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1.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115170, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035875

RESUMEN

Fate, transport and accumulation of nanoplastics have attracted considerable attention in the past few years. While actual researches have been focused on nanoplastics dispersed or aggregated in different environmental system, no study have been focused on the possibility that nanoplastics are co-transported with other natural or anthropogenic materials. Therefore, the large quantity of debris released in the environment, such as cigarette butts (CGB), could be part of the nanoplastics fate and behavior. Here we show the considerable sorption capacities of cigarette filters for nanoplastics. To address this topic, we chose polystyrene-based nanoplastics with similar state of charge (according to the physico-chemical characteristic of the zeta potential -45 to -40 mV) but with different sizes (50-800 nm) and morphologies. A kinetic approach to sorption in fresh water (pH = 8.05; 179.5 µS cm-1) at room temperature was carried out by means of the flow field flow analysis method (AF4) to determine the partition coefficients and water sampling rates between nanoplastics and cigarette butts. Using different models of, more or less environmentally relevant, nanoplastics (NPTs) and adequate analytical strategies, we found partition coefficients between the NPTs and CGBs ranged from 102 to 104 in freshwater conditions. We demonstrated that the physical features of the NPTs (size and morphology) have an influence on the sorption behaviour. Asymmetrical shaped NPTs with broader size distribution seems to be mostly retained in the CGBs after longer equilibration time. This result shows the importance of the NPTs features on the mechanisms governing their transfer and fate in the environment through environmental matrices, especially when other materials are involved. We anticipate our work to be a starting point for investigating the co-transport of NPTs with other materials present in the environment (natural and anthropogenic).


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Productos de Tabaco , Agua Dulce , Poliestirenos/análisis
2.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115863, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126161

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoke (CS) affects immune functions, leading to severe outcomes in smokers. Robust evidence addresses the immunotoxic effects of combustible tobacco products. As heat-not-burn tobacco products (HNBT) vaporize lower levels of combustible products, we here compared the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) and HNBT vapor on Jurkat T cells. Cells were exposed to air, conventional cigarettes or heatsticks of HNBT for 30 min and were stimulated or not with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Cell viability, proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, 8-OHdG, MAP-kinases and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation and metallothionein expression (MTs) were assessed by flow cytometry; nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine levels were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. Levels of metals in the exposure chambers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. MT expressions were quantified by immunohistochemistry in the lungs and liver of C57Bl/6 mice exposed to CS, HNBT or air (1 h, twice a day for five days: via inhalation). While both CS and HBNT exposures increased cell death, CS led to a higher number of necrotic cells, increased the production of ROS, NO, inflammatory cytokines and MTs when compared to HNBT-exposed cells, and led to a higher expression of MTs in mice. CS released higher amounts of metals. CS and HNBT exposures decreased PMA-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion and impaired Jurkat proliferation, effects also seen in cells exposed to nicotine. Although HNBT vapor does not activate T cells as CS does, exposure to both HNBT and CS suppressed proliferation and IL-2 release, a pivotal cytokine involved with T cell proliferation and tolerance, and this effect may be related to nicotine content in both products.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Tabaco , Animales , Calor , Ratones , Humo/efectos adversos , Fumar
3.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116185, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290951

RESUMEN

Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most abundant types of litter in the environment and may contain toxic chemicals such as BTEX that pose serious risks to the water bodies and health of aquatic organisms. So far there is no systematic study on BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and p-xylene) leaching from CBs into water environments. In this work, the leaching concentrations of BTEX compounds in deionized water (DW) and river water (RW) samples were studied for the first time. The mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, and o-xylene at contact times of 15 min to 1 day in water samples ranged from 0.13 to 0.18, 0.39-0.9, 0.11-0.25, 0.12-0.38, and 0.09-0.19 µgL-1 respectively. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene and p-xylene were detected at all contact times in both DW and RW samples. There were no significant differences of the leachate levels of BTEX compounds between DW and RW samples. The highest and lowest mean concentration levels in both DW and RW samples were determined for toluene and o-xylene respectively. The time after smoking had a significant effect on BTEX levels in leachates. The concentration levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene and p-xylene leachates in water samples, after only 15 min, were reduced by 100, 93, 70, 68, and 59 percent respectively. Our data revealed that leached concentrations of benzene did not exceed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) guidelines, but with regard to the amount of CBs littered each year and other toxic chemicals contents of CBs this can still be a threat for aquatic creatures and possibly humans as well. Further studies are needed to cover the knowledge gap on the toxic leachates from CBs into water systems.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Agua , Benceno/análisis , Derivados del Benceno/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Humanos , Tolueno/análisis , Xilenos/análisis
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 3149-3161, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902748

