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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1313-1318, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941416

RESUMEN

Since electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the U.S. marketplace in 2007, the landscape has evolved to include different product types (e.g., prefilled cartridge-based and disposable products) and flavored e-liquids (e.g., fruit, candy, mint, menthol, and tobacco flavors), which have contributed to increases in youth use (1,2). E-cigarettes have been the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youths since 2014; in 2019, 27.5% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use (3). To assess trends in unit sales of e-cigarettes in the United States by product and flavor type, CDC, CDC Foundation, and Truth Initiative analyzed retail scanner data during September 14, 2014-May 17, 2020, from Information Resources, Inc. (IRI). During this period, total e-cigarette sales increased by 122.2%, from 7.7 million to 17.1 million units per 4-week interval. By product type, the proportion of total sales that was prefilled cartridge products increased during September 2014-August 2019 (47.5% to 89.4%). During August 2019-May 2020, the proportion of total sales that was disposable products increased from 10.3% to 19.8%, while the proportion that was prefilled cartridge products decreased (89.4% to 80.2%). Among prefilled cartridge sales, the proportion of mint sales increased during September 2014-August 2019 (<0.1% to 47.6%); during August 2019-May 2020, mint sales decreased (47.6% to 0.3%), as menthol sales increased (10.7% to 61.8%). Among disposable e-cigarette sales during September 2014-May 2020, the proportion of mint sales increased (<0.1% to 10.5%), although tobacco-flavored (52.2% to 17.2%) and menthol-flavored (30.3% to 10.2%) sales decreased; during the same period, sales of all other flavors combined increased (17.2% to 62.1%). E-cigarette sales increased during 2014-2020, but fluctuations occurred overall and by product and flavor type, which could be attributed to consumer preferences and accessibility. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette sales and use is critical to inform strategies at the national, state, and community levels to minimize the risks of e-cigarettes on individual- and population-level health. As part of a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce youth e-cigarettes use, such strategies could include those that address youth-appealing product innovations and flavors.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/economía , Aromatizantes/economía , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
Public Health ; 185: 275-282, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707470

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Extensive empirical and theoretical studies have been devoted to analyzing the relationship between tobacco and income. The price and income elasticities of demand for cigarette consumption are the main focus of studies in this body of literature. However, few empirical studies exist that analyze how economic growth affects the cigarette market, and no one has studied the effects of economic expansions and recessions. Spain, as in the other countries of the European Union, has suffered a strong recession since 2008. Therefore, this article aims to detect if income elasticity takes different values in economic growth and recession and, in addition, to check whether price elasticity in Spain is consistent with previous studies. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational epidemiological study. METHODS: In this article, the price and income elasticities of demand for cigarette consumption are measured for the Spanish cigarette market using time series data from 1957 to 2016 and by applying a non-linear autoregressive dynamics lag model. The novel specification proposed in this study is the determination of the possible effects of asymmetries in the economic shocks on cigarette consumption. RESULTS: Our results reveal that cigarette consumption maintains a notable asymmetric relationship. In particular, our results show that in expansion shocks, cigarette consumption increases (a 10% economic growth is associated with a 4.05% increase in cigarette consumption), whereas in recession shocks, cigarette consumption decreases dramatically, with a more pronounced pattern in recession phases than in expansion phases (a 10% economic decline is associated with a 58.16% decrease in cigarette consumption). On the other hand, price elasticity maintains the same behavior shown in the previous literature (a 10% price increase is associated with a 2% decrease in cigarette consumption). CONCLUSIONS: Higher cigarette prices are associated with decreased smoking. In addition, the economic recession helps in decreasing cigarette consumption. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that tax authorities have our results in mind before establishing health policies. If the authorities do not, it is possible that they will not obtain the expected results in terms of decreased tobacco consumption.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/economía , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Comercio/economía , Desarrollo Económico , Recesión Económica , Unión Europea , Política de Salud , Humanos , España , Impuestos/economía , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235496, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598379

