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3.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 97-102, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386191

RESUMEN

Understanding trends in substance use by gender among jail-based treatment program participants can inform policies and programs tailored to this population. Preprogram assessment data from 3509 individuals entering a jail-based substance use disorder treatment program in Missouri between 1998 and 2016 were analyzed. Primary outcome was program participants' strongly preferred substances. Demographic covariates and drug preferences were compared between males and females. Average yearly trends in preferred substances were calculated. While 25.8% of the sample preferred heroin, it was more strongly preferred by women (36.4%) than men (22.0%, p < 0.0001). Alcohol and marijuana were preferred more by males. Overall, preferences for heroin and methamphetamine increased over time while alcohol, marijuana, and other stimulants decreased. Women being more likely to prefer heroin and the increasing preference for heroin over time are consistent with national trends. Offering evidence-based treatment like pharmacotherapy and gender-sensitive approaches can help address the needs of this vulnerable population.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Prisioneros , Factores Sexuales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Cannabis , Cocaína , Cocaína Crack , Femenino , Heroína , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Missouri/epidemiología , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción , Distribución por Sexo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación , Adulto Joven
4.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 160-165, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343744

RESUMEN

The characteristics of mental disorders, as well as deficiencies in their treatment, must be properly defined. This was a prospective, longitudinal, observational study, in which all men referred to a penitentiary psychiatric consultation of three penitentiary centers in Spain were invited to participate. Those who consented to participation (1328) were interviewed at the baseline timepoint and at intervals for up to 3 years. The presence of mental disorders was high: 68.2% had a cluster B personality disorder, 14% had an affective and/or anxiety disorders, 13% had schizophrenia, and over 80% had a dual disorder. Polypharmacy was the norm. Moreover, the health care received in prison did not match that provided in the community in terms of quantity and quality. These results should help to facilitate the design of mental healthcare provision for prisoners, focusing on both the most frequent patient profiles and equality of care.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Prisioneros/psicología , Prisiones , Adulto , Coinfección , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis C Crónica/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Polifarmacia , Estudios Prospectivos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapéutico , España/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
5.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 189-192, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310667

RESUMEN

Through the measurement of ethyl glucuronide in hair (hETG), it is possible to assess chronic alcohol abuse over time. In this paper, we present a study on hETG in Italian prison inmates. Analyses were performed by LC-MS according to a previously published method. Results were evaluated using the cut-offs established by the Society of Hair Testing. Positives samples (ETG > 30 pg/mg) accounted for 6% of all subjects, with concentrations ranging from 42 pg/mg up to 270 pg/mg, abstinent subjects (ETG < 7 pg/mg) accounted for 88%, and moderate alcohol consumption (7 < ETG < 30 pg/mg) for 6% of the subjects. No females displayed ETG values above 30 pg/mg. Among positive samples, only two subjects did not declare heavy alcohol consumption and were found strongly positive at 210 and 270 pg/mg. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study on ETG hair concentration on prison inmates.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Glucuronatos/análisis , Cabello/química , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1049670

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analizar las producciones científicas nacionales sobre la atención médica de los hombres en el contexto penitenciario. Método: revisión integral de la literatura siguiendo seis pasos. Las búsquedas se realizaron en una base de datos - Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud y en el portal de revistas en línea - Scientific Electronic Library Online. Se incluyeron estudios de los últimos diez años, publicados en portugués y completos. El análisis y la exposición de los resultados fueron a través del enfoque descriptivo. Resultados: La búsqueda arrojó 546 artículos en ambas bases de datos, luego de analizar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se incluyeron nueve estudios. Después de leer y analizar estos estudios, se construyeron cuatro categorías temáticas. Conclusión: Lo que se aborda y defiende en las políticas de salud pública no se pone en práctica. Los profesionales de la salud y los agentes de seguridad actúan con una asistencia simple, sin humanización y sin medidas preventivas de salud


Objetivo: analisar as produções científicas nacionais a respeito do cuidado em saúde dos homens no contexto prisional. Método: revisão integrativa seguindo seis etapas. As buscas foram realizadas na base de dados ­ Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e no portal de periódicos online - Scientific Electronic Library Online. Foram incluídos estudos dos últimos dez anos, publicados em português e na íntegra. A análise e exposição dos resultados foram por meio da abordagem descritiva. Resultados: A busca resultou em 546 artigos em ambas as bases, após análise dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram incluídos nove estudos. Após leitura e análise desses estudos foram construídas quatro categorias temáticas. Conclusão: Não é colocado em prática o que é abordado e defendido nas políticas públicas de saúde. Os profissionais de saúde e agentes de segurança atuam em um simples assistencialismo, sem humanização, e sem medidas preventivas de saúde


