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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 255, abr. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147589

RESUMEN

A principios del nuevo milenio surgió el concepto del "Trauma urbano moderno", sustentando en la experiencia de varios conflagraciones en zonas densamente pobladas. Fue definido como un conflicto violento, cerrado, con heridas destructivas y de difícil acceso para su evacuación. Su manejo incluyo el cuestionamiento de viejos dogmas y la incorporación de nuevas estrategias. El motín del reten "La Planta", el incremento en las detonaciones por granadas fragmentarias y los graves enfrentamientos entre bandas delictivas o contra cuerpos de seguridad, en diversas zonas de Caracas indican el establecimiento de una modalidad mas agresiva de violencia. Los cirujanos capitalinos se enfrentan con más frecuencia a lesiones severas y múltiples. El personal medico requiere la adecuada comprensión y preparación para afrontar este nuevo tipo de heridas. La reciente enfermedad Covid 19 representa un desafió agregado en el abordaje de los pacientes con traumatismos(AU)


The experience in many combats in densely populated urban areas, determined the new concept of "Modern urban warfare" in the beginning of the new millennium. This definition is a warfare violent, close-quarter, with destructive injuries and the delayed of evacuation. New innovations were incorporate. The revolt in the "La Planta" prison, the increase of grenades explosions and engagement between criminal organized, in many zones of Caracas, illustrated this new definition. The venezuelans surgeons attended many severe and multiple injuries. The surgical personal need understand this new kind of injuries. The new disease Covid 19 represents a challenge in the attention of these patients(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Población Urbana , Violencia , Heridas y Traumatismos , Mortalidad , Personal de Salud , Violencia con Armas , Prisiones , Adaptación Psicológica , Salud Laboral , Infecciones por Coronavirus
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(1): 169-178, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533837

RESUMEN

Given the rapid spread of new coronavirus within the prison system, this study's objective was to identify spatial clusters for the occurrence of COVID-19 in the incarcerated population and analyze temporal trends of confirmed cases in the Brazilian prison system. This ecological study considered the five Brazilian macro-regions to be units of analysis, with its 26 states and the Federal District. The population was composed of all COVID-19 cases confirmed from April 14th to August 31st, 2020. The source used to collect data was the COVID-19 Monitoring Panel from the National Prison Department. Descriptive analysis, scan statistics, and time series were performed. A total of 18,767 COVID-19 cases were reported among the incarcerated population, 4,724 in São Paulo. The scan statistic analysis resulted in 14 spatial risk clusters for COVID-19 among persons deprived of liberty; the highest-risk cluster was in the Federal District. Although the country ends the series with a decreasing behavior, a growing trend was verified in most of the study period. The conclusion is that there is a need to implement mass testing among the incarcerated population while continually monitoring and recording COVID-19 cases.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Prisiones/tendencias , Agrupamiento Espacio-Temporal
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573537

RESUMEN

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic is not the first time New South Wales prisons have faced contagion. This paper examines the current responses in New South Wales prisons to the threat of COVID-19 to prisoner health, by contrasting contemporary activities with actions and policy developed during two historical epidemics: the influenza epidemic of 1860 and pandemic of 1919. Method: Epidemiological information relating to cases of disease in NSW prisons during the 1860 and 1919 influenza epidemics was obtained from the Comptroller-General's reports for the specific outbreak years and for the preceding and succeeding five-year periods. Additional archival sources such as digitised newspaper reports and articles available through the National Library of Australia were analysed for closer detail. The management of these outbreaks was compared to current strategies to mitigate against risk from the COVID-19 pandemic in the NSW prison system. Results: Interesting similarities were discovered in relation to the management of the historic influenza outbreaks in NSW prisons and in the management of the current COVID-19 pandemic. An outbreak of influenza in mid-1860 impacted seven penal institutions in Sydney and Parramatta. Infection rates at these institutions were between 3.1% and 100%; the mean rate was 41.8%. The public health measures employed at the time included allowing 'air circulation freely night and day', and treatments that were 'tonical and stimulatory'. Discussion: While the past 100 or more years have brought huge progress in scientific knowledge, public health approaches remain the mainstay of outbreak management in prisons; and, as in 1919, the opportunity for Australia to observe the rest of the world and plan for action has not been wasted. Prisons pose a potential risk for pandemic spread but they also present a unique opportunity for reducing disease risk by ironic virtue of the 'separate system' that was recognised even 100 years ago as characteristic of these institutions.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Gripe Humana/historia , Prisiones/historia , Salud Pública , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Prisiones/organización & administración , Prisiones/normas
4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20471, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580705