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Over 120 US jurisdictions have implemented policies mandating minimum cigar pack quantities, yet little empirical research exists on the relationship between pack quantity and use. We examined whether cigar use was associated with purchasing cigars by the box/pack or as singles, purchase quantity, and price paid per cigar. METHODS: Data are from Waves 1-3 (2013-2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, analyzed in 2019. The sample included adults who reported current use of any type of cigars (cigarillos [N = 3,051], traditional cigars [N = 2,586], and filtered cigars [N = 1,295], including with marijuana) at Wave 1. For each cigar type, a generalized estimating equation model was used to examine the population-averaged effects of purchasing behavior on cigar use. RESULTS: Cigar users of each type who purchased by the box or pack smoked more per day than users who purchased singles (cigarillos: ß = 1.02, p<0.0001; traditional cigars: ß = 1.40, p<0.0001; filtered cigars: ß = 2.55, p<0.01). Cigar users who purchased larger quantities smoked more per day (cigarillos: ß = 0.16, p<0.0001; traditional cigars: ß = 0.04, p<0.0001; filtered cigars: ß = 0.24, p<0.0001). Higher price per cigar was significantly associated with smoking fewer traditional cigars (ß = -0.12, p<0.01) and filtered cigars (ß = -0.86, p = 0.02), but not cigarillos (ß = 0.08, p = 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Smaller pack quantities and higher price per cigar were associated with smoking fewer cigars per day. Given the authority of the Food and Drug Administration and local jurisdictions over cigar pack quantity, this study provides data pertinent to potential minimum and maximum package quantity regulations and policies.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Vigilancia de la Población , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/economía , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Am J Public Health ; 110(7): 1002-1005, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437272

RESUMEN

Objectives. To estimate the combined effect of California's Tobacco 21 law (enacted June 2016) and $2-per-pack cigarette excise tax increase (enacted April 2017) on cigarette prices and sales, compared with matched comparator states.Methods. We used synthetic control methods to compare cigarette prices and sales after the policies were enacted, relative to what we would have expected without the policy reforms. To estimate the counterfactual, we matched pre-reform covariate and outcome trends between California and control states to construct a "synthetic" California.Results. Compared with the synthetic control in 2018, cigarette prices in California were $1.89 higher ($7.86 vs $5.97; P < .001), and cigarette sales were 16.6% lower (19.9 vs 16.6 packs per capita; P < .001). This reduction in sales equates to 153.9 million fewer packs being sold between 2017 and 2018.Conclusions. California's new cigarette tax was largely passed on to consumers. The new cigarette tax, combined with the Tobacco 21 law, have contributed to a rapid and substantial reduction in cigarette consumption in California.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Pública , Impuestos , Productos de Tabaco/economía , California , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Humanos , Fumar/economía , Gobierno Estatal , Industria del Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233417, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442202

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In June 2019, Beverly Hills, California, became the first American city in the 21st century to pass an ordinance ending the sale of most tobacco products, including cigarettes, and it is unlikely to be the last. Knowledge of previous efforts to ban tobacco sales in the US, both successful and unsuccessful, may help inform tobacco control advocates' approach to future efforts. METHODS: We retrieved and analyzed archival tobacco industry documents. We confirmed and supplemented information from the documents with news media coverage and publicly available state and local government materials, such as meeting minutes and staff reports, related to proposed bans. RESULTS: We found 22 proposals to end the sale of cigarettes or tobacco products from 1969-2020 in the US. Proposals came from five states, twelve cities or towns, and one county. Most came from elected officials or boards of health, and were justified on public health grounds. In opposing tobacco sales bans, the tobacco industry employed no tactics or arguments that it did not also employ in campaigns against other tobacco control measures. Public health groups typically opposed sales ban proposals on the grounds that they were not evidence-based. This changed with Beverly Hills' 2019 proposal, with public health organizations supporting this and other California city proposals because of their likely positive health impacts. This support did not always translate into passage of local ordinances, as some city council members expressed reservations about the impact on small businesses. CONCLUSION: Tobacco control advocates are likely to encounter familiar tobacco industry tactics and arguments against tobacco sales ban proposals, and can rely on past experience and the results of a growing body of retail-related research to counter them. Considering how to overcome concerns about harming retailers will likely be vital if other jurisdictions are to succeed in ending tobacco sales.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/economía , Comercio/historia , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Gobierno Local/historia , Salud Pública/historia , Fumar/economía , Fumar/historia , Tabaco , Industria del Tabaco/economía , Industria del Tabaco/historia , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/historia , Estados Unidos
8.
Pediatrics ; 145(6)2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439814

