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1.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107535, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351320

RESUMEN

E-cigarette use among youth remains a public health concern. Although extant literature has examined the perceived harms of cigarette use and secondhand smoke, perceptions of harms associated with secondhand e-cigarette aerosol (SHA) are not well understood. Therefore, we used data from the 2020 U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 13,292) in which participants indicated whether SHA caused no harm, little harm, some harm, or a lot of harm. We dichotomized SHA harm perceptions as harmless vs harmful. We included sociodemographics (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, urbanicity), e-cigarette use characteristics, and SHA exposure as covariates and estimated associations between SHA harm perceptions and each covariate using adjusted logistic regression. Most youth perceived SHA as harmful (87.9 %) compared to harmless (12.1 %). Older youth (vs younger youth) had higher odds of perceiving SHA as harmless, whereas male (vs female) youth had 49 % higher odds (95 % CI: 1.29-1.72) of perceiving SHA as harmless. As the number of days of e-cigarette use in the past 30 days increased (vs non-users), odds of perceiving SHA as harmless increased. Youth exposed to SHA (vs no exposure) in the past 30 days had 35 % higher odds of perceiving SHA as harmless (95 % CI: 1.16-1.57). To conclude, youth SHA harm perceptions varied overall and by sociodemographic characteristics, e-cigarette use, and SHA exposure. Educational campaigns to inform youth of the health risks associated with e-cigarettes and SHA are needed to reduce overall nicotine intake and disparities in nicotine exposure.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Vapeo , Femenino , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Nicotina , Vapeo/epidemiología , Aerosoles
2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 12-18, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895382

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to calculate the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) of cancers due to tobacco use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO), where water-pipe smoking is prevalent but its effect was not considered in previous studies. AIMS AND METHODS: We applied Levin's formula to estimate PAFs of cancers due to tobacco use (defined as all type tobacco including both cigarette and water-pipe). We also calculated PAF of water-pipe smoking separately. Exposure prevalence data were retrieved from representative national and subnational surveys. Data on cancer incidence and death were also and cancer cases were obtained GLOBOCAN 2020. We also obtained associated relative risks from published meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the total 715 658 incident adult cancer cases that were reported in 2020 in EMRO, 14.6% (n = 104 800) was attributable to tobacco smoking (26.9% [n = 92 753]) in men versus 3.3% (n = 12 048) in women. Further, 1.0% of incident adult cancers were attributable to current water-pipe use (n = 6825) (1.7% [n = 5568]) in men versus 0.4% (n = 1257 in women). CONCLUSIONS: PAFs of cancers due to tobacco smoking in EMRO were higher in our study than previous reports. This could be due to the neglected role of water-pipe in previous studies that is a common tobacco smoking method in EMRO. The proportion of cancers attributable to water-pipe smoking in EMRO might be underestimated due to lack of research on the risk of cancers associated with water-pipe smoking and also less developed cancer registries in EMRO. IMPLICATIONS: In this study, we found higher PAFs for cancers due to tobacco smoking in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) region than previous reports. This difference could be due to ignoring the role of water-pipe smoking in previous studies. In 2020, 1% of incident cancers and 1.3% of cancer-related deaths in EMRO were attributable to water-pipe smoking. We also found a big difference in PAFs of cancers due to tobacco and water-pipe smoking across EMRO countries, with Tunisia, Lebanon, and Jordan having the highest, and Djibouti, Sudan, and Somalia having the lowest proportions of cancers attributable to tobacco and water-pipe smoking.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Productos de Tabaco , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Incidencia , Tabaco , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/etiología , Prevalencia , Fumar Tabaco
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 159-163, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896127