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a screening tool designed to identify detained people at increased risk for COVID-19 mortality, the COVID-19 Inmate Risk Appraisal (CIRA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample (development) and a case-control sample (validation). SETTING: The two largest Swiss prisons. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Development sample: all male persons detained in Pöschwies, Zurich (n = 365); (2) Validation sample: case-control sample of male persons detained in Champ-Dollon, Geneva (n = 192, matching 1:3 for participants at risk for severe course of COVID-19 and participants without risk factors). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The CIRA combined seven risk factors identified by the World Health Organization and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as predictive of severe COVID-19 to derive an absolute risk increase in mortality rate: Age ≥60 years, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic respiratory disease, immunodeficiency and cancer. RESULTS: Based on the development sample, we proposed a three-level classification: average (<3.7), elevated (3.7-5.7) and high (>5.7) risk. In the validation sample, the CIRA identified all individuals identified as vulnerable by national recommendations (having at least one risk factor). The category “elevated risk” maximised sensitivity (1) and specificity (0.97). The CIRA had even higher capacity in discriminating individuals vulnerable according to clinical evaluation (a four-level risk categorisation based on a consensus of medical staff). The category “elevated risk” maximised sensitivity and specificity (both 1). When considering the individuals classified as extremely high risk by medical staff, the category “high risk” had a high discriminatory capacity (sensitivity =0.89, specificity =0.97). CONCLUSIONS: The CIRA scores have a high discriminative ability and will be important in custodial settings to support decisions and prioritise actions using a standardised valid assessment method. However, as knowledge on risk factors for COVID-19 mortality is still limited, the CIRA may be considered preliminary. Underlying data will be updated regularly on the website (http://www.prison-research.com), where the CIRA algorithm is freely available.


Asunto(s)
/etiología , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo/normas , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prisiones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Suiza
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 114-117, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507887

RESUMEN

During September 3-November 16, 2020, daily confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported to the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) increased at a rate of 24% per week, from a 7-day average of 674 (August 28-September 3) to 6,426 (November 10-16) (1). The growth rate during this interval was the highest to date in Wisconsin and among the highest in the United States during that time (1). To characterize potential sources of this increase, the investigation examined reported outbreaks in Wisconsin that occurred during March 4-November 16, 2020, with respect to their setting and number of associated COVID-19 cases.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Laboratorios , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Wisconsin/epidemiología
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 421-429, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395380

RESUMEN

To assess transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a detention facility experiencing a coronavirus disease outbreak and evaluate testing strategies, we conducted a prospective cohort investigation in a facility in Louisiana, USA. We conducted SARS-CoV-2 testing for detained persons in 6 quarantined dormitories at various time points. Of 143 persons, 53 were positive at the initial test, and an additional 58 persons were positive at later time points (cumulative incidence 78%). In 1 dormitory, all 45 detained persons initially were negative; 18 days later, 40 (89%) were positive. Among persons who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 47% (52/111) were asymptomatic at the time of specimen collection; 14 had replication-competent virus isolated. Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing might help interrupt transmission through medical isolation and quarantine. Testing in correctional and detention facilities will be most effective when initiated early in an outbreak, inclusive of all exposed persons, and paired with infection prevention and control.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , /aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , /transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Louisiana/epidemiología , Masculino , Prisiones , Estudios Prospectivos
9.
J Urban Health ; 98(1): 53-58, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337529

