Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 61.066
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299255, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722923

RESUMEN

Despite the huge importance that the centrality metrics have in understanding the topology of a network, too little is known about the effects that small alterations in the topology of the input graph induce in the norm of the vector that stores the node centralities. If so, then it could be possible to avoid re-calculating the vector of centrality metrics if some minimal changes occur in the network topology, which would allow for significant computational savings. Hence, after formalising the notion of centrality, three of the most basic metrics were herein considered (i.e., Degree, Eigenvector, and Katz centrality). To perform the simulations, two probabilistic failure models were used to describe alterations in network topology: Uniform (i.e., all nodes can be independently deleted from the network with a fixed probability) and Best Connected (i.e., the probability a node is removed depends on its degree). Our analysis suggests that, in the case of degree, small variations in the topology of the input graph determine small variations in Degree centrality, independently of the topological features of the input graph; conversely, both Eigenvector and Katz centralities can be extremely sensitive to changes in the topology of the input graph. In other words, if the input graph has some specific features, even small changes in the topology of the input graph can have catastrophic effects on the Eigenvector or Katz centrality.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Simulación por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Probabilidad
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743847

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric ankle injuries are a common presentation in the emergency department (ED). A quarter of pediatric ankle fractures show no radiographic evidence of a fracture. Physicians often correlate non-weight bearing and tenderness with an occult fracture. We present this study to predict the probability of an occult fracture using radiographic soft-tissue swelling on initial ED radiographs. METHODS: This is a retrospective study at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2021 to 22. Soft-tissue swelling between the lateral malleolus and skin was measured on radiographs, and weight-bearing status was documented. Statistical analysis was conducted using Stata software. DISCUSSION: The study period involved 32 patients with an occult fracture, with 8 (25%) diagnosed with a fracture on follow-up radiographs. The probability of an occult fracture was calculated as a function of the ankle swelling in millimeters (mm) using a computer-generated predictive model. False-negative and false-positive rates were plotted as a function of the degree of ankle swelling. CONCLUSION: Magnitude of ankle soft-tissue swelling as measured on initial ED radiographs is predictive of an occult fracture. Although weight-bearing status was not a sign of occult fracture, it improves the predictive accuracy of soft-tissue swelling.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas de Tobillo , Edema , Fracturas Cerradas , Radiografía , Humanos , Fracturas de Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Retrospectivos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Edema/diagnóstico por imagen , Fracturas Cerradas/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Soporte de Peso , Probabilidad , Preescolar , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas
3.
Ulster Med J ; 93(1): 18-23, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707974

RESUMEN

Verbal probability expressions such as 'likely' and 'possible' are commonly used to communicate uncertainty in diagnosis, treatment effectiveness as well as the risk of adverse events. Probability terms that are interpreted consistently can be used to standardize risk communication. A systematic review was conducted. Research studies that evaluated numeric meanings of probability terms were reviewed. Terms with consistent numeric interpretation across studies were selected and were used to construct a Visual Risk Scale. Five probability terms showed reliable interpretation by laypersons and healthcare professionals in empirical studies. 'Very Likely' was interpreted as 90% chance (range 80 to 95%); 'Likely/Probable,' 70% (60 to 80%); 'Possible,' 40% (30 to 60%); 'Unlikely,' 20% (10 to 30%); and 'Very Unlikely' with 10% chance (5% to 15%). The corresponding frequency terms were: Very Frequently, Frequently, Often, Infrequently, and Rarely, respectively. Probability terms should be presented with their corresponding numeric ranges during discussions with patients. Numeric values should be presented as X-in-100 natural frequency statements, even for low values; and not as percentages, X-in-1000, X-in-Y, odds, fractions, 1-in-X, or as number needed to treat (NNT). A Visual Risk Scale was developed for use in clinical shared decision making.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Probabilidad , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Incertidumbre , Relaciones Médico-Paciente
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10226, 2024 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702379