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Flavored electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and tobacco products are associated with the initiation and progression of tobacco use. With recent restrictions around flavored products, it is critical to measure both the product and the flavor being used. The Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) Flavored Tobacco Products Measurement Subcommittee (FTPMS) was established to develop core measures to assess flavored tobacco and ENDS product usage, facilitate data harmonization, replicability, and comparisons across studies. AIMS AND METHODS: The FTPMS used a mixed-method approach to inform the development of recommended measures (first use, current use, reasons for use) to assess tobacco and ENDS product flavors. This included reviewing existing surveys, identifying priority areas, developing new measures, cognitive testing, and finalization of recommended measures. RESULTS: Recommended measures were selected from national surveys (e.g. PATH study) and survey items used in TCORS studies to evaluate first use, current use, and reasons for use of tobacco and ENDS products. Response options were expanded for questions about specific flavors and adapted to allow for assessments relevant to recent federal policies. Supplemental measures were developed for researchers conducting more in-depth research around flavored products. CONCLUSIONS: Using an expert consensus process supplemented with cognitive testing, the FTPMS developed recommendations for core and supplemental measures for flavored tobacco and ENDS products. Harmonizing data on these factors for flavored tobacco and ENDS products are critical for researchers and may provide actionable evidence to federal, state, and local regulators and policymakers, as well as support evaluations of policies restricting flavors in these products. IMPLICATIONS: The development of core measures to assess first use, current use, and reasons for use of flavored tobacco and ENDS products will facilitate data harmonization, replicability, and comparisons across studies conducted in different samples or across communities with varying levels of regulation for these products. Use of these standardized measures will allow for a greater understanding of the role of flavors and helps to build a more robust evidence base to inform regulatory decisions to reduce tobacco and ENDS use at the population level.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Humanos , Tabaco , Aromatizantes , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 151-158, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931100

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There is increasing recognition that non-daily cigarette smoking is common in early adulthood but less is known about its stability over time, or what influences transitions to heavier or nonsmoking. We examined the stability of non-daily smoking in a sample of young adults, and tested whether social and cognitive factors predicted transitions to other smoking patterns over time. AIMS AND METHODS: Participants were 579 young adults (18-24 years old at enrollment, 52% male) who were non-daily and never-daily cigarette smokers and California residents. Participants completed 13 waves of assessment over 3 years. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate the frequency of consistent abstinence, defined as no cigarette use at two consecutive waves and no cigarette use at any subsequent waves. Cox and logistic regression were used to test predictors of consistent abstinence. RESULTS: We found that 55% of participants smoked intermittently throughout the study, while 43% were consistently abstinent by the end of the study; few transitioned to daily smoking. Stopping smoking was associated with having fewer smoking friends, smoking less in social situations, having lower positive reinforcement expectancies for smoking, and having stronger intent to quit. Post hoc analyses indicated those who stopped smoking tended to report reductions in positive reinforcement expectancies and increased intent to quit in the 6 months before stopping. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest a substantial minority of young adult non-daily smokers may stop on their own, but that the majority continue smoking and may require intervention. Interventions for this population should address social motives and reinforcement expectancies. IMPLICATIONS: The majority of young adults who are non-daily cigarette smokers appear to maintain this habit over an extended period and may require intervention. Interventions that focus on reducing expectancies for positive effects of and social motives for cigarette use and on increasing intent to quit smoking may be most effective.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Adolescente , Femenino , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumadores/psicología
5.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 127-134, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983929