RESUMEN

People in prison are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease due to close living conditions and the lack of protective equipment. As a result, public health professionals and prison administrators seek information to guide best practices and policy recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using latent profile analysis, we sought to characterize Texas prisons on levels of COVID-19 cases and deaths among incarcerated residents, and COVID-19 cases among prison staff. This observational study was a secondary data analysis of publicly available data from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TBDJ) collected from March 1, 2020, until July 24, 2020. This project was completed in collaboration with the COVID Prison Project. We identified relevant profiles from the data: a low-outbreak profile, a high-outbreak profile, and a high-death profile. Additionally, current prison population and level of employee staffing predicted membership in the high-outbreak and high-death profiles when compared with the low-outbreak profile. Housing persons at 85% of prison capacity was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 infection and death. Implementing this 85% standard as an absolute minimum should be prioritized at prisons across the USA.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Pandemias/prevención & control , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/normas , Salud Pública/normas , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Dinámica Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Texas/epidemiología
10.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-196558

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Revisar el control y el manejo de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en instituciones penitenciarias de España y de otros países. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Realizamos una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura en Global Health, SCOPUS, Medline y EMBASE utilizando palabras clave pertinentes y descriptores médicos (DeCS) relacionados con la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) y prisiones. También se revisaron las recomendaciones o guías de agencias, nacionales e internacionales, y los documentos publicados on-line por algunos países. RESULTADOS: Se presentan los puntos clave de las guías y recomendaciones. La mayoría de estas guías coinciden básicamente en las medidas y procedimientos a utilizar, salvo alguna discrepancia sobre la extensión poblacional de los cribados. Hasta ahora la mayoría de países industrializados, excepto Estados Unidos y algunas situaciones puntuales, han controlado la epidemia en las prisiones moderadamente bien. Hay menos datos sobre lo ocurrido en países socioeconómicamente más desfavorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Las prisiones suponen un riesgo elevado para la transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 en cuanto son medios cerrados, a veces con malas condiciones ambientales e higiénicas. La guías y recomendaciones para controlar la infección deben ser elaboradas por la administración sanitaria coordinadamente con la administración penitenciaria; deben ser similares a las extrapenitenciarias, aunque adaptadas a las peculiaridades del entorno penitenciario, y deben atenerse a las Reglas Mandela o Reglas Mínimas para el Tratamiento de los Reclusos de las Naciones Unidas


OBJECTIVE: Review of control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in penitentiary institutions in Spain and other countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review a comprehensive literature search in Global Health, SCOPUS, Medline and EMBASE was performed using relevant keywords and medical descriptors (MeSH) related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and prisons. National and international recommendations and guides were examined as well as documents published by some countries. RESULTS: The key points of the guides are discussed. The vast majority of recommendations coincide with respect to the measures and procedures that should be used, except for some discrepancy regarding the population screening. Until now, most industrialized countries (except the US and some specific scenarios) have controlled successfully the epidemic in prisons. Less data is found as regards to socioeconomically more disadvantaged countries. CONCLUSIONS: Prisons are prone to a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission due to their space limitations and sometimes poor environmental and hygienic conditions. The recommendations of the control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection must be the same as those outside the prison, but must be adapted to the peculiarities of the prison. The recommendations must be issued by the health administration in coordination with the prison administration. Finally, must be abide by the Mandela Rules or by the Standard Minimum Rules for the treatment of United Nations prisoners


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Pandemias , Prisiones/normas , Derechos de los Prisioneros
11.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 121: 108161, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371945

RESUMEN

Correctional facilities are among the highest-risk settings for the spread of COVID-19. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Hennepin County Jail in Minneapolis, Minnesota, offered short-term methadone maintenance, buprenorphine initiation and maintenance, and naltrexone initiation and maintenance to all jail residents with moderate to severe opioid use disorder (OUD). In response to the pandemic, the jail reduced its population by 43%. The reduced jail census and relaxed federal telemedicine regulations in response to the COVID-19 public health emergency declaration allowed the jail to institute modifications that permitted individuals to start buprenorphine without an initial in-person visit with a clinician. The jail also instituted a buprenorphine taper to bridge individuals to maintenance or provide withdrawal management, depending on patient preference. With a decreased jail census, the use of remote visits, and modifications to the buprenorphine treatment program, clinicians are able to meet the OUD treatment demand. Some jails may need additional funding streams to offset pandemic-related health treatment costs.