RESUMEN

Tracheal pooling for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) DNA detection allows for decreased diagnostic cost, one of the main constraints in surveillance programs. The objectives of this study were to estimate the sensitivity of pooled-sample testing for the detection of M. hyopneumoniae in tracheal samples and to develop probability of M. hyopneumoniae detection estimates for tracheal samples pooled by 3, 5, and 10. A total of 48 M. hyopneumoniae PCR-positive field samples were pooled 3-, 5-, and 10-times using field M. hyopneumoniae DNA-negative samples and tested in triplicate. The sensitivity was estimated at 0.96 (95% credible interval [Cred. Int.]: 0.93, 0.98) for pools of 3, 0.95 (95% Cred. Int: 0.92, 0.98) for pools of 5, and 0.93 (95% Cred. Int.: 0.89, 0.96) for pools of 10. All pool sizes resulted in PCR-positive if the individual tracheal sample Ct value was < 33. Additionally, there was no significant decrease in the probability of detecting at least one M. hyopneumoniae-infected pig given any pool size (3, 5, or 10) of tracheal swabs. Furthermore, this manuscript applies the probability of detection estimates to various real-life diagnostic testing scenarios. Combining increased total animals sampled with pooling can be a cost-effective tool to maximize the performance of M. hyopneumoniae surveillance programs.


Asunto(s)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Neumonía Porcina por Mycoplasma , Tráquea , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/genética , Animales , Tráquea/microbiología , Porcinos , Neumonía Porcina por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Neumonía Porcina por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , ADN Bacteriano/análisis , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Probabilidad
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303042, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709744

RESUMEN

Probabilistic hesitant fuzzy sets (PHFSs) are superior to hesitant fuzzy sets (HFSs) in avoiding the problem of preference information loss among decision makers (DMs). Owing to this benefit, PHFSs have been extensively investigated. In probabilistic hesitant fuzzy environments, the correlation coefficients have become a focal point of research. As research progresses, we discovered that there are still a few unresolved issues concerning the correlation coefficients of PHFSs. To overcome the limitations of existing correlation coefficients for PHFSs, we propose new correlation coefficients in this study. In addition, we present a multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) method under unknown weights based on the newly proposed correlation coefficients. In addition, considering the limitations of DMs' propensity to use language variables for expression in the evaluation process, we propose a method for transforming the evaluation information of the DMs' linguistic variables into probabilistic hesitant fuzzy information in the newly proposed MCGDM method. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed correlation coefficients and MCGDM method, we applied them to a comprehensive clinical evaluation of orphan drugs. Finally, the reliability, feasibility and efficacy of the newly proposed correlation coefficients and MCGDM method were validated.


Asunto(s)
Lógica Difusa , Humanos , Producción de Medicamentos sin Interés Comercial , Toma de Decisiones , Probabilidad , Algoritmos
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(5): 675-681, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692891

RESUMEN

Protein soils must be removed for both appearance and hygienic reasons. They are denatured by heat treatment or bleaching and cleaned using enzymes. Among the various types of protein soils, blood soils are the most noticeable and known to be denatured by heat and bleaching by oxidation. We verified herein that the detergency of heat and oxidatively denatured hemoglobin is greatly improved by the enzyme immersing treatment in the detergency with SDS and can be analyzed using the probability density functional method. The probability density functional method evaluates the cleaning power by assuming that the adhesion and cleaning force of soils are not uniquely determined, but instead have a distribution in intensity, with a usefulness that had recently been demonstrated. This analytical method showed that the cleaning power of the enzyme immersing treatment improved when the soil adhesive force was decreased due to denatured protein degradation, even though the cleaning power of the SDS remained unchanged, and the values were consistent with those in the cleaning test. In conclusion, the probability density functional method can be used to analyze enzymatic degradation of denatured protein soils and the resulting changes in their detergency.