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Flavored tobacco sales restrictions (FTSRs) are implemented to reduce access to flavored tobacco products. We examined the association between seven cities with local FTSRs implemented in 2018/2019 and e-cigarette use among high school students in the California Bay Area. AIMS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from the California Healthy Kids Survey using a difference-in-differences (D-I-D) strategy. We compared pre- and post-policy changes one year after implementation in current and ever e-cigarette use among students attending school in a city with a FTSR (exposed) (n = 20 832) versus without (unexposed) (n = 66 126). Other outcomes included ever marijuana use in an e-cigarette and ease of access to e-cigarettes. RESULTS: Pre- to post-policy, the adjusted odds of current and ever e-cigarette use did not significantly change among students exposed and unexposed to a FTSR. In the adjusted D-I-D analysis, the odds of current (aOR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.65) and ever e-cigarette use (aOR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.26) did not significantly change by exposure group. However, one year post-implementation, the odds of ease of access to e-cigarettes significantly increased among exposed (aOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.95) and unexposed students (aOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.39, 1.70). Similarly, the odds of ever using marijuana in an e-cigarette significantly increased among exposed (aOR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.53) and unexposed students (aOR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.39). CONCLUSIONS: Local FTSRs in the California Bay Area were not associated with a change in e-cigarette use one year post-implementation. Increased ease of access and marijuana use may be explanatory factors. IMPLICATIONS: FTSRs were not associated with a decrease in current or ever e-cigarette use among high school students in the California Bay Area one-year post-implementation. Potential explanatory factors are that ease of access to e-cigarettes and using marijuana in an e-cigarette increased. More research is needed to understand the influence of these factors on youth access and behaviors. To address the youth e-cigarette epidemic, a comprehensive approach is needed, including policies, media campaigns, education programs, and cessation tools targeted to youth.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Vapeo , Adolescente , Humanos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Tabaco , Fumar/epidemiología , Aromatizantes , California/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
6.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 143-150, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nicotine pouches containing synthetic nicotine or tobacco-derived nicotine (TDN) are available in the United States. Synthetic nicotine pouches are often marketed as "tobacco-free nicotine" (TFN), which may alter risk perceptions and product appeal. This study examined young adults' perceptions of TFN versus TDN pouches and the associations between product perceptions and TFN pouch awareness, susceptibility, and use, respectively. AIMS AND METHODS: In total 630 young adults (18-25 years) completed an online Qualtrics panels survey in 2021. Participants were informed that TFN pouches contain synthetic nicotine as opposed to TDN. Participants reported on comparative risk perceptions for TFN versus TDN pouches and on TFN pouch awareness, susceptibility, and use. Unadjusted between-group comparisons and adjusted binary logistic regressions were run to examine relationships between product perceptions and TFN pouch awareness, susceptibility, and use. RESULTS: Participants were aware of (37.3%), susceptible to (29.2%), or had used TFN pouches (3.8%). In unadjusted comparisons, TFN pouch awareness, susceptibility, and use were associated with disproportionately perceiving TFN pouches as less harmful or otherwise better than TDN pouches. In adjusted models, relationships between favorable perceptions and both TFN pouch awareness and susceptibility remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: The descriptor "tobacco-free" may impact risk perceptions and the appeal of nicotine pouches among young adults. While no direct relationship was observed between TFN perceptions and TFN pouch use in the adjusted model, perceptions remained related to product awareness and susceptibility, which may be linked to future use. Continued surveillance is needed to fully determine how the term "tobacco-free" on product packaging and advertising impacts longitudinal public health outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: Nicotine pouches originally contained TDN. Today, numerous brands of synthetic nicotine pouches, which are often marketed as "tobacco-free," are available on the market. We informed participants that "tobacco-free nicotine" pouches contain synthetic nicotine and examined comparative risk perceptions (i.e. tobacco-free vs. TDN pouches) and TFN pouch awareness, susceptibility, and use. Perceiving tobacco-free nicotine pouches as less harmful than tobacco-derived pouches was associated with product awareness, susceptibility, and use in unadjusted models and with awareness and susceptibility in adjusted models. Restricting the term "tobacco-free" may become necessary if the term inaccurately reduces product risk perceptions or increases product appeal.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Publicidad , Uso de Tabaco , Tabaco
7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 135-142, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037069