Asunto(s)
Buprenorfina/administración & dosificación , Antagonistas de Narcóticos/administración & dosificación , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/rehabilitación , Prisiones , Telemedicina , Humanos , Minnesota
12.
Semergen ; 47(1): 47-55, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358541

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Review of control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in penitentiary institutions in Spain and other countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review a comprehensive literature search in Global Health, SCOPUS, Medline and EMBASE was performed using relevant keywords and medical descriptors (MeSH) related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and prisons. National and international recommendations and guides were examined as well as documents published by some countries. RESULTS: The key points of the guides are discussed. The vast majority of recommendations coincide with respect to the measures and procedures that should be used, except for some discrepancy regarding the population screening. Until now, most industrialized countries (except the US and some specific scenarios) have controlled successfully the epidemic in prisons. Less data is found as regards to socioeconomically more disadvantaged countries. CONCLUSIONS: Prisons are prone to a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission due to their space limitations and sometimes poor environmental and hygienic conditions. The recommendations of the control and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection must be the same as those outside the prison, but must be adapted to the peculiarities of the prison. The recommendations must be issued by the health administration in coordination with the prison administration. Finally, must be abide by the Mandela Rules or by the Standard Minimum Rules for the treatment of United Nations prisoners.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Prisiones , /epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , España/epidemiología
13.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49514, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1118069

RESUMEN

Objetivo: desvelar a percepção das mulheres sobre o acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização. Método: trata-se de um estudo fenomenológico-sociológico, qualitativo, realizado entre novembro de 2018 e novembro de 2019, com 10 mulheres de um estabelecimento prisional feminino de Maceió, Alagoas. Resultados: as participantes possuíam de 22 a 54 anos, ensino fundamental incompleto, pardas, solteiras, já haviam vivenciado a maternidade. Emergiram duas categorias temáticas: percepções do acesso aos serviços de saúde: a invisibilidade das mulheres e acesso aos serviços de saúde como uma ferramenta de ressocialização: elos dilacerados e Trabalho e Educação como alternativa de Fuga do esquecimento, ociosidade e solidão. Conclusão: evidenciou-se a percepção de invisibilidade das mulheres privadas de liberdade e desvinculação do acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização.


Objective: to unveil women's perceptions of access to health services as a tool in the re-socialization process. Method: this qualitative, phenomenological-sociological study was conducted between November 2018 and November 2019 with 10 women at a women's prison in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Results: the participants were 22 to 54 years old, of mixed race, single, had not completed lower secondary school, and had already experienced motherhood. Two thematic categories emerged: "Perceptions of access to health services: women's invisibility" and "Access to health services as a resocialization tool: ties in shreds and Work and Education as an alternative escape route from oblivion, idleness and loneliness. Conclusion: the women deprived of their freedom were found to perceive themselves to be invisible and disconnected from access to health services as a tool in the resocialization process.


Objetivo: revelar las percepciones de las mujeres sobre el acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización. Método: este estudio cualitativo, fenomenológico-sociológico se realizó entre noviembre de 2018 y noviembre de 2019 con 10 mujeres en una cárcel de mujeres en Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Resultados: las participantes tenían entre 22 y 54 años, mestizas, solteras, no habían completado el primer ciclo de secundaria y ya habían experimentado la maternidad. Surgieron dos categorías temáticas: "Percepciones del acceso a los servicios de salud: invisibilidad de las mujeres" y "Acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta de resocialización: lazos en jirones y Trabajo y Educación como vía alternativa de escape al olvido, la ociosidad y la soledad. Conclusión: las mujeres privadas de libertad se percibieron a sí mismas invisibles y desconectadas del acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Prisiones , Socialización , Salud de la Mujer , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Brasil , Investigación Cualitativa , Inequidad de Género , Libertad , Soledad
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317095