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Tobacco point-of-sale advertising, particularly in retailers surrounding schools, is associated with youth tobacco use and must be monitored. This study examines how the point-of-sale environment surrounding youth changed over time with regard to diverse tobacco products. METHODS: Each spring from 2015 to 2018, research staff visited the same tobacco retailers (n = 141) within a half-mile of New Jersey high schools. For cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco, advertisement presence, volume, and share of advertising voice (SAV) were measured for both the exterior and interior of the store. Analyses examined changes over time by product, controlling for store type and poverty. RESULTS: Over time, exterior cigarette advertisements declined in presence (61% to 49%) and SAV (50% to 40%), whereas interior advertisements maintained stable presence, volume, and SAV. In contrast, cigar advertisements increased in presence (exterior 11% to 23%; interior 19% to 30%) and volume (exterior mean 0.2 to 0.5; interior 0.3 to 0.8). For electronic cigarettes, exterior and interior advertising presence, volume, and SAV decreased from 2015 to 2017 but increased in 2018. Smokeless tobacco advertising was infrequent and stayed consistent except in volume in the interior of stores (mean 0.2 to 0.3). When there were any differences by store type, chain convenience stores had the most exterior and interior advertising for all products. CONCLUSIONS: The longitudinal changes observed for each product's advertising reflect national youth use rates of the corresponding products. The point-of-sale environment around schools may be influencing youth tobacco use and must be monitored and regulated.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/economía , Publicidad/tendencias , Comercio/economía , Comercio/tendencias , Instituciones Académicas/tendencias , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/economía , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , New Jersey/epidemiología
9.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 46-53, 2020 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438376

RESUMEN

AIM: Increasing cigarette prices is one of the most effective strategies to reduce smoking. This study examined changes in smoking intentions of university students following simulated price increases. METHOD: Data came from a 2018 cross-sectional survey of university students. The sample comprised 187 current smokers (47% aged <21 years, 53% ≥21 years; 60% male, 40% female; 10% Maori, 90% non-Maori and 18% current vapers). Students were asked how their smoking behaviour would change if the price of a packet of their regular cigarettes or RYO tobacco was increased by $5.00, $10.00, $15.00 or >$15.00. RESULTS: The proportion of students who would smoke the same amount declined substantially, while students who would switch to e-cigarettes increased by large margins at price increases of $5.00, $10.00 and $15.00. Quit intentions increased at all price levels, but were stronger among younger students and females. Males were almost twice as likely to switch to e-cigarettes as females. Overall, more students would quit than switch to e-cigarettes. CONCLUSION: Results show that increasing cigarette prices by ≥$15.00 per packet could lead to significant reductions in smoking among university students. Follow-up data is required to assess the differential effects of price increases on vaping.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/economía , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Intención , Estudiantes/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Factores de Edad , Fumar Cigarrillos/prevención & control , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Factores Sexuales , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Vapeo , Adulto Joven
10.
WHO South East Asia J Public Health ; 9(1): 73-81, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341226