RESUMEN

Data (N = 11614) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1999-2016 for US adults aged ≥ 20 years were analyzed by fitting regression models to estimate unadjusted and adjusted geometric means (AGM) for several different groups of smokers. Serum cotinine level ≥ 3.3 ng/mL was used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers. AGMs for cigarette only, cigar only, dual cigarette/cigar, e-cigarette or dual e-cigarette/cigarette, and smokeless tobacco only smokers were estimated to be 152.5, 65.1, 92.5, 146.3, and 272.0 ng/mL, respectively. Males were found to have higher cotinine levels than females for dual cigarette and cigar smokers, but the reverse was observed for smokeless tobacco users. Non-Hispanic blacks had higher AGMs than non-Hispanic whites for cigarette only smokers, but the reverse was observed for dual cigarette and cigar smokers. For the first time, serum cotinine estimates for those self-reported nonsmokers who were classified to be smokers (29.4 ng/mL) and those smokers for whom self-reported data for use of tobacco products were missing were also estimated (113.8 ng/mL).


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Cotinina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas Nutricionales , Fumadores , Fumar
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242570, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264315

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Studies in many countries have documented reductions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospitalizations with smokefree policies. However, evidence on the association of cigarette tax with AMI events is unclear. There have been no studies of the associations between these two policies and AMI hospitalizations in Thailand. METHODS: We used negative binomial time series analyses of AMI hospitalizations (ICD-10 codes I21.0-I21.9), stratified by sex and age groups, from October 2006 to September 2017 to determine whether there was a change in AMI hospitalizations as a result of the changes in cigarette prices and the implementation of a 100% smokefree law. RESULTS: Cigarette price increases were associated with a significant 4.7% drop in AMI hospitalizations among adults younger than 45 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.914-0.993; p = 0.021). Implementation of the 100% smokefree law was followed by a significant 13.1% drop in AMI hospitalizations among adults younger than 45 (IRR, 0.869; 95% CI, 0.801-0.993; P = 0.001). There were not significant associations in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Thai cigarette tax policy and the smokefree law were associated with reduced AMI hospitalizations among younger adults. To improve effectiveness of the policies, taxes should be high enough to increase cigarette price above inflation rates, making cigarettes less likely to be purchased; smokefree laws should be strictly enforced.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Política para Fumadores , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tailandia/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adulto Joven
6.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(12 Suppl 2): S93-S95, 2020 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320258

RESUMEN

IMPLICATIONS: This commentary addresses the state of the evidence on tobacco products, nicotine, and COVID-19. The evidence of the effects of smoking on respiratory infections and the immune system in general are examined and the current understanding of tobacco products and risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is addressed.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Humanos
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1881-1888, 2020 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332300

RESUMEN

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; nearly all tobacco product use begins during youth and young adulthood (1,2). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2019 and 2020 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine changes in the current (past 30-day) use of seven tobacco products among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students. In 2020, current use of any tobacco product was reported by 16.2% (4.47 million) of all students, including 23.6% (3.65 million) of high school and 6.7% (800,000) of middle school students. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were the most commonly used tobacco product among high school (19.6%; 3.02 million) and middle school (4.7%; 550,000) students. From 2019 to 2020, decreases in current use of any tobacco product, any combustible tobacco product, multiple tobacco products, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco occurred among high school and middle school students; these declines resulted in an estimated 1.73 million fewer current youth tobacco product users in 2020 than in 2019 (6.20 million) (3). From 2019 to 2020, no significant change occurred in the use of cigarettes, hookahs, pipe tobacco, or heated tobacco products. The comprehensive and sustained implementation of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at the national, state, and local levels, combined with tobacco product regulation by FDA, is warranted to help sustain this progress and to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco product use among U.S. youths (1,2).