RESUMEN

This original and ground-breaking interdisciplinary article brings together perspectives from gerontology, criminology, penology, and social policy to explore critically the nature and consequences of the lack of visibility of prisons, prisoners, and ex-prisoners within global research, policy and practice on age-friendly cities and communities (AFCC), at a time when increasing numbers of people are ageing in prison settings in many countries. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose challenges in the contexts both of older peoples' lives, wellbeing, and health, and also within prison settings, and thus it is timely to reflect on the links between older people, prisons, and cities, at a time of ongoing change. Just as there is an extensive body of ongoing research exploring age-friendly cities and communities, there is extensive published research on older people's experiences of imprisonment, and a growing body of research on ageing in the prison setting. However, these two research and policy fields have evolved largely independently and separately, leading to a lack of visibility of prisons and prisoners within AFCC research and policy and, similarly, the omission of consideration of the relevance of AFCC research and policy to older prisoners and ex-prisoners. Existing checklists and tools for assessing and measuring the age-friendliness of cities and communities may be of limited relevance in the context of prisons and prisoners. This article identifies the potential for integration and for cross-disciplinary research in this context, concluding with recommendations for developing inclusive research, policies, and evaluation frameworks which recognise and include prisons and older prisoners, both during and after incarceration.


Asunto(s)
Planificación de Ciudades , Planificación Ambiental , Prisiones , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ciudades , Humanos , Pandemias , Prisioneros
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 17, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343796

RESUMEN

Although prisoners are considered a vulnerable population, no data repository currently exists to monitor the COVID-19 incidence in Nigerian prisons. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 within the Nigerian prison system, prisons should develop detailed COVID-19 response protocols, implement enhanced point-of-care testing, and initiate contact tracing with meticulous data collection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , /diagnóstico , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Nigeria , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Poblaciones Vulnerables
17.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 147-158, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144426

RESUMEN

Resumen El presente artículo es resultado de una investigación realizada en la cárcel El Pedregal durante el año 2018. En el texto sostenemos que las situaciones de violencia, pobreza y exclusión social que condicionan el ingreso a prisión de las mujeres condenadas por delitos relacionados con el narcotráfico, no sólo afectan el proceso de reinserción social de las internas, sino que suponen retos significativos para garantizar los fines de la pena cuando se trata de las penas o medidas domiciliarias. Estas dificultades hacen que, en su forma actual, el domicilio, como mecanismo alternativo a la pena intramural, no tenga capacidad para cumplir las funciones que le son asignadas, como son el de facilitar la resocialización, la disminución de la reincidencia y la reducción de los efectos negativos del encarcelamiento. Por ello, sostenemos que es necesario no sólo fortalecer el sistema institucional dirigido a supervisar a las mujeres en dicha condición, sino brindar una atención integral que permita superar las condiciones de marginalidad en que se encuentran las mujeres encerradas en el hogar.


Abstract This article is the result of research performed in the El Pedregal prison during 2018. In this text, we sustain that violence, poverty and social exclusion, which condition the imprisonment of women detained due to crimes related to drug trafficking not only affect the inmates' social reinsertion process, but pose significant challenges to ensuring the purposes of the penalty when they are domestic penalties or measures. These difficulties keep the home, in its current state, as an alternative mechanism to intramural penalties, from having the capacity to perform the functions assigned to it, such as facilitating resocialization, reducing recidivism and decreasing the negative effects of imprisonment. For this reason, we maintain that it is not only necessary to strengthen the institutional system aimed at supervising women in said condition, but to provide comprehensive attention that allows women incarcerated at home to overcome conditions of marginality.


Resumo Este artigo é o resultado de uma pesquisa realizada no presídio El Pedregal em 2018. No texto argumentamos que as situações de violência, pobreza e exclusão social que condicionam a admissão das mulheres condenadas por crimes relacionados ao tráfico de drogas, não só afetam o processo de reinserção social das presidiárias, mas também supõem desafios importantes para garantir os fins da pena quando tratam-se das penas ou medidas domiciliárias. Essas dificuldades fazem com que, na sua forma atual, o domicílio, como mecanismo alternativo da pena intramuro, não tenha capacidade para cumprir as funções que lhe são atribuídas, como facilitar a ressocialização, diminuir a reincidência e reduzir os efeitos negativos do encarceramento. Por isso, defendemos que é necessário não só fortalecer o sistema institucional orientado para a supervisão das mulheres nessa condição, mas também oferecer uma atenção integral que permita superar as condições de marginalização em que se encontram as mulheres encerradas em casa.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Derecho Penal , Prisiones , Mujeres , Tráfico de Drogas
18.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 135-146, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144425