Objective: to analyze the national scientific productions about men's health care in the prison context. Method: integrative literature review following six steps. The searches were performed in a database - Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature and in the online journal portal - Scientific Electronic Library Online. Studies from the last ten years, published in Portuguese and in full were included. The analysis and exposition of the results were through the descriptive approach. Results: The search resulted in 546 articles in both databases. After analyzing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine studies were included. After reading and analyzing these studies, four thematic categories were constructed. Conclusion: What is approached and defended in public health policies is not put into practice. Health professionals and security agents act in a simple assistance, without humanization, and without preventive health measures


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Prisiones , Prisioneros , Salud del Hombre , Hombres , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Derechos de los Prisioneros
7.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMEN

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Sexismo/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Represión Psicológica , Prisioneros/psicología , Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Violencia contra la Mujer , Conflicto (Psicología) , Homicidio/psicología
8.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 538-543, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667912

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) have been identified as having an important role in improving the health and wellbeing of individuals in prison; however, a lack of information exists on how to strengthen this role. This paper explores the experiences of ACCHO staff in primary health care to individuals inside or leaving prison. METHODS: Nineteen staff from four ACCHOs were interviewed. ACCHO selection was informed by proximity to prisons, town size and/or Local Government Area offending rates. Thematic analysis of the interviews was undertaken. RESULTS: While most ACCHOs had delivered post-release programs, primary health care delivery to prisoners was limited. Three themes emerged: i) a lack of access to prisoners; ii) limited funding to provide services to prisoners; and iii) the need for a team approach to primary health care delivery. CONCLUSION: A holistic model of care underpinned by a reliable funding model (including access to certain Medicare items) and consistent access to prisoners could strengthen ACCHOs' role in primary health care delivery to people inside or leaving prison. Implications for public health: ACCHOs have an important role to play in the delivery of primary health care to prisoners. Existing models of care for prisoners should be examined to explore how this can occur.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/organización & administración , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/psicología , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Prisioneros , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Prisioneros/psicología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Apoyo Social
9.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 332-337, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND In the United States each year nearly 570,000 people return from state prisons to the community. Prevalence data of chronic health problems for this population are lacking, impeding planning of health care programs to serve people with chronic conditions who are re-entering the community.METHOD We used medication dispensing records as a proxy for diagnoses in assessing the prevalence of 10 major and 20 substituent health conditions among incarcerated people released from the North Carolina state prison system from July 2015 through June 2016.RESULTS Among 20,585 released people, 13% were female; 50% were black; 43% were white; and 4% were aged 55 years or older. Thirty-three percent had ≥ 1 condition and 13% had two or more. The prevalence of chronic health conditions was the following: psychiatric, 15%; cardiovascular, 15%; neurologic, 7%; pulmonary, 6%; diabetes mellitus, 3%; and infectious, 3%. Seventy-one percent of those aged 55 years or older had a chronic medical condition. Among those with a psychiatric condition, 56% had another chronic illness.LIMITATIONS We could not identify unmedicated health conditions; medications prescribed across multiple disease categories were excluded from our analysis.CONCLUSION In North Carolina, at least one in three people released from the state prison system had a chronic health condition, and among those with psychiatric conditions, most had comorbid medical disease. Coordination of health care after release from incarceration is essential to avoid preventable complications and unnecessary utilization of acute care services. Greater eligibility for Medicaid is needed to scale up transition programs for this population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , North Carolina/epidemiología , Prevalencia
10.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 339-343, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685566

RESUMEN

AJ was a 34-year-old African American male who was incarcerated for eight years for drug-related convictions. He suffered from diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney failure, depression, and substance use disorder. Upon release from prison he was not connected with health services and he was uninsured, which was an additional barrier to accessing medical care. His own perceived need for care was limited as he had significant cognitive deficits with extremely low health literacy. Two years following his release from prison, an aunt concerned about his health brought him to clinic. His clinical course was fraught with complications that would likely have been preventable if he had been connected to care upon release. With treatment, his depression eventually improved and his substance use disorder was under better control. However, he endured multiple amputations from diabetic foot infections, partial vision loss, severe pain from diabetic neuropathy, temporary dialysis for end stage kidney disease, and two months of a feeding tube for severe gastroparesis. AJ's story is not unique, and it highlights the terrible personal costs of inadequately addressing the health needs of people during periods of incarceration and following their release.