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Smoking and mental health problems are public health concerns worldwide. Studies on smoke-free tobacco products, especially snus are scarce. Snus is considered less harmful than smoking and in the United States allowed to be marketed accordingly, but may still add to the burden of disease. AIMS AND METHODS: Data stem from the Norwegian Students' Health and Wellbeing Study (SHoT study) in 2018 (162 512 invited, 50 054 (30.8%) completed). Smoking, snus use, health service and medication usage and mental health problems, including the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), were assessed using self-report. The aims were to explore the associations between smoking and snus use and mental health problems and treatments. Furthermore, the association between both daily smoking and daily snus use and mental health problems. Associations were tested with χ2-, t-tests, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Daily snus users had 38% increased odds (odds ratio [OR]: 1.38, CI: 1.30 to 1.46), and daily smokers had 96% increased odds (OR: 1.96, CI: 1.65 to 2.34) of having a high HSCL-25 score, adjusted for gender, low socioeconomic status (SES), using tobacco, participating in therapy and using antidepressants daily. CONCLUSIONS: Both daily smoking and daily snus use were associated with an increased level of mental health problems. The adjusted probability for mental health problems was lower for snus use; however, snus use prevalence was tenfold in our sample. IMPLICATIONS: Despite the lack of causal and directional conclusions, these associations may have implications for future legislation on snus. They also highlight the importance of more research, especially as snus is considered less harmful and seemingly replacing smoking in Norway.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Tabaco sin Humo , Humanos , Universidades , Salud Mental , Estudiantes , Noruega/epidemiología
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 28-35, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657699

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the absolute and proportionate number of menthol versus regular cigarette packs displayed on the shelves inside tobacco retail outlets (TROs) across New York City (NYC). AIMS AND METHODS: Photographic surveillance methods were used to capture the presence and proportionate amount of all visible cigarette packs on the shelves inside N = 160 TROs. Statistical analyses examined the absolute and proportionate number of menthol packs in each TRO as a function of NYC borough, the local TRO environment, population smoking rates derived from the NYC Community Health Survey, and other demographic indicators from the American Community Survey. RESULTS: The total number of cigarette packs on the shelves of each TRO and the proportion of menthol packs varied significantly across TROs, averaging about one-quarter of all packs displayed (M = 0.274; SD = .15). Modeling results indicate that the proportion of menthol packs displayed was significantly greater in areas with elevated population smoking rates (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, CI: 1.01-1.06) and density of TROs per 1000 residents (OR = 1.23; CI: 1.01-1.49), although these associations varied in complex ways with the proportion living under the federal poverty level and the proportion under age 18 years residing within each zip-code. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study demonstrate the utility of photograph-based TRO audit methods for objective, reliable documentation of the presence and proportionate amount of menthol versus other cigarette pack types on TRO shelves and highlight the need to account for sources of variation between small areas when examining the TRO product landscape and evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory actions against menthol. IMPLICATIONS: This study describes use of a "hands-free" surveillance technique that offers valuable advantages over traditional retailer surveillance techniques. Comprehensive photographic surveillance data collection allows for more objective measurements of, in this case, the retail outlet's tobacco power wall, as multiple coders can review the same images and interrater reliability can be empirically tested. The results of this analysis highlight the need to account for local variation between small areas when examining TRO product landscapes and the effects of policy changes at the retailer level.


Asunto(s)
Mentol , Productos de Tabaco , Humanos , Adolescente , Tabaco , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
9.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 36-42, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752162