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-11-10. (PAHO/NMH/RF/20-0035).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53010

RESUMEN

Tobacco use is the only risk factor common to the four leading noncommunicable diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease) and is the main cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Tobacco currently kills more than 7 million people each year globally and more than 900,000 in the Region of the Americas. Almost 80% of smokers live in low- or middle-income countries. In addition, smoking has become an obstacle to countries’ development. It is widely recognized that excise taxes on tobacco products are the single most powerful and cost-effective strategy for reducing consumption. In addition, such taxes generate revenues that can be used to finance development. There is compelling international evidence on the effectiveness of this measure, with a growing body of studies from the Region of the Americas. Nonetheless, increasing taxes on tobacco products remains one of the most underutilized tools to combat the tobacco epidemic. This is especially true in the Region of the Americas, where retail prices are still very low compared to the rest of the world, facilitating early initiation of smoking. Tobacco industry scare tactics have sown doubts about the viability of increasing excise taxes. As part of the activities to promote excise taxes on tobacco products as a control measure and to encourage the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the Pan American Health Organization, the FCTC Secretariat, the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, the American Cancer Society, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the International Development Research Centre of Canada jointly held a training on the economics of tobacco control for government officials, researchers, and advocates in Latin America and the Caribbean on 5-7 February 2018 in Washington D.C.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Reducción del Consumo de Tabaco , Tributación de los Productos Derivados del Tabaco , Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Economía de la Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1736-1742, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211681

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among U.S. adults has declined over the past several decades, with a prevalence of 13.7% in 2018 (2). However, a variety of combustible, noncombustible, and electronic tobacco products are available in the United States (1,3). To assess recent national estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2019 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2019, an estimated 50.6 million U.S. adults (20.8%) reported currently using any tobacco product, including cigarettes (14.0%), e-cigarettes (4.5%), cigars (3.6%), smokeless tobacco (2.4%), and pipes* (1.0%).† Most current tobacco product users (80.5%) reported using combustible products (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes), and 18.6% reported using two or more tobacco products.§ The prevalence of any current tobacco product use was higher among males; adults aged ≤65 years; non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults; those whose highest level of educational attainment was a General Educational Development (GED) certificate; those with an annual household income <$35,000; lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adults; uninsured adults and those with Medicaid; those with a disability; or those with mild, moderate, or severe generalized anxiety disorder. E-cigarette use was highest among adults aged 18-24 years (9.3%), with over half (56.0%) of these young adults reporting that they had never smoked cigarettes. Implementing comprehensive, evidence-based, population level interventions (e.g., tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free policies, high-impact antitobacco media campaigns, and barrier-free cessation coverage), in coordination with regulation of the manufacturing, marketing, and sale of all tobacco products, can reduce tobacco-related disease and death in the United States (1,4). As part of a comprehensive approach, targeted interventions are also warranted to reach subpopulations with the highest prevalence of use, which might vary by tobacco product type.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
J Vis Exp ; (164)2020 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165327

RESUMEN

Close to 14% of adults in the United States were reported to smoke cigarettes in 2018. The effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on lungs and cardiovascular diseases have been widely studied, however, the impact of CS in other tissues and organs such as blood and bone marrow remain incompletely defined. Finding the appropriate system to study the effects of CS in rodents can be prohibitively expensive and require the purchase of commercially available systems. Thus, we set out to build an affordable, reliable, and versatile system to study the pathologic effects of CS in mice. This whole-body inhalation exposure system (WBIS) set-up mimics the breathing and puffing of cigarettes by alternating exposure to CS and clean air. Here we show that this do-it-yourself (DIY) system induces airway inflammation and lung emphysema in mice after 4-months of cigarette smoke exposure. The effects of whole-body inhalation (WBI) of CS on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow using this apparatus are also shown.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Humo/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Animales , Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Ratones , Enfisema Pulmonar/inducido químicamente
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137876