Asunto(s)
Desnaturalización Proteica , Dodecil Sulfato de Sodio/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Calor , Hemoglobinas/química , Suelo/química , Probabilidad
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297792, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722936

RESUMEN

Intuitively, combining multiple sources of evidence should lead to more accurate decisions than considering single sources of evidence individually. In practice, however, the proper computation may be difficult, or may require additional data that are inaccessible. Here, based on the concept of conditional independence, we consider expressions that can serve either as recipes for integrating evidence based on limited data, or as statistical benchmarks for characterizing evidence integration processes. Consider three events, A, B, and C. We find that, if A and B are conditionally independent with respect to C, then the probability that C occurs given that both A and B are known, P(C|A, B), can be easily calculated without the need to measure the full three-way dependency between A, B, and C. This simplified approach can be used in two general ways: to generate predictions by combining multiple (conditionally independent) sources of evidence, or to test whether separate sources of evidence are functionally independent of each other. These applications are demonstrated with four computer-simulated examples, which include detecting a disease based on repeated diagnostic testing, inferring biological age based on multiple biomarkers of aging, discriminating two spatial locations based on multiple cue stimuli (multisensory integration), and examining how behavioral performance in a visual search task depends on selection histories. Besides providing a sound prescription for predicting outcomes, this methodology may be useful for analyzing experimental data of many types.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Probabilidad , Modelos Estadísticos , Envejecimiento/fisiología
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 67(5): 1490-1513, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573844

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) tend to interpret noncanonical sentences like passives using event probability (EP) information regardless of structure (e.g., by interpreting "The dog was chased by the squirrel" as "The dog chased the squirrel"). Verbs are a major source of EP information in adults and children with typical development (TD), who know that "chase" implies an unequal relationship among participants. Individuals with DLD have poor verb knowledge and verb-based sentence processing. Yet, they also appear to rely more on EP information than their peers. This paradox raises two questions: (a) How do children with DLD use verb-based EP information alongside other information in online passive sentence interpretation? (b) How does verb vocabulary knowledge support EP information use? METHOD: We created novel EP biases by showing animations of agents with consistent action tendencies (e.g., clumsy vs. helpful actions). We then used eye tracking to examine how this EP information was used during online passive sentence processing. Participants were 4- to 5-year-old children with DLD (n = 20) and same-age peers with TD (n = 20). RESULTS: In Experiment 1, children with DLD quickly integrated verb-based EP information with morphosyntax close to the verb but failed to do so with distant morphosyntax. In Experiment 2, the quality of children's sentence-specific verb vocabulary knowledge was positively associated with the use of EP information in both groups. CONCLUSION: Depending on the morphosyntactic context, children with DLD and TD used EP information differently, but verb vocabulary knowledge aided its use. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.25491805.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Vocabulario , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Preescolar , Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje/psicología , Lenguaje Infantil , Probabilidad , Tecnología de Seguimiento Ocular , Comprensión
9.
J Vis ; 24(4): 18, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635280

RESUMEN

In multistable dot lattices, the orientation we perceive is attracted toward the orientation we perceived in the immediately preceding stimulus and repelled from the orientation for which most evidence was present previously (Van Geert, Moors, Haaf, & Wagemans, 2022). Theoretically-inspired models have been proposed to explain the co-occurrence of attractive and repulsive context effects in multistable dot lattice tasks, but these models artificially induced an influence of the previous trial on the current one without detailing the process underlying such an influence (Gepshtein & Kubovy, 2005; Schwiedrzik et al., 2014). We conducted a simulation study to test whether the observed attractive and repulsive context effects could be explained with an efficient Bayesian observer model (Wei & Stocker, 2015). This model assumes variable encoding precision of orientations in line with their frequency of occurrence (i.e., efficient encoding) and takes the dissimilarity between stimulus space and sensory space into account. An efficient Bayesian observer model including both a stimulus and a perceptual level was needed to explain the co-occurrence of both attractive and repulsive temporal context effects. Furthermore, this model could reproduce the empirically observed strong positive correlation between individuals' attractive and repulsive effects (Van Geert et al., 2022), by assuming a positive correlation between temporal integration constants at the stimulus and the perceptual level. To conclude, the study brings evidence that efficient encoding and likelihood repulsion on the stimulus level can explain the repulsive context effect, whereas perceptual prior attraction can explain the attractive temporal context effect when perceiving multistable dot lattices.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Simulación por Computador , Probabilidad
10.
Cogn Sci ; 48(4): e13436, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564245