Asunto(s)
Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Prisioneros , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina
11.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 344-347, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685567

RESUMEN

North Carolina has approximately 36,500 prisoners. As the population becomes more complex, the Department of Public Safety still has the responsibility to provide medical care to all those in its custody. Despite staffing shortages, limited financial resources, and logistical challenges the state must continue to provide access to care.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Prisioneros , Prisiones/organización & administración , Humanos , North Carolina
12.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 348-351, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685569

RESUMEN

Many incarcerated patients will require in-hospital care outside prison facilities. Often, this care is provided by clinicians unfamiliar with the correctional context. In this article, we reflect on our experiences caring for incarcerated inpatients in non-carceral settings in North Carolina and highlight sources of misunderstanding and potential conflicts that arise in the care of these patients.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Hospitalización , Prisioneros , Prisiones/organización & administración , Comunicación , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , North Carolina
13.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 356-362, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685571

RESUMEN

There has been a dramatic increase in the number of individuals incarcerated in the United States during the past several decades. Providing behavioral health care services to incarcerated people within North Carolina's prison system presents several challenges, and progress is being made to deliver care that is consistent with accepted community standards.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Prisiones/organización & administración , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , North Carolina , Prisioneros/psicología
14.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 352-355, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685570

RESUMEN

Prisoners in the United States are disproportionately affected by hepatitis C. Addressing the disease behind bars is crucial for curtailing the epidemic in the greater population. Effective strategies for testing and treatment are elucidated here. Recommendations for changes in hepatitis C health care policy in North Carolina prisons are also described.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Hepatitis C/terapia , Prisioneros , Humanos , North Carolina , Estados Unidos
15.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 357-358, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685572
17.
N C Med J ; 80(6): 363-366, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685574

RESUMEN

Women who are involved in the criminal justice system experience poorer reproductive health outcomes. Resolving this inequality will require addressing reproductive health disparities facing incarcerated women, improving the health of criminal justice-involved women in the community, and preventing engagement of women with the criminal justice system altogether.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Reproductiva , Femenino , Humanos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 955, 2019 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identification and knowledge of settings with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important when aiming for elimination of HCV. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners. Secondary aims were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the proportion who have received hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of all incarcerated persons (n = 667) at all prisons (n = 9) in Stockholm County was conducted. All prisoners are routinely offered opt-in screening for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), HCV RNA, HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HIV Ag/Ab at prison in Sweden. Data on the results of these tests and the number of received HBV vaccine doses were collected from the prison medical records. The parameters of HCV RNA, anti-HCV, and occurrence of testing for HCV were analysed in multiple logistic regression models in relation to age, sex and prison security class. RESULTS: The median age was 35 (IQR 26-44) years, and 93.4% were men. Seventy-one percent (n = 471) had been tested for anti-HCV, 70% (n = 465) for HBsAg and 71% (n = 471) for HIV. The prevalence of anti-HCV, HCV RNA, HBsAg and HIV Ag/Ab was 17.0, 11.5, 1.9, and 0.2%, respectively among tested persons. The proportion of prisoners who had received full HBV vaccination was 40.6% (n = 271) among all study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners in Stockholm County was 11.5%, which is high in comparison to the general population. Therefore, when aiming for the WHO goal of HCV elimination, prisons could suit as a platform for identification and treatment of HCV infection. There is a need to increase testing for blood-borne viruses and to improve vaccination coverage against HBV in Swedish prisons.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Hepatitis B/inmunología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Hepatitis C/inmunología , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/sangre , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Prisioneros , ARN Viral/análisis , Suecia/epidemiología
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 761, 2019 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Accessing HIV-related care is challenging for formerly incarcerated people with HIV. Interventions informed by the perspectives of these individuals could facilitate engagement with care and address competing priorities that may act as barriers to this process. METHODS: We used concept mapping to identify and prioritize the main obstacles to engaging with HIV-related care following prison release. In brainstorming sessions, formerly incarcerated people with HIV generated responses to a focused prompt regarding the main barriers to reengaging with care. These were consolidated in 35 statements. Next, participants sorted the consolidated list of responses into groups and rated each from lowest to highest in terms of its importance and feasibility of being addressed. We used cluster analysis to generate concept maps that were interpreted with participants. RESULTS: Overall, 39 participants participated in brainstorming sessions, among whom 18 returned for rating and sorting. Following analysis, a seven-cluster map was generated, with participants rating the 'Practical Considerations' (e.g. lack of transportation from prison) and 'Survival Needs' (e.g. securing housing and food) clusters as most important. Although ratings were generally similar between women and men, women assigned greater importance to barriers related to reconnecting with children. CONCLUSIONS: Using concept mapping, we worked with formerly incarcerated people with HIV to identify and prioritize key challenges related to accessing health and social services following prison release. Transitional intervention programs should include programs and processes that address meeting basic subsistence needs and overcoming logistical barriers related to community re-entry.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuidado de Transición/organización & administración , Adulto , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ontario
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