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between tobacco retail outlet density and adult smoking prevalence at the county level in Virginia, controlling for spatial autocorrelations. AIMS AND METHODS: Pooling data from 2020 County Health Rankings (compiled data from various sources including, but not limited to, the National Center for Health Statistics-Mortality Files, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and the American Community Survey) and Counter Tools, we conducted regression analyses that accounted for spatial autocorrelation (spatial lag models, LMlag) and adjusted for county-level access to healthcare, demographics, SES, environmental factors, risk conditions or behaviors, and population health measures. RESULTS: Our estimates provide evidence that every increase of one tobacco retail outlet per 1000 persons was associated with 1.16 percentage points (95% CI: 0.80-1.52) higher smoking prevalence at the county level in Virginia after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. The effect of outlet density was largely explained by social determinants of health such as SES, risky conditions or behaviors, and environmental factors. We further noticed that the impact of social determinants of health were closely related and can be explained by indicators of population health (rates of mental distress (ß = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.31-1.67) and physical inactivity (ß = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04-0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Although higher tobacco outlet density was associated with an increase in county-level smoking prevalence, the impact of outlet density was largely explained by social determinants of health and mental illness. Improving well-being at the community level could be a promising strategy in future tobacco control policies. IMPLICATION: The influence of tobacco outlet density seems to be explained by other social determinants of health and population level of mental or physical health. Thus, efforts to reduce tobacco use and consequent negative health effects should explore the impact of improving regional living standards. However, a sole focus on economic growth may not be sufficient, whereas a focus on such things as promoting work-life balance and improving overall well-being at the community level may be more.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Tabaco , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Virginia/epidemiología , Comercio
10.
Addiction ; 118(1): 140-148, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938219

RESUMEN

AIMS: To examine whether polyuse of cigarettes and other smoked products (polysmoking) is predictive of quit attempts and quit success. DESIGN: A prospective multi-country cohort design. SETTING: Australia, Canada, England and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3983 adult daily cigarette smokers were surveyed in 2016 (wave 1 of data collection) and were re-contacted in 2018 (wave 2) (i.e. waves 1-2 cohort) in the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping (ITC 4CV) surveys; and 3736 smokers were surveyed in 2018 and re-contacted in 2020 (wave 3) (i.e. waves 2-3 cohort). MEASUREMENTS: Participants were asked about their cigarette smoking and use of cigars, cigarillos, pipes and waterpipes. Outcomes were quit attempts between two survey waves and success, defined as having quit smoking all the combustible tobacco at the subsequent survey for 1 month or more. FINDINGS: Levels of polysmoking were 12.7% in the waves 1-2 cohort and 10.5% for the waves 2-3 cohort. Compared with cigarette-only smokers, polysmokers were more likely to attempt to quit between waves 1 and 2 [54.9 versus 42.7%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.74, P < 0.01], but not between waves 2 and 3 (43.8 versus 40.1%, aOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.72-1.22). Polysmoking predicted reduced likelihood of success in both cohorts among attempters and the overall samples. Between waves 2 and 3 there were significantly more transitions to non-daily smoking among the polysmokers (12.4 versus 5.3%, χ2 = 40.4, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is a consistent association between polysmoking (use of cigarettes together with other smoked products) and reduced quit success for combustible tobacco, but it is probably due to increased likelihood of transitioning to non-daily use rather than complete cessation.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Vapeo , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Fumadores , Tabaco , Estudios Prospectivos , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología
11.
Addiction ; 118(1): 177-188, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ontologies are ways of representing information that improve clarity and the ability to connect different data sources. This paper proposes an initial version of an ontology of tobacco, nicotine and vaping products with the aim of reducing ambiguity and confusion in the field. METHODS: Terms related to tobacco, nicotine and vaping products were identified in the research literature and their usage characterised. Basic Formal Ontology was used as a unifying upper-level ontology to describe the domain, and classes with definitions and labels were developed linking them to this ontology. Labels, definitions and properties were reviewed and revised in an iterative manner until a coherent set of classes was agreed by the authors. RESULTS: Overlapping, but distinct classes were developed: 'tobacco-containing product', 'nicotine-containing product' and 'vaping device'. Subclasses of tobacco-containing products are 'combustible tobacco-containing product', 'heated tobacco product' and 'smokeless tobacco-containing product'. Subclasses of combustible tobacco-containing product include 'cigar', 'cigarillo', 'bidi' and 'cigarette' with further subclasses including 'manufactured cigarette'. Manufactured cigarettes have properties that include 'machine-smoked nicotine yield' and 'machine-smoked tar yield'. Subclasses of smokeless tobacco product include 'nasal snuff', 'chewing tobacco product', and 'oral snuff' with its subclass 'snus'. Subclasses of nicotine-containing product include 'nicotine lozenge' and 'nicotine transdermal patch'. Subclasses of vaping device included 'electronic vaping device' with a further subclass, 'e-cigarette'. E-cigarettes have evolved with a complex range of properties including atomiser resistance, battery power, properties of consumables including e-liquid nicotine concentration and flavourings, and the ontology characterises classes of product accordingly. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an ontology of tobacco, nicotine and vaping products should help reduce ambiguity and confusion in tobacco control research and practice.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Vapeo , Humanos , Nicotina , Tabaco
12.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107537, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332518