RESUMEN

Background: Increasing the price of tobacco through taxation is a very effective means of reducing tobacco use. However, the impact of price increases can be diluted if consumer incomes are growing strongly. The affordability of tobacco products has, therefore, become an important indicator for tobacco control. This study asks whether tobacco products in India became more or less affordable during 2007/2008 to 2017/2018. Methods: Survey data on the retail price of chewing tobacco, bidis and cigarettes were used to measure affordability at state and national levels. We adapted the price relative to income measure by calculating the percentage of net state domestic product (NSDP) per capita needed to purchase 1000 g of tobacco in each form and then calculating the average annual percentage change (AAPC) in affordability. We used ordinary least squares regression analysis to test for any changes. Results: In 2017/2018, it took 1.72% and 1.18% of NSDP/capita to purchase 1000 g of tobacco in the form of bidis and chewing tobacco respectively. The affordability of bidis remained unchanged, while chewing tobacco became more affordable (AAPC = -1.83%, 95% confidence interval -2.87 to -0.80, P = 0.003). For cigarettes, it took 7.56% of NSDP/capita to purchase 1000 g of tobacco in 2017/2018; although affordability decreased in many states, national average affordability was unchanged. Conclusion: Tobacco products, especially indigenous forms such as bidis and chewing tobacco, have not become measurably less affordable over the past decade. India should raise taxes on all tobacco products to significantly reduce the affordability of these products and to promote public health.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Costos y Análisis de Costo/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Humanos , India , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Impuestos , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(6): 868-870, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298173

RESUMEN

Objectives. To compare the association of California Proposition 56 (Prop 56), which increased the cigarette tax by $2 per pack beginning on April 1, 2017, with smoking behavior among low- and high-income adults.Methods. Drawing on a sample of 17 206 low-income and 21 324 high-income adults aged 21 years or older from the 2012 to 2018 California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, we explored 2 outcomes: current smoking prevalence and smoking intensity (average number of cigarettes per day among current smokers). For each income group, we estimated a multivariable logistic regression to analyze the association of Prop 56 with smoking prevalence and a multivariable linear regression to analyze the association of Prop 56 with smoking intensity.Results. Although we observed no association between smoking intensity and Prop 56, we found a statistically significant decline in smoking prevalence among low-income adults following Prop 56. No such association was found among the high-income group.Conclusions. Given that low-income Californians smoke cigarettes at greater rates than those with higher incomes, our results provide evidence that Prop 56 is likely to reduce income disparities in cigarette smoking in California.


Asunto(s)
Fumar , Impuestos , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Anciano , California/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Fumar/economía , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Impuestos/economía , Impuestos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230364, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187225

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco control programs and policies reduce tobacco use and prevent health and economic harms. The majority of tobacco control programs and policies in the United States are implemented at local and state levels. Yet the literature on state-level initiatives reports a limited set of outcomes. To facilitate decision-making that is increasingly focused on costs, we provide estimates of a broader set of measures of the impact of tobacco control policy, including smoking prevalence, disease events, deaths, medical costs, productivity and tobacco tax revenues, using the experience of Minnesota as an example. METHODS: Using the HealthPartners Institute's ModelHealth™: Tobacco MN microsimulation, we assessed the impact of the stream of tobacco control expenditures and cigarette price increases from 1998 to 2017. We simulated 1.3 million individuals representative of the Minnesota population. RESULTS: The simulation estimated that increased expenditures on tobacco control above 1997 levels prevented 38,400 cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes and respiratory disease events and 4,100 deaths over 20 years. Increased prices prevented 14,600 additional events and 1,700 additional deaths. Both the net increase in tax revenues and the reduction in medical costs were greater than the additional investments in tobacco control. CONCLUSION: Combined, the policies address both short-term and long-term goals to reduce the harms of tobacco by helping adults who wish to quit smoking and deterring youth from starting to smoke. States can pay for initial investments in tobacco control through tax increases and recoup those investments through reduced expenditures on medical care.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Impuestos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Fumar Tabaco/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Comercio/historia , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Política Fiscal/historia , Gastos en Salud/historia , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiología , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Económicos , Mortalidad/historia , Prevalencia , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/historia , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Impuestos/historia , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/historia , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/economía , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(1): 34-39, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913549