RESUMEN

Scholarship on the commercial determinants of health (CDoH) has sought to understand the multiple ways corporate policies, practices and products affect population health. At the same time, gender is recognised as a key determinant of health and an important axis of health inequalities. To date, there has been limited attention paid to the ways in which the CDoH engage with and impact on gender inequalities and health. This review seeks to address this gap by examining evidence on the practices and strategies of two industries-tobacco and alcohol-and their interaction with gender, with a particular focus on women. We first describe the practices by which these industries engage with women in their marketing and corporate social responsibility activities, reinforcing problematic gender norms and stereotypes that harm women and girls. We then examine how tobacco and alcohol companies contribute to gender inequalities through a range of strategies intended to protect their market freedoms and privileged position in society. By reinforcing gender inequalities at multiple levels, CDoH undermine the health of women and girls and exacerbate global health inequalities.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Comercio , Mercadotecnía , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Productos de Tabaco , Derechos Civiles , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Política , Política Pública , Responsabilidad Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Industria del Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco/economía
12.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 991-998, 2020 11 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215490

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore self-reported oral hygiene practices (OHPs) among Hungarian adult e-cigarette-only (former smokers who switched completely to e-cigarette use or vaping) and dual users (smokers who use e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco cigarettes concomitantly). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based survey of 930 adult Hungarian e-cigarette users was conducted in 2015. Participants reported 10 OHPs, which were included in analyses as separate binary variables and as a composite variable of the 10 OHP items (inadequate/adequate). Chi-square test was used to explore whether separate OHPs differ by vaping status, and to examine the relationship between inadequate OHPs and past combustible or e-cigarette use characteristics. Associations between separate OHPs and vaping status, and between inadequate OHPs and vaping status were tested by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: More dual users reported toothbrushing twice a day or more than e-cigarette-only users (73.6% vs 65.3%, respectively, p = 0.041) and using sugar-free chewing gum (57.7% vs 45.8%, respectively, p = 0.006) while adequacy of other OHPs did not differ statistically significantly by vaping status. Inadequate OHPs were more typical in the sample (63.7%) than adequate OHPs, however, inadequate OHPs did not differ statistically significantly among dual users and e-cigarette-only users (62.0% vs 64.0%, respectively, OR = 1.20, p = 0.400), controlling for age, gender, education, past combustible and current e-cigarette use characteristics. CONCLUSION: In this study, both e-cigarette-only and dual users demonstrated similarly high prevalence of inadequate OHPs. Therefore dentists should educate them about effective OHPs and the role of tobacco and e-cigarette use in the development of oral diseases.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Higiene Bucal
13.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47941

RESUMEN

Modismo entre os jovens, o Narguilé e o cigarro eletrônico podem ser mais atrativos, mas os riscos também são altos para a saúde


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Productos de Tabaco , Riesgo a la Salud
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21743, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001829

