are discussed. The vast majority of recommendations coincide with respect to the measures and procedures that should be used, except for some discrepancy regarding the population screening. Until now, most industrialized countries (except the US and some specific scenarios) have controlled successfully the epidemic in prisons. Less data is found as regards to socioeconomically more disadvantaged countries. CONCLUSIONS: Prisons are prone to a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission due to their space limitations and sometimes poor environmental and hygienic conditions. The recommendations of the control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection must be the same as those outside the prison, but must be adapted to the peculiarities of the prison. The recommendations must be issued by the health administration in coordination with the prison administration. Finally, must be abide by the Mandela Rules or by the Standard Minimum Rules for the treatment of United Nations prisoners.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Prisiones , /epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , España/epidemiología
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322815

RESUMEN

There is a great concern whether Physical Therapy students upon completion of their educational program are ready and equipped with the requisite skills to construct and implement a successful patient intervention with culturally diverse groups. The purpose of this study is to describe the professional and personal physical therapist development of Physical Therapy students after participating in Solidarity Activities in Collaboration with a Prisoner reinsertion program as a service-learning course. A qualitative approach was used. A convenience sample of twenty physical therapy students doing service learning and one teaching professor were included. Student diaries were analyzed. Semi-structured interviews were done to explore five students' and the professor's judgements. Internal and external observations and filling out structure field-notes were also used as data triangulation in order to build the conceptual model. The main findings include that the application of knowledge and practice of skills in different environments are the most important skills attained with this service learning. Five key themes emerged from the data analysis, namely: application of knowledge, adaptation to different environments, improving communication with patients, assisting people and providing treatment with self-confidence. A recommendation is that Physical Therapy programs include workplace practice in different environments to enhance the development of professionalism among students.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Fisioterapeutas , Prisioneros , Curriculum , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 144, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331422

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the level and temporal trends of homicide impunity in Brazil. METHODS: This is an ecological study that calculated two impunity indexes by dividing the total number of homicides committed in a 5-year period by the number of individuals arrested for murder (homicide impunity) or any other cause (general impunity) two years after this period. The Prais-Winsten linear regression model with serial autocorrelation correction was used to estimate the temporal trend of the impunity indexes. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, 328,714 homicides were recorded in Brazil, but only 84,539 prisoners were serving sentences for this kind of crime in 2016. This shows that the number of homicides in Brazil exceeded in 244,175 the number of individuals in prisons for this crime. The impunity index ranged from 3.9 in 2006 to 3.3 in 2014. All states reached values above 1. Rio de Janeiro stood out negatively, with values above 20. São Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Distrito Federal showed the lowest impunity indexes for homicide, with values below 2. Eight states showed a downward trend in the overall impunity index. CONCLUSIONS: Most Brazilian states presented extremely high impunity indexes values. However, from 2010 to 2012, Brazilian society started to effectively combat impunity for serious violent crimes, including homicide. In São Paulo, this positive trend arose in the mid-1990s and that state currently shows impunity indexes values similar to those of developed countries.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Prisioneros , Brasil/epidemiología , Homicidio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 17, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343796

RESUMEN

Although prisoners are considered a vulnerable population, no data repository currently exists to monitor the COVID-19 incidence in Nigerian prisons. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 within the Nigerian prison system, prisons should develop detailed COVID-19 response protocols, implement enhanced point-of-care testing, and initiate contact tracing with meticulous data collection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , /diagnóstico , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Nigeria , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Poblaciones Vulnerables
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317095

RESUMEN

This original and ground-breaking interdisciplinary article brings together perspectives from gerontology, criminology, penology, and social policy to explore critically the nature and consequences of the lack of visibility of prisons, prisoners, and ex-prisoners within global research, policy and practice on age-friendly cities and communities (AFCC), at a time when increasing numbers of people are ageing in prison settings in many countries. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose challenges in the contexts both of older peoples' lives, wellbeing, and health, and also within prison settings, and thus it is timely to reflect on the links between older people, prisons, and cities, at a time of ongoing change. Just as there is an extensive body of ongoing research exploring age-friendly cities and communities, there is extensive published research on older people's experiences of imprisonment, and a growing body of research on ageing in the prison setting. However, these two research and policy fields have evolved largely independently and separately, leading to a lack of visibility of prisons and prisoners within AFCC research and policy and, similarly, the omission of consideration of the relevance of AFCC research and policy to older prisoners and ex-prisoners. Existing checklists and tools for assessing and measuring the age-friendliness of cities and communities may be of limited relevance in the context of prisons and prisoners. This article identifies the potential for integration and for cross-disciplinary research in this context, concluding with recommendations for developing inclusive research, policies, and evaluation frameworks which recognise and include prisons and older prisoners, both during and after incarceration.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Planificación Ambiental , Prisiones , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ciudades , Humanos , Pandemias , Prisioneros
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 806, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129259