RESUMEN

Resumen El presente trabajo de investigación explora la situación de 57 personas que para el año 2017 se encontraban privadas de la libertad en el patio 2A de la Cárcel Modelo de la ciudad de Bogotá, quienes argumentaban ser integrantes de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC-EP), desempeñándose como comandantes, milicianos, colaboradores, informantes, entre otros. En virtud del acuerdo final para la terminación del conflicto y la construcción de una paz estable y duradera suscrito entre el Gobierno de Colombia y aquel grupo armado al margen de la ley, aspiraban resultar favorecidos con los beneficios allí consagrados y obtener su libertad o el traslado a las zonas veredales lo más pronto posible. Sin embargo, muchos de los encuestados (66,66%) continúan privados de la libertad y algunos no se encuentran registrados como farianos, pudiendo actualizarse el fenómeno de los colados; es decir, personas que sin haber pertenecido a las FARC aluden esta filiación para obtener los beneficios del acuerdo de paz.


Abstract This research explores the situation of 57 people who, in 2017, were imprisoned in patio 2A of La Modelo Prison of the city of Bogotá, who plead to be members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP), working as commanders, militiamen, collaborators, informants and in other positions. In light of the final agreement to end the conflict and build a stable and lasting peace signed between the Government of Colombia and the illegal armed group, many aspired to profit from the benefits stated therein and obtain their freedom or be transferred to rural areas as soon as possible. However, many of those surveyed (66,66%) are still imprisoned and some are not registered as FARC members, making it possible to update the phenomenon of opportunists. That is to say, people who, without having been members of the FARC, indicate their affiliation to obtain the peace agreement's benefits.


Resumo Esta pesquisa explora a situação de 57 pessoas que, até 2017, estavam privadas da sua liberdade no pátio 2A da prisão Modelo, em Bogotá, que afirmavam ser membros das Forças Armadas Revolucionárias da Colômbia (FARC-EP), servindo como comandantes, milicianos, colaboradores, informantes, entre outros. Em virtude do acordo final para o término do conflito e a construção de uma paz estável e duradoura assinado entre o Governo da Colômbia e aquele grupo armado fora da lei, os prisioneiros aspiravam receber os benefícios nele consagrados e obter sua liberdade ou transferência para as áreas do campo o mais rápido possível. No entanto, muitos dos pesquisados (66,66%) continuam privados da sua liberdade e alguns não estão registrados como farianos, atualizando assim o fenómeno dos colados, ou seja, pessoas que, sem ter pertencido às FARC, aludem a essa filiação para obter os benefícios do acordo de paz.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Derecho Penal , Prisiones , Violencia , Conflictos Armados
19.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 119-134, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144424

RESUMEN

Resumen El establecimiento penitenciario Ancón II fue designado como "modelo" para reorientar el tratamiento penitenciario basado en técnicas modernas; por ello, recibió internos por tráfico ilícito de drogas de difícil readaptación que llegaron desde el establecimiento penitenciario del Callao. En el diagnóstico criminológico se observó renuencia a participar en las acciones psicológicas, desinterés por actividades laborales o educativas, e inadecuado arreglo personal. La investigación aplicada tuvo como objetivo proporcionar el tratamiento penitenciario. Usó como metodología la técnica de reforzamiento positivo y modelamiento. La población estuvo conformada por 67 internos, quienes decidieron participar voluntariamente en el proyecto. Los resultados muestran que el 91% de los internos alcanzó un cambio conductual significativo durante y después de participar en el proyecto Programa Integral de Tratamiento para Extranjeros en Reclusión (P.I.T.E.R.). Se concluyó que la aplicación de las técnicas conductuales facilita la participación en el tratamiento penitenciario por parte de internos extranjeros de difícil readaptación por tráfico ilícito de drogas.