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have indicated that youth who use tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco, demonstrate dependence symptoms. However, the tobacco marketplace has expanded dramatically in recent years, and few studies have examined dependence symptoms among youth who use novel products. This study combined 2019-2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey data to report the prevalence and determinants of tobacco dependence symptoms among U.S. middle and high school current (past 30-day) tobacco users. METHODS: Prevalence estimates were calculated to examine dependence outcomes and other covariates by user groups (single product users and multiple product users). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of tobacco dependence among current users of cigarettes, cigars (regular cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars), e-cigarettes, heated tobacco products, hookah, pipe tobacco, bidis, and smokeless tobacco products (chew, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables). RESULTS: Among current tobacco users, 15.7 % (95 % CI: 14.2-17.3) reported wanting to use tobacco within 30 min of waking and 28.3 % (95 % CI: 26.3-30.5) reported strong cravings for tobacco in the past 30 days. Nearly-two-thirds of current users were single product users, of which 80.5 % reported using e-cigarettes. Reporting of dependence symptoms was generally associated with multiple product use, higher frequency of use, earlier initiation age, and use of flavored products. CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. adolescents, a considerable amount of current tobacco product users, even infrequent users, reported symptoms of dependence. These findings highlight the continued importance of prevention strategies for youth tobacco experimentation and progression to regular use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Tabaquismo , Tabaco sin Humo , Adolescente , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas
13.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107509, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194977

RESUMEN

Many individuals diagnosed with cannabis use disorder (CUD) report a desire to quit using cannabis due to problems associated with use. Yet, successful abstinence is difficult for a large subset of this population. Thus, the present study sought to elucidate potential risk factors for cannabis use problems, perceived barriers for quitting, and diminished self-efficacy for remaining abstinent. Specifically, this investigation examined cigarette user status, anxiety sensitivity, and the interplay between these individual difference factors in terms of cannabis-related problems, perceived barriers for cannabis cessation, and self-efficacy for quitting cannabis use. The sample consisted of 132 adult cannabis users who met criteria for CUD and were interested in quitting (38 % female; 63.6 % Black; Mage = 37.22; SDage = 28.79; 54.6 % current tobacco users). Findings revealed a significant interaction, such that anxiety sensitivity was related to cannabis use problems and perceived barriers for cannabis cessation among current cigarette users, but not among cigarette non-users. There was no significant interaction for self-efficacy for remaining abstinent. The current findings suggest that cigarette users constitute a subgroup that may be especially vulnerable to the effects of anxiety sensitivity in terms of cannabis use problems and perceived barriers for quitting cannabis use.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Abuso de Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Ansiedad
14.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107517, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228363

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dual use of combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes is an emerging phenomenon among U.S. adults. Literature suggests two primary reasons for this emerging use (i.e., to help quit smoking and to stealth vape). This study investigated user profiles based on use intensity and the reasons for dual use. METHODS: A total of 1,151 U.S. adult dual users were drawn from the 2018-2019 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We divided them into four groups: daily dual users (n = 189), predominant smokers (n = 608), predominant vapers (n = 143), and non-daily dual users (n = 211). We performed weighted multivariable logistic regressions to identify factors associated with the two primary reasons for dual use. RESULTS: 3 in 10 of U.S. adult dual users used e-cigarettes to help quit smoking while 2 in 10 of U.S. adult dual users used e-cigarettes to stealth vape. Compared to daily dual users, predominant smokers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.62] were less likely to use e-cigarettes to help quit smoking whereas predominant vapers (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.04, 3.13) were more likely to use e-cigarettes to help quit smoking and less likely to use e-cigarettes to stealth vape (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: There was notable heterogeneity among the four groups of dual users. As the landscape of tobacco use is rapidly changing with an increasing popularity of e-cigarettes, reasons as well as behaviors of dual users need to be regularly monitored for effective tobacco control.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Vapeo , Adulto , Humanos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Fumadores
15.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 86: 105516, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347401