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential impact of tobacco being available only from pharmacies, only from liquor stores or only from petrol stations on the New Zealand tobacco retail landscape. METHODS: Tobacco retailers and pharmacies were mapped using GIS. Comparisons were made between tobacco retailers and pharmacies. Simple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between outlet types and deprivation. RESULTS: A total of 5,243 tobacco outlets, including liquor stores and petrol stations, and 1,035 pharmacies were identified. The density of all outlets was greater in areas of higher deprivation. The majority of tobacco retailers and pharmacies were located in urban areas. Outlets were mapped in relation to walking distances from secondary schools; significant differences between outlet types are presented. CONCLUSIONS: The policy options examined in this study would considerably reduce the overall availability of tobacco, decrease cues to smoke and reduce the density of tobacco sales around schools. However, inequities in availability would exist with access to tobacco in rural areas disproportionately reduced, and a positive sociodemographic gradient remaining. Implications for public health: Substantially reducing tobacco availability has been identified as a crucial tobacco control strategy. This study provides information on the impact of different policy options to support Smokefree 2025.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Pública , Productos de Tabaco/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Mercadotecnía , Nueva Zelanda , Farmacia , Características de la Residencia , Productos de Tabaco/economía
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936433

RESUMEN

This paper analyzes the determinant factors of tobacco consumption in Albania, which is one of the countries with the highest smoking prevalence in Europe. To empirically estimate the elasticity of cigarettes demand in Albania, the paper uses the Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) applying Deaton's (1988) demand model. This paper estimates an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS), which allows disentangling quality choice from exogenous price variations using unit values from cigarette consumption. Following Deaton's model, the results suggest that the demand for tobacco is inelastic, with a price elasticity of -0.57. The price elasticity appears to be within the range of elasticity estimates frequently reported for low- and middle-income countries. The results suggest that total expenditure, household size, male-to-female ratio, and adult ratio are important determinants of tobacco demand in Albania. The increase in the tobacco price, which has been mainly driven by increased excises, has demonstrated a significant impact on reducing tobacco consumption. Consequently, the Albanian government may engage in gradual increases in excise taxes given the inelastic tobacco demand.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Renta , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Tabaco , Adulto , Albania , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Impuestos
16.
Res Nurs Health ; 43(1): 40-47, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788826

RESUMEN

As a part of Korea's smoking cessation policy, the price of tobacco was increased in January 2015. Initially, the smoking rate among adolescents began to decrease. The current data, however, show that the adolescent smoking rate is on the rise. Alongside price policies, there is a need to further understand additional preventive measures that promote successful smoking cessation by identifying the factors that influence maintenance of smoking cessation in adolescents. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence smoking cessation in adolescents after attempting smoking cessation after increase in tobacco price. The study used large-scale, nationwide, secondary data obtained from the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included a total of 627 subjects who reported an attempt to quit smoking after the tobacco price increased. Descriptive statistics, t test, the χ2 test, and multiple logistic regression were used. The results showed that household economic status, school type, suicidal ideation, experience of exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and experience of witnessing teaching staff smoking were significant factors related to maintenance of smoking cessation among adolescents. To increase the success rate of smoking cessation, future intervention programs should include school environment structure and address emotional and psychological issues such as suicide.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Costos y Análisis de Costo/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/economía , Fumar/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adolescente , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805685

RESUMEN

China is in the midst of an epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which has increasingly accounted for a growing share of disease burden, due in part to China's ongoing rapid socioeconomic changes and population aging. Smoking, the second leading health risk factors associated with NCDs in China, disproportionately affects the old population more than their younger counterparts. Using survey data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), this study evaluated the impact of changes in cigarette affordability on smoking behavior among middle-aged and elderly (age 45 and older) smokers. Self-reported cigarette price and disposable income were used to calculate cigarette affordability. Cigarette consumption was measured using the number of cigarettes smoked per day reported by the survey respondents. The correlation between cigarette affordability and cigarette consumption was estimated using generalized estimating equations adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, geolocations, and cigarette price tiers, as well as year fixed effects. The estimated overall conditional cigarette affordability elasticity of demand was -0.165, implying a 10% decrease in cigarette affordability would result in a reduction in cigarette consumption by 1.65%. The cigarette affordability responsiveness differs by demographics, socioeconomic status, geolocations, and cigarette price tiers. This study provides evidence that tax/price policies that reduce cigarette affordability could lead to a decrease in cigarette consumption among middle-aged and elderly smokers in China. Smoke-free laws, as well as minimum price regulations, may be needed to compliment excise tax policy to target specific smoking subgroups whose cigarette consumption is less sensitive to changes in cigarette affordability.