RESUMEN

We report the results of one visual-world eye-tracking experiment and two referent selection tasks in which we investigated the effects of information structure in the form of prosody and word order manipulation on the processing of subject pronouns er and der in German. Factors such as subjecthood, focus, and topicality, as well as order of mention have been linked to an increased probability of certain referents being selected as the pronoun's antecedent and described as increasing this referent's prominence, salience, or accessibility. The goal of this study was to find out whether pronoun processing is primarily guided by linguistic factors (e.g., grammatical role) or nonlinguistic factors (e.g., first-mention), and whether pronoun interpretation can be described in terms of referents' "prominence" / "accessibility" / "salience." The results showed an overall subject preference for er, whereas der was affected by the object role and focus marking. While focus increases the attentional load and enhances memory representation for the focused referent making the focused referent more available, ultimately it did not affect the final interpretation of er, suggesting that "prominence" or the related concepts do not explain referent selection preferences. Overall, the results suggest a primacy of linguistic factors in determining pronoun resolution.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Lingüística , Masculino , Humanos , Tecnología de Seguimiento Ocular , Probabilidad
11.
Cogn Sci ; 48(4): e13437, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564270

RESUMEN

Statistical learning enables humans to involuntarily process and utilize different kinds of patterns from the environment. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying the simultaneous acquisition of multiple regularities from different perceptual modalities remain unclear. A novel multidimensional serial reaction time task was developed to test 40 participants' ability to learn simple first-order and complex second-order relations between uni-modal visual and cross-modal audio-visual stimuli. Using the difference in reaction times between sequenced and random stimuli as the index of domain-general statistical learning, a significant difference and dissociation of learning occurred between the initial and final learning phases. Furthermore, we used a negative and positive occurrence-frequency-and-reaction-time correlation to indicate implicit and explicit learning, respectively, and found that learning simple uni-modal patterns involved an implicit-to-explicit segue, while acquiring complex cross-modal patterns required an explicit-to-implicit segue, resulting in a X-shape crossing of regularity learning. Thus, we propose an X-way hypothesis to elucidate the dynamic interplay between the implicit and explicit systems at two distinct stages when acquiring various regularities in a multidimensional probability space.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Humanos , Probabilidad , Tiempo de Reacción
12.
Trials ; 25(1): 258, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of newborn and under-5 mortality. Over 85% of all preterm births occur in the late preterm period, i.e. between 34 and < 37 weeks of gestation. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) prevent mortality and respiratory morbidity when administered to women at high risk of an early preterm birth, i.e. < 34 weeks' gestation. However, the benefits and risks of ACS in the late preterm period are less clear; both guidelines and practices vary between settings. Emerging evidence suggests that the benefits of ACS may be achievable at lower doses than presently used. This trial aims to determine the efficacy and safety of two ACS regimens compared to placebo, when given to women with a high probability of late preterm birth, in hospitals in low-resource countries. METHODS: WHO ACTION III trial is a parallel-group, three-arm, individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of two ACS regimens: dexamethasone phosphate 4 × 6 mg q12h or betamethasone phosphate 4 × 2 mg q 12 h. The trial is being conducted across seven sites in five countries-Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Eligible women are those with a gestational age between 34 weeks 0 days and 36 weeks 5 days, who have a high probability of preterm birth between 12 h and 7 days (up to 36 weeks 6 days gestation). The primary outcome is a composite of stillbirth or neonatal death within 72 h of birth or use of newborn respiratory support within 72 h of birth or prior to discharge from hospital, whichever is earlier. Secondary outcomes include safety and health utilization measures for both women and newborns. The sample size is 13,500 women. DISCUSSION: This trial will evaluate the benefits and possible harms of ACS when used in women likely to have a late preterm birth. It will also evaluate a lower-dose ACS regimen based on literature from pharmacokinetic studies. The results of this trial will provide robust critical evidence on the safe and appropriate use of ACS in the late preterm period internationally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN11434567 . Registered on 7 June 2021.