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak was designated a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The relationship between vaping and contracting COVID-19 is unclear, and information on the internet is conflicting. There is some scientific evidence that vaping cannabidiol (CBD), an active ingredient in cannabis that is obtained from the hemp plant, or other substances is associated with more severe manifestations of COVID-19. However, there is also inaccurate information that vaping can aid COVID-19 treatment, as well as expert opinion that CBD, possibly administered through vaping, can mitigate COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, it is necessary to study the spread of inaccurate information to better understand how to promote scientific knowledge and curb inaccurate information, which is critical to the health of vapers. Inaccurate information about vaping and COVID-19 may affect COVID-19 treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Using structural topic modeling, we aimed to map temporal trends in the web-based vaping narrative (a large data set comprising web-based vaping chatter from several sources) to indicate how the narrative changed from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We obtained data using a textual query that scanned a data pool of approximately 200,000 different domains (4,027,172 documents and 361,100,284 words) such as public internet forums, blogs, and social media, from August 1, 2019, to April 21, 2020. We then used structural topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence and semantic structures within topics around vaping before and after December 31, 2019, when COVID-19 was reported to the World Health Organization. RESULTS: Broadly, the web-based vaping narrative can be organized into the following groups or archetypes: harms from vaping; Vaping Regulation; Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment; and Vaping Lifestyle. Three archetypes were observed prior to the emergence of COVID-19; however, four archetypes were identified post-COVID-19 (Vaping as Harm Reduction or Treatment was the additional archetype). A topic related to CBD product preference emerged after COVID-19 was first reported, which may be related to the use of CBD by vapers as a COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our main finding is the emergence of a vape-administered CBD treatment narrative around COVID-19 when comparing the web-based vaping narratives before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are key to understanding how vapers respond to inaccurate information about COVID-19, optimizing treatment of vapers who contract COVID-19, and possibly minimizing instances of inaccurate information. The findings have implications for the management of COVID-19 among vapers and the monitoring of web-based content pertinent to tobacco to develop targeted interventions to manage COVID-19 among vapers.


Asunto(s)
Cannabidiol/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Cannabidiol/efectos adversos , Cannabidiol/farmacología , Cannabidiol/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Productos de Tabaco
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 335: 51-63, 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091563

RESUMEN

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and tobacco heating products (THPs) have reduced yields of toxicants and have recently emerged as a potentially safer alternative to combustible cigarettes. To understand if reduced toxicant exposure is associated with reductions in biological responses, there is a need for high-quality pre-clinical in vitro studies. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to conventional cigarette aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) and highly concentrated AqEs from e-cigarettes (two generations of atomisers) and THPs (two variants). All AqE samples were generated by a standardized methodology and characterized for nicotine, propylene glycol and vegetable glycerol. The cigarette AqE caused a maximum 100 ± 0.00 % reduction in cell viability at 35 % dose (2.80 puffs) as opposed to 96.63 ± 2.73 % at 50 % (20 puffs) and 99.85 ± 0.23 % at 75 % (30 puffs) for the two THP variants (glo Bright Tobacco, glo Rich Tobacco), and 99.07 ± 1.61 % at the neat ePen2.0 e-cigarette (200 puffs). The AqE of the remaining e-cigarettes either resulted in an incomplete dose-response or did not elicit any response. The methods utilized were suitably sensitive to not only differentiate between cigarette, THP and e-cigarette aerosols but also to distinguish between products within each product category.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/efectos de los fármacos , Humo/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/toxicidad , Aerosoles , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Calefacción , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/patología , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036211

RESUMEN

Taxation policies are the most cost-effective measure to reduce overall tobacco consumption. However, cigarettes in Lithuania are among the cheapest in the European Union. The threat of the illicit trade is often used to compromise evidence-based policies, pricing policies particularly. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of illicit cigarette consumption in Lithuania and identify the main characteristics of illicit cigarette smokers. The national cross-sectional survey with direct observation of the latest purchased pack of cigarettes was conducted between August and September 2019. In total, 1050 smokers aged ≥18 were interviewed face-to-face. The illicit share of the total consumption of cigarettes per year was 10.7% with 9.7% of smokers showing or describing illicit cigarette packs compared to 17% reported by industry-funded studies. Older smokers, smokers with lower education and heavy smokers were more likely to regularly purchase illicit cigarettes. The average price of an illicit pack was almost two times lower than licit. Although the illicit trade of tobacco products is a serious policy challenge, the threat of an increase in illicit trade should not delay tobacco taxation improvements.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Comercio , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lituania , Masculino , Fumar , Impuestos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240611, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085686