RESUMEN

Electronic cigarette (e-Cig) has been promoted as a safer alternative to traditional cigarette (t-Cig) recently. However, there are limited scientific data on the potential health effects of e-Cig use. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicities of e-Cig and t-Cig condensate solutions (e-CigCS and t-CigCS) on human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) in vitro, and employed the exosome proteomic technique to systematically assess the effects of e-CigCS and t-CigCS on 16HBE cells. Cytotoxicity assay showed 16HBE cells were more sensitive to t-CigCS than e-CigCS. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that there are 431 differential expressed exosomal proteins (DEEPs) in test groups compared to the control air group (P-value<0.05) and t-CigCS has a greater influence than e-CigCS on exosomal protein expression. Bioinformatic analysis showed the DEEPs from the t-Cig group were significantly enriched in pathways in cancer while tobacco-flavored e-Cig (e-Cigt) and menthol-flavored e-Cig (e-Cigm) groups were not. Further validations of some DEEPs, such as NF-κB p65, Sulfiredoxin-1(SRXN1) and Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), were carried out using immunoblot and Real-time PCR analysis, showing that t-Cig may have a greater influence than e-Cig on tumor development and metastasis. Taken together, the finding reported here strongly support our hypothesis that electronic cigarettes are significantly less toxic compared with traditional cigarette.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Exosomas , Productos de Tabaco , Humanos , Proteómica , Células Epiteliales
17.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 86: 105510, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372310

RESUMEN

This study aimed to compare the aerosol chemistry and in vitro toxicological profiles of two prototype Heated Tobacco Product (p-HTP) variants to the 1R6F Reference Cigarette. In the neutral red uptake screen the p-HTPs were 37-39-fold less potent than 1R6F, in the micronucleus assay, responses to the p-HTPs were 8-22-fold less, and in the Ames test mutagenicity was weak or removed compared to 1R6F. The cardiovascular scratch wound assay revealed 58-fold greater wound healing impairment following exposure to 1R6F smoke extracts than the p-HTPs. Furthermore, in seven cell stress-related high content screening endpoints (cell count, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane potential, GSH depletion, NFkB translocation, phosphorylation of c-jun and phosphorylation of H2AX), at 4 and 24 h, responses were substantially greater to 1R6F smoke extracts at comparable nicotine levels. The reduced in vitro effects of the p-HTPs were attributed to substantial reductions (90-97%) in selected HPHCs measured compared to in 1R6F smoke. The multiple endpoint in vitro assessment approach provides greater mechanistic insight and the first reported toxicological characterisation of these p-HTPs in the literature. Overall, the findings contribute to the growing weight of evidence that HTPs may offer a reduced harm mode of nicotine delivery to adult smokers.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Nicotina/toxicidad , Humo/efectos adversos , Tabaco
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158824, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury (MI) is a severe complication once subjected to hypoxic condition at high altitude. Little evidence exists about the association of cigarettes and MI at high altitude, especially over 5000 m. In the present study, we intend to explore the influence of cigarettes on MI in healthy population after travelling to this extreme environment. METHODS: Physical examination was performed in population at Pamirs plateau during November and December 2020. All participants were divided into cigarette group or control group. MI was diagnosed based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzymes (CK-MB) and aspartate amino transferase (AST). RESULTS: 311 people were included, 58 of whom developed MI, accounting for 18.6 %. Participants in cigarette group were all male, and younger than those in control group. There was longer exposure time in cigarette group. Compared with control group, red blood cell counting, hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit in cigarette group were significantly increased, while heart rate was significantly decreased. Cigarettes were found to significantly upregulate the level of CK-MB and LDH. After adjustment with age, sex, body mass index, altitude and exposure time as covariables, 108 male participants remained in each group, showing that none of clinical indexes had significant difference between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex and oxygen saturation (SO2) were independent risk factors for MI in non-smokers while HGB was independent risk factor in smokers. By using Spearman correlation analysis, four myocardial enzymes were not relevant with the level of SO2 in non-smokers. For smokers, HGB was found to be in significant positive correlation with LDH. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that exposure to high altitude over 5000 m could abrogate the impact of cigarettes on MI in healthy population. The independent factors affecting the occurrence of MI were distinctive depending on current smoking status.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Productos de Tabaco , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Miocardio , Creatina Quinasa , Hipoxia , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa
19.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107483, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084416