Asunto(s)
Nacimiento Prematuro , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Nacimiento Prematuro/prevención & control , Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Método Doble Ciego , Hospitales , Probabilidad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(4): e1011945, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578805

RESUMEN

Early identification of safe and efficacious disease targets is crucial to alleviating the tremendous cost of drug discovery projects. However, existing experimental methods for identifying new targets are generally labor-intensive and failure-prone. On the other hand, computational approaches, especially machine learning-based frameworks, have shown remarkable application potential in drug discovery. In this work, we propose Progeni, a novel machine learning-based framework for target identification. In addition to fully exploiting the known heterogeneous biological networks from various sources, Progeni integrates literature evidence about the relations between biological entities to construct a probabilistic knowledge graph. Graph neural networks are then employed in Progeni to learn the feature embeddings of biological entities to facilitate the identification of biologically relevant target candidates. A comprehensive evaluation of Progeni demonstrated its superior predictive power over the baseline methods on the target identification task. In addition, our extensive tests showed that Progeni exhibited high robustness to the negative effect of exposure bias, a common phenomenon in recommendation systems, and effectively identified new targets that can be strongly supported by the literature. Moreover, our wet lab experiments successfully validated the biological significance of the top target candidates predicted by Progeni for melanoma and colorectal cancer. All these results suggested that Progeni can identify biologically effective targets and thus provide a powerful and useful tool for advancing the drug discovery process.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Aprendizaje Automático , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Humanos , Biología Computacional/métodos , Descubrimiento de Drogas/métodos , Algoritmos , Melanoma , Probabilidad , Neoplasias Colorrectales
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 112(4): 53, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565770

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the exposure of aquatic ecosystems in Southern Ontario, Canada to pesticides between 2002 and 2016 by constructing environmental exposure distributions (EEDs), including censored data; and (2) predict the probability of exceeding acute regulatory guidelines. Surface water samples were collected over a 15-year period by Environment and Climate Change Canada. The dataset contained 167 compounds, sampled across 114 sites, with a total of 2,213 samples. There were 67,920 total observations of which 55,058 were non-detects (81%), and 12,862 detects (19%). The most commonly detected compound was atrazine, with a maximum concentration of 18,600 ngL- 1 and ~ 4% chance of exceeding an acute guideline (1,000 ngL- 1) in rivers and streams. Using Southern Ontario as a case study, this study provides insight into the risk that pesticides pose to aquatic ecosystems and the utility of EEDs that include censored data for the purpose of risk assessment.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Plaguicidas/análisis , Ontario , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Ríos , Probabilidad , Medición de Riesgo
15.
Bull Math Biol ; 86(5): 50, 2024 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581473

RESUMEN

Models of social interaction dynamics have been powerful tools for understanding the efficiency of information spread and the robustness of task allocation in social insect colonies. How workers spatially distribute within the colony, or spatial heterogeneity degree (SHD), plays a vital role in contact dynamics, influencing information spread and task allocation. We used agent-based models to explore factors affecting spatial heterogeneity and information flow, including the number of task groups, variation in spatial arrangements, and levels of task switching, to study: (1) the impact of multiple task groups on SHD, contact dynamics, and information spread, and (2) the impact of task switching on SHD and contact dynamics. Both models show a strong linear relationship between the dynamics of SHD and contact dynamics, which exists for different initial conditions. The multiple-task-group model without task switching reveals the impacts of the number and spatial arrangements of task locations on information transmission. The task-switching model allows task-switching with a probability through contact between individuals. The model indicates that the task-switching mechanism enables a dynamical state of task-related spatial fidelity at the individual level. This spatial fidelity can assist the colony in redistributing their workforce, with consequent effects on the dynamics of spatial heterogeneity degree. The spatial fidelity of a task group is the proportion of workers who perform that task and have preferential walking styles toward their task location. Our analysis shows that the task switching rate between two tasks is an exponentially decreasing function of the spatial fidelity and contact rate. Higher spatial fidelity leads to more agents aggregating to task location, reducing contact between groups, thus making task switching more difficult. Our results provide important insights into the mechanisms that generate spatial heterogeneity and deepen our understanding of how spatial heterogeneity impacts task allocation, social interaction, and information spread.