RESUMEN

There has been an upsurge of e-cigarette use in the United States in recent years. While e-cigarettes may contain lower levels of toxic chemicals than combusted cigarettes, they still pose serious health hazards, including increased risk for heart and respiratory disease. Despite these risks, public awareness of the health harms of e-cigarettes remains low. Thus, it is important to educate the public about the potential harms of e-cigarettes. This study took themes commonly found in antismoking messages and used them to develop messages about harms of e-cigarettes. A national sample of 2801 current smokers and nonsmokers (aged 18+ years) were randomized to view one of four e-cigarette messages (harmful effect of chemicals, uncertainty about ingredients, distrust of big tobacco, or cost of vaping) or a control message (bottled water ad). Participants' reactions to the messages and behavioral intentions were assessed immediately following the exposure. MANOVA examined effects of the messages on blocks of the outcome variables and univariate analyses estimated adjusted means for each experimental condition for each outcome. The message about harmful chemicals was perceived as the most informative and effective and elicited the highest levels of negative emotions (Ps<0.05). However, on measures of actual effectiveness, the other messages performed equally well. Specifically, messages with different themes (harmful chemicals, uncertainty about ingredients, anti-industry, or financial cost) increased perceived risk of e-cigarettes, support for e-cigarette control, and lowered self-exempting beliefs and intentions to use e-cigarettes (Ps<0.05). Themes commonly used in anti-smoking messages may be effective in educating the public about the potential harm of e-cigarettes. The observed differential effects of the messages suggest the need to use multiple themes in a public education campaign about e-cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , No Fumadores/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092106

RESUMEN

Given the emerging tobacco landscape, dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes has increased among young adults, but little is known about its associated factors. Peer crowds, defined as macro-level connections between individuals with similar core values (e.g., "Hip Hop" describing a group that prefers hip hop music and values strength, honor, and respect), are a promising way to understand tobacco use patterns. We examined associations between peer crowds and tobacco use patterns by using data from a cross sectional survey of 1340 young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2014. Outcomes were the past 30-day use of: neither cigarettes nor e-cigarettes; cigarettes but not e-cigarettes; e-cigarettes but not cigarettes; and both cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Peer crowds included Hipster, Hip Hop, Country, Partier, Homebody, and Young Professional. Multinomial regression analysis indicated that peer crowds were significantly associated with different tobacco use patterns. Compared to Young Professionals, Hip Hop and Hipster crowds were more likely to dual use; Hipsters were more likely to use e-cigarettes only, and Country participants were more likely to smoke cigarettes only. These findings suggest that tobacco control campaigns and cessation interventions should be tailored to different young adult peer crowds and address poly-tobacco use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Grupo Paritario , Identificación Social , Productos de Tabaco , Vapeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , San Francisco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco , Adulto Joven
20.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(5): 595-603, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028472

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity as a method to reduce conventional cigarette smoking, despite mixed evidence on their effectiveness. This study evaluates the relationship between overall and product-specific nicotine dependence and the transitions between dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes versus exclusive cigarette or e-cigarette use over time. METHOD: This study used data from Waves 1-3 (2013-2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Weighted logistic regressions with person-level random effects tested relationships between nicotine dependence and dual versus exclusive use over time. Dual use transitions were then compared with the characteristics of e-cigarette devices used and reasons to use them. RESULTS: Higher tobacco dependence was associated with becoming or remaining a dual user rather than remaining or becoming an exclusive user of cigarettes or e-cigarettes (p < .05). Higher e-cigarette dependence was associated with remaining or becoming an exclusive e-cigarette user. The number of days smoking cigarettes or using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days was also associated with greater odds of remaining or transitioning to exclusive use of that product (p < .05). Exclusive e-cigarette users tended to invest more financially in their devices and were more likely to report owning modifiable devices. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that established dual use and transitions to and from dual use are associated with higher tobacco dependence compared with remaining a cigarette- or e-cigarette-only user and that higher e-cigarette dependence is associated with becoming or remaining an exclusive user of e-cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Fumadores , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto Joven
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