Abstract The Ancón II detention facility was designated as the "model" for redirecting penitentiary treatment based on modern techniques: for this reason, it received inmates imprisoned due to illegal drug trafficking with Rehabilitation Difficulties from the Callao detention facility. Reluctance to participate in psychological actions, a lack of interest in work or educational activities and inadequate personal grooming were observed in the criminological diagnosis. The objective of the applied research was to provide penitentiary treatment. It used the positive reinforcement and modeling techniques as its methodology. The population was 67 inmates, who voluntarily decided to participate in the project. The results showed that 91% of inmates achieved a significant behavioral change while and after participating in the Comprehensive Treatment for Imprisoned Foreigners Program (P.I.T.E.R.) project. It was concluded that applying behavioral techniques facilitates the participation of foreign inmates imprisoned due to illegal drug trafficking with rehabilitation difficulties in penitentiary treatment.


Resumo A penitenciária Ancón II foi designada como "modelo" para reorientar o tratamento penitenciário com base em técnicas modernas; por isso, recebeu presos por tráfico ilícito de drogas de difícil readaptação que chegaram da penitenciária de Callao. No diagnóstico criminológico observou-se relutância em participar nas ações psicológicas, desinteresse pelas atividades de trabalho ou educacionais e cuidados pessoais inadequados. A pesquisa aplicada teve como objetivo proporcionar o tratamento penitenciário. Usou como metodologia a técnica de reforço positivo e a técnica de modelagem. A população esteve composta por 67 presidiários que decidiram participar voluntariamente do projeto. Os resultados mostram que 91% dos reclusos conseguiram uma mudança comportamental significativa durante e após a participação no projeto Programa Integral de Tratamento para Estrangeiros em Reclusão (P.I.T.E.R.). Concluiuse que a aplicação de técnicas comportamentais facilita a participação em tratamento penitenciário de presidiários estrangeiros de difícil readaptação pelo tráfico ilícito de drogas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Derecho Penal , Prisiones , Rehabilitación , Tráfico de Drogas
20.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 103-118, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144423

RESUMEN

Resumen El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis descriptivo cuantitativo sobre el desempeño del sistema a través del cual el Gobierno Colombiano implementa su política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal y penitenciario. Este estudio no se realiza desde el punto de vista del derecho, sino desde la perspectiva de la evaluación de su efectividad, entendiendo la criminalidad como un problema social. El impacto de este artículo radica en la posibilidad de entender y abordar el fenómeno de la criminalidad desde un enfoque preventivo. Esto, al identificar un desequilibrio dinámico de los componentes del sistema que refuerza el problema, evidenciando deficiencias en la finalidad de la política criminal como política pública debería propender por la prevención del crimen y por el contrario refuerza un ciclo vicioso que incrementa impunidad. Este ciclo ha desgastado operativamente al Estado y ha generado un alto costo como resultado de los altos índices de criminalidad.


Abstract This article performs a descriptive, quantitative analysis of the performance of the system through which the Colombian Government implements its criminal public policy: judicial, criminal justice and penitentiary systems. This study is not performed from the point of view of law, but from a perspective evaluating its effectiveness, considering crime a social issue. This article impacts the possibility of understanding and facing the phenomenon of crime from a preventive approach. This, upon identifying a dynamic imbalance of the system's components, which strengthens the problem, shows deficiencies in the purpose of criminal policy as a public policy that promotes prevention and emphasizes a vicious cycle that increases impunity. This cycle has operationally worn-out the Government and has generated high costs as a result of high crime indices.


Resumo Este artigo desenvolve uma análise descritiva quantitativa sobre o desempenho do sistema por meio do qual o Governo colombiano implementa sua política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal e penitenciário. Este estudo não é realizado do ponto de vista do direito, mas da perspectiva de avaliar sua eficácia, entendendo o crime como problema social. O impacto deste artigo reside na possibilidade de compreender e abordar o fenómeno do crime a partir de uma abordagem preventiva. Isto, ao identificar um desequilíbrio dinâmico dos componentes do sistema que reforça o problema, mostra deficiências na finalidade da política criminal como política pública que visa à prevenção e acentua um ciclo vicioso que aumenta a impunidade. Este ciclo desgastou operacionalmente o Estado e gerou um custo elevado em decorrência dos altos índices de criminalidade.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Prisiones , Crimen , Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos , Derechos Humanos
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