Asunto(s)
Conceptos Matemáticos , Conducta Social , Humanos , Animales , Modelos Biológicos , Insectos , Probabilidad
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9503, 2024 04 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664455

RESUMEN

The individual results of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests measured after the first pandemic wave of 2020 cannot be directly interpreted as a probability of having been infected. Plus, these results are usually returned as a binary or ternary variable, relying on predefined cut-offs. We propose a Bayesian mixture model to estimate individual infection probabilities, based on 81,797 continuous anti-spike IgG tests from Euroimmun collected in France after the first wave. This approach used serological results as a continuous variable, and was therefore not based on diagnostic cut-offs. Cumulative incidence, which is necessary to compute infection probabilities, was estimated according to age and administrative region. In France, we found that a "negative" or a "positive" test, as classified by the manufacturer, could correspond to a probability of infection as high as 61.8% or as low as 67.7%, respectively. "Indeterminate" tests encompassed probabilities of infection ranging from 10.8 to 96.6%. Our model estimated tailored individual probabilities of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on age, region, and serological result. It can be applied in other contexts, if estimates of cumulative incidence are available.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Francia/epidemiología , Anciano , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Probabilidad , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Adolescente , Femenino , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19/métodos , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Incidencia , Niño , Preescolar , Lactante , Anciano de 80 o más Años
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(2): 96-104, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619033

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) treatment decreases fertility capacity, but unnecessary fertility preservation procedures in women who would not be infertile after treatment would be a waste of time and resources and could cause the unwarranted exposure of cancer cells to exogenous sex hormones. It has been largely shown that post-treatment ovarian reserve is directly associated with pre-treatment anti-mullerian hormone levels (AMH0). A threshold for AMH0, or a model including AMH0 and patient characteristics that could distinguish the patients who will be infertile after treatments, still needs to be defined. Accordingly, this study was performed to specifically target this high-priority concern. METHODS: Women≤45 years old with newly diagnosed non-metastatic BC were entered in this multicenter prospective cohort study. AMH0 and two-year post-treatment AMH (AMH2) were measured, and hormonal patient features were recorded as well. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, decision tree (DT), and random forest analyses were performed to find a cut-off point for AMH0 and define a model involving related features for the prediction of AMH2. RESULTS: The data from 84 patients were analyzed. ROC curve analysis revealed that AMH0>3 ng/mL (Area under the curve=0.69, 95% CI: 0.54‒0.84) was the best indicator for predicting AMH2≥0.7 (sensitivity=79%, specificity=60%). The best model detected by DT and random forest for predicting an AMH2>0.7 with a probability of 93% consisted of a combination of AMH0>3.3, menarche age<14, and age<31. CONCLUSION: This combination model can be used to withhold fertility preservation procedures in BC patients. Performing larger studies is suggested to further test this model.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hormona Antimülleriana , Fertilidad , Probabilidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 25(1): 151, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Genomes are inherently inhomogeneous, with features such as base composition, recombination, gene density, and gene expression varying along chromosomes. Evolutionary, biological, and biomedical analyses aim to quantify this variation, account for it during inference procedures, and ultimately determine the causal processes behind it. Since sequential observations along chromosomes are not independent, it is unsurprising that autocorrelation patterns have been observed e.g., in human base composition. In this article, we develop a class of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) called oHMMed (ordered HMM with emission densities, the corresponding R package of the same name is available on CRAN): They identify the number of comparably homogeneous regions within autocorrelated observed sequences. These are modelled as discrete hidden states; the observed data points are realisations of continuous probability distributions with state-specific means that enable ordering of these distributions. The observed sequence is labelled according to the hidden states, permitting only neighbouring states that are also neighbours within the ordering of their associated distributions. The parameters that characterise these state-specific distributions are inferred. RESULTS: We apply our oHMMed algorithms to the proportion of G and C bases (modelled as a mixture of normal distributions) and the number of genes (modelled as a mixture of poisson-gamma distributions) in windows along the human, mouse, and fruit fly genomes. This results in a partitioning of the genomes into regions by statistically distinguishable averages of these features, and in a characterisation of their continuous patterns of variation. In regard to the genomic G and C proportion, this latter result distinguishes oHMMed from segmentation algorithms based in isochore or compositional domain theory. We further use oHMMed to conduct a detailed analysis of variation of chromatin accessibility (ATAC-seq) and epigenetic markers H3K27ac and H3K27me3 (modelled as a mixture of poisson-gamma distributions) along the human chromosome 1 and their correlations. CONCLUSIONS: Our algorithms provide a biologically assumption free approach to characterising genomic landscapes shaped by continuous, autocorrelated patterns of variation. Despite this, the resulting genome segmentation enables extraction of compositionally distinct regions for further downstream analyses.