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among incarcerated people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran in 2015-16. METHODS: The required data was collected from a database provided by Iranian national bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSSs) on 11,988 prisoners selected from among 55 prisons in 19 provinces in 2015-16. The data on demographics and behavioral variables were collected through interviews and the status of exposure to HBV and HCV were determined using ELISA blood test. A total of 1387 individuals with a history of drug injection in their lifetime were enrolled into the study. Data were analyzed using the survey package in Stata/SE software, Version 14.0. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to investigate the relationships between risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age of the incarcerated PWID was 36.83 ± 8.13 years. Of all the studied subjects, 98.46% were male and 50.97% were married. The prevalence of HCV and HBV among the subjects were 40.52 and 2.46%, respectively. The prevalence of HCV was associated with age ≥ 30 years, being single, illiteracy and low level of education, prison term> 5 years, history of piercing, and extramarital sex in lifetime (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV is alarmingly high. In general, it is recommended to adopt measures to screen and treat patients with HCV and vaccinat incarcerated PWID without a history of vaccination against HBV.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Prisioneros , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/complicaciones , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Hepatitis C/prevención & control , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones , Factores de Riesgo , Vacunas contra Hepatitis Viral/administración & dosificación
16.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(329): 37-44, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129405

RESUMEN

To try to understand acting out, it depends of conciliation between the reality of the act and the psychic life. For that, it is necessary to listen the word of the criminal authors. What transgression represents for them? Based on clinical experience in a correctional center, this article takes a closer look about prisoner, incarcerated after having committed criminal acts. This clinical material could help to raise a new perspective around modern psychopathology. What is the act's difference between neurosis, perversion, borderline and psychosis? Our research will try to differentiate the psychic issues.


Asunto(s)
Actuación (Psicología) , Trastornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Prisioneros/psicología , Psicopatología
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142740

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The emergency linked to the spread of COVID-19 in Italy has led to inevitable consequences on the penitentiary system. The risks of this emergency in prisons is mainly related to the problem of persistent overcrowding that makes social distancing difficult and the isolation of any contagion hard to arrange. The Department of Protection for Adults and Minors of the ASL Salerno Criminal Area has taken steps in order to perform screening operations and minimize the risks for prisoners and operators. (2) Methods: We conducted a two-phase observational study. In the first phase, we offered and then executed serum COVID-19 screening to all the convicted inmates. For those who had a doubtful or positive result, a swab was executed in the shortest time possible. In the second phase, a pharyngeal swab was offered and executed to all the police officers, the penitentiary administrative staff and the medical personnel working in the prison. (3) Results: In the first phase, we executed 485 COVID-19 blood tests on prisoners, 3 (0.61%) of which were positive. The three positive inmates underwent nasopharyngeal swabbing, which ultimately were negative. After that, we executed 276 nasopharyngeal swabs on the prison personnel, penitentiary administrative staff and medical personnel-all were negative. (4) Conclusion: All tests (blood tests and swabs) that were carried out on the prisoners and on the staff were negative for COVID-19. We believe that all prisons in Italy and in the world should take action to ensure preventive and control measures in order to safeguard the health of the prison population and of all the people who work there.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Nasofaringe/virología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Prisioneros , Gestión de Riesgos/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Italia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prisiones
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 105, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146297

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B infection among women deprived of liberty in the state of Roraima, Brazil, and its correlation with perceptions, knowledge and behavioral factors. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study, with simple systematic sampling, conducted at the Public Female Prison in Boa Vista, State of Roraima, in 2017. A total of 168 inmates (93.8% of the population) were evaluated by in-person interviews and rapid tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) was 20.2%, being 4.7% HIV, 15.5% syphilis, and 0.0% hepatitis B. Multivariate analysis confirmed as risk factors for acquiring an STI: being over 30 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.57; 95%CI 1.03-6.40); low schooling (adjusted OR: 2.77; 95%CI 1.08-5.05); little knowledge about condom use (adjusted OR: 2.37; 95%CI 1.01-7.31); and believing that there is no risk of contracting syphilis (adjusted OR: 2.36; 95%CI 1.08-6.50). CONCLUSION: The population deprived of liberty is a group of highly vulnerable to STI. The high prevalence of these infections can be explained by knowledge deficits on the subject, distorted perceptions and conditions peculiar to imprisonment, which result in risky behavior. We emphasize the need to implement educational programs for preventing, diagnosing and treating STI for this population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Sífilis/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3392, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174996

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze in the scientific literature the educational technologies on sexually transmitted infections used in health education for incarcerated women. METHOD: an integrative review carried out by searching for articles in the following databases: Scopus, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, Education Resources Information Center, PsycInFO, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Latin American Literature in Health Sciences, Cochrane, and the ScienceDirect electronic library. There were no language and time restrictions. A search strategy was developed in PubMed and later adapted to the other databases. RESULTS: a total of 823 studies were initially identified and, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight articles were selected. Most of them were developed in the United States with a predominance of randomized clinical trials. The technologies identified were of the printed materials type, isolated or associated to simulators of genital organs, videos, and games. CONCLUSION: the technologies on sexually transmitted infections used in health education for incarcerated women may contribute to adherence to the prevention of this serious public health problem in the context of deprivation of liberty.


Asunto(s)
Prisioneros , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Tecnología Educacional , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Lenguaje , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control
20.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 119: 108147, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138930

RESUMEN

Many states have responded to the spread of COVID-19 by implementing policies which have led to a dramatic reduction in jail populations. We consider the benefits associated with providing the population of individuals who would, but for these policies, be incarcerated with substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We discuss problems that may prevent this population from receiving SUD treatment as well as policies which may mitigate these problems.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación , Humanos , Políticas , Prisioneros , Gobierno Estatal
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