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") are commonly promoted as a less-harmful alternative to combustible cigarettes, yet many individuals concurrently use both products ("dual users"). Little is known about the extent to which dual users' perceptions of the addictive properties of these products differ, or to what extent there are differences in the factors that elicit craving for each product. METHODS: An online survey evaluated beliefs about the addictive properties of cigarettes vs e-cigarettes and the situational and affective precipitants of product craving, on a scale from 1 to 10, in a sample of Canadian adults that reported past-month use of combustible and e-cigarettes (N = 175; 79 female). RESULTS: Participants rated cigarettes as more addictive than e-cigarettes, and on average reported higher levels of dependence on combustible cigarettes. While the addictive properties of both combustible and e-cigarettes were largely attributed to nicotine, non-nicotine factors (e.g. flavouring, other non-nicotine ingredients) were believed to make a relatively stronger contribution to the addictive properties of e-cigarettes, particularly among women. Participants reported greater increases in craving for combustible cigarettes in response to negative affective states and situational factors, and these effects were strongest among participants that displayed greater dependence on combustible tobacco relative to e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Dual users perceived cigarettes to be more addictive than e-cigarettes and attributed the addictive properties of each product to different factors. Further, cravings for combustible cigarettes were more strongly linked to certain negative affective states and situational factors relative to e-cigarettes. Findings suggest that there may be limited substitutability between combustible and e-cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Canadá , Ansia , Femenino , Humanos , Nicotina
20.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114717, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334823

RESUMEN

There are many toxics, such as aromatic amines (AAs), in cigarette butts (CBs). As CBs are the most abundant litter worldwide, these chemicals may leach into water bodies. In the present work, for the first time, the levels of AAs leachates from CBs in distilled water (DW) and river water (RW) samples were evaluated at different exposure times ranging from 15 min to 30 days. The mean leachate levels of AAs in DW and RW samples were in the range of 0.2-566 and 0.2-596 ng L-1, respectively, with overall mean values of 569 and 556 ng L-1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the total AAs levels as well as the level of each examined AA in DW and RW samples. Aniline (ANL) had the highest leaching rate from CBs into water. The mean leachates of AAs from CBs into water were ranked as: ANL> 1-naphthylamine (1-NA)> 2-naphthylamine (2-NA) > 2,6-dimethylaniline (2, 6-DMA)> ∑toluidine (∑TOL)> o-anisidine (o-ASD)> ∑aminobiphenyl (∑ABP). Ecological risk assessment showed that ∑7AAs, ANL, p-TOL, o-TOL, 2-NA, and ∑ABP had medium risks to sensitive crustaceans and fish. As AAs are not the only hazardous chemicals which may leach from CBs into aquatic environments, restrictions on littering CBs into the environment are required due to the release of different toxics ultimately causing adverse effects on aquatic organisms.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos , Agua Dulce , Aminas , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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