Asunto(s)
Genoma , Genómica , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , Cadenas de Markov , Composición de Base , Probabilidad , Algoritmos
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1378968, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601205

RESUMEN

Background: Currently, the primary treatment modalities for colorectal neuroendocrine tumors (CRNET) with a diameter between 10mm and 20mm are surgical resection (SR) and endoscopic resection (ER). However, it remains unclear which surgical approach yields the greatest survival benefit for patients. Methods: This study included data from patients diagnosed with CRNET with tumor diameters ranging from 10mm to 20mm between the years 2004 and 2019, obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were categorized into ER and SR groups based on the respective surgical approaches. Inverse probability weighting (IPTW) was employed to mitigate selection bias. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank tests were utilized to estimate overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Cox regression analysis (univariate and multivariate) was performed to evaluate potential factors influencing survival. Results: A total of 292 CRNET patients were included in this study (ER group: 108 individuals, SR group: 184 individuals). Prior to IPTW adjustment, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis demonstrated that the OS and CSS of the SR group were inferior to those of the ER group. However, after IPTW adjustment, no statistically significant differences in prognosis were observed between the two groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with muscular invasion, positive lymph nodes, or distant metastasis derived greater survival benefits from SR. Significant differences in OS and CSS between the two groups were also observed across different age groups. Conclusion: For patients with mucosal-limited lesions and without local lymph node or distant metastasis, ER is the preferred surgical approach. However, for patients with muscular invasion or positive lymph nodes/distant metastasis, SR offers a better prognosis. The choice of surgical approach should be based on the specific clinical characteristics of patients within different subgroups.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Tumores Neuroendocrinos , Humanos , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/patología , Pronóstico , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/cirugía , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Probabilidad
20.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301398, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635825

RESUMEN

The banking industry necessitates implementing an early warning system to effectively identify the factors that impact bank managers and enable them to make informed decisions, thereby mitigating systemic risk. Identifying factors that influence banks in times of stability and crisis is crucial, as it ultimately contributes to developing an improved early warning system. This study undertakes a comparative analysis of the stability of Indonesian Islamic and conventional banking across distinct economic regimes-crisis and stability. We analyze monthly banking data from December 2007 to November 2022 using the Markov Switching Dynamic Regression technique. The study focuses on conducting a comparative analysis between Islamic banks, represented by Islamic Commercial Bank (ICB) and Islamic Rural Bank (IRB), and conventional banks, represented by the Conventional Commercial Bank (CCB) and Conventional Rural Bank (CRB). The findings reveal that both Islamic and conventional banks exhibit a higher probability of being in a stable regime than a crisis regime. Notably, Islamic banks demonstrate a greater propensity to remain in a stable regime than their conventional counterparts. However, in a crisis regime, the likelihood of recovery for Sharia-compliant institutions is lower than for conventional banks. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that larger banks exhibit higher stability than their smaller counterparts regarding assets and size. This study pioneers a comprehensive comparison of the Z-score, employed as a proxy for stability, between two distinct classifications of Indonesian banks: Sharia (ICB and IRB) and conventional (CCB and CRB). The result is expected to improve our awareness of the elements that affect the stability of Islamic and conventional banking in Indonesia, leading to a deeper comprehension of their dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Directivas Anticipadas , Industrias , Humanos , Indonesia , Islamismo , Probabilidad
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...