Asunto(s)
Costos y Análisis de Costo , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adulto , Anciano , China , Comercio/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Impuestos/economía
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739571

RESUMEN

Nicotine, the most abundant pyridine alkaloid in cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), is a potent inhibitor of insect and animal herbivory and a neurostimulator of human brain function. Nicotine biosynthesis is controlled developmentally and can be induced by abiotic and biotic stressors via a jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signal transduction mechanism involving members of the APETALA 2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF) families. AP2/ERF and bHLH TFs work combinatorically to control nicotine biosynthesis and its subsequent accumulation in tobacco leaves. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of the tobacco NtERF32, NtERF221/ORC1, and NtMYC2a TFs leads to significant increases in nicotine accumulation in T2 transgenic K326 tobacco plants before topping. Up to 9-fold higher nicotine production was achieved in transgenics overexpressing NtERF221/ORC1 under the control of a constitutive GmUBI3 gene promoter compared to wild-type plants. The constitutive 2XCaMV35S promoter and a novel JA-inducible 4XGAG promoter were less effective in driving high-level nicotine formation. Methyljasmonic acid (MeJA) treatment further elevated nicotine production in all transgenic lines. Our results show that targeted manipulation of NtERF221/ORC1 is an effective strategy for elevating leaf nicotine levels in commercial tobacco for use in the preparation of reduced risk tobacco products for smoking replacement therapeutics.


Asunto(s)
Nicotina/biosíntesis , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Acetatos/metabolismo , Alcaloides/biosíntesis , Alcaloides/toxicidad , Anabasina/biosíntesis , Anabasina/toxicidad , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Secuencias Hélice-Asa-Hélice/genética , Nicotina/análogos & derivados , Nicotina/economía , Nicotina/toxicidad , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Piridinas/toxicidad , Tabaco/genética , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/toxicidad , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717748

RESUMEN

The study's purpose was to identify differences in the relationship between tobacco control policies and smoking by poverty. We matched state smoke-free air law coverage (SFALs), tobacco control funding (TCF), and cigarette taxes with individual current smoking and demographics from supplements to the Current Population Survey (1985-2015). We regressed (logistic) smoking on policy variables, poverty (<138% of poverty line versus ≥138% of poverty line), interactions of policy and poverty, and covariates, presenting beta coefficients instead of odds ratios because it is difficult to interpret interactions using odds ratios (they are ratios of odds ratios). We coded SFALs as (1) proportion of state covered by 100% workplace, restaurant and bar laws (SFAL-All) or (2) proportion of state covered by workplace laws (SFAL-WP) and proportion covered by restaurant or bar laws (SFAL-RB). In the SFAL-All model, SFAL-All (Beta coeff: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.002), tax (Coeff: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.07, -0.05), and TCF (Coeff: -0.01, 95% CI: -0.01, -0.001) were associated with less smoking. In this model, the interaction of SFAL-All by poverty was significant (Coeff: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.13). In the SFAL-WP/RB model, SFAL-RB (Coeff: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.08, -0.02), tax (Coeff: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.04), and TCF (Coeff: -0.01, 95% CI: -0.01, -0.00) were significant. In the same model, SFAL-WP (Coeff: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.15), SFAL-RB (Coeff: -0.14, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.09), and TCF (Coeff: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.02) interacted with poverty. Tax by poverty was of borderline significance in this model (Coeff = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.00, 0.04, p = 0.050). Among adults, SFALs, TCF, and tax were associated with less current smoking, and SFALs and TCF had differential relationships with smoking by poverty.


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Impuestos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Política Pública , Restaurantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estados Unidos , Lugar de Trabajo/legislación & jurisprudencia
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