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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e227259, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1393334

RESUMEN

Aim: This study analyzes factors associated with dimensions of health literacy (HL) functional, communicative and critical among public health service users with chronic non-communicable diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical research was carried out in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, with adults and older adults attending Family Health Units (FHU). Data were collected by oral exam (CPOD and CPI) and a questionnaire on systemic conditions, sociodemographic factors, health behaviors and HLS (HLS-14). The outcomes consisted of functional, communicative, and critical HL dimensions dichotomized by median (high and low), which were analyzed by chi-square test (p<0.05) to find associations with the variables studied. Results: The study sample comprised 238 FHU users with 62.7 (± 10.55) mean age, of which 47.5% (n=113) showed high functional HL, 50.0% (n=119) high communicative HL, and 46.2% (n=110) high critical HL. High functional HL was associated with men (p<0.05). Functional and communicative HL were associated with having higher education (p<0.001 and p=0.018, respectively). High communicative and critical HL were associated with regular use of dental and medical services (p<0.05). Individuals with low functional HL were more likely to present poor tooth brushing (p=0.020). High HL (in all three dimensions) was associated with regular flossing and having more teeth (p<0.05). Conclusion: Functional, communicative and critical HL were associated with health behaviors and clinical outcomes, whereas the functional dimension was also associated with sociodemographic factors. HL dimensions allowed to differentiate health-related factors


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Sistema Único de Salud , Salud Bucal , Enfermedad Crónica , Alfabetización en Salud , Factores Sociodemográficos , Programas Nacionales de Salud
2.
CMAJ ; 194(44): E1514-E1515, 2022 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379553
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(11)2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410785

RESUMEN

In 2008, Benin government launched a national health insurance scheme, but this had been suspended in 2017. We aim to understand how existing ideas and institutions, stakeholders' behaviour and their interests shaped policy-making process and policy content, from its launch to its suspension. METHODS: We used a case study design, framed by the policy triangle of Walt and Gilson. We collected data through document review, quantitative data extraction from routine information, and interviews with 20 key informants. We performed a content analysis using both complementarily deductive and inductive analysis. RESULTS: This study confirms the keen interest for national health insurance scheme in Benin among various stakeholders. Compared with user fee exemption policies, it is considered as more sustainable, with a more reliable financing, and a greater likelihood to facilitate population's access to quality healthcare without financial hardships.Exempting the poor from paying health insurance premiums was however considered as an equitable mean to facilitate the extension of the health insurance to informal sector workers.The whole arrangements failed to deliver appropriate skills, tools, coordination and incentives to drive the policy implementers to make individual and organisational changes necessary to adjust to the objectives and values of the reform. These deficiencies compromised the implementation fidelity with unintended effects such as low subscription rate, low services utilisation and sustainability threats. CONCLUSION: Supporting countries in documenting policy processes will ease learning across their tries for progressing towards Universal Health Coverage, as more than one try will be necessary.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Humanos , Benin , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Formulación de Políticas
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276785, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350812

RESUMEN

Despite the various initiatives carried out in Brazil and in the world, the challenge of offering essential medicines in adequate presentations remains, especially to the public affected by diseases considered neglected and the pediatric population, for whom the therapeutic options remain limited. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the production of manipulated medicines as a strategy to mitigate therapeutic and access gaps to essential medicines within the Brazilian public health system, called the Unified Health System (SUS). The evaluation, carried out between 2020 and 2021, identified, among the medicines considered essential to the Brazilian health context, those unavailable, for which strategies were evaluated to mitigate the identified unavailability, which is conventionally called therapeutic gaps. For 57% (n = 235) of pharmaceutical presentations identified as therapeutic gaps in SUS, manipulation was identified as the best strategy to promote access. Of these presentations, 30% (n = 70) were identified as priorities in the context of patient care and were mainly related to the demands of the pediatric public and those affected by poverty-related diseases. Concerning poverty-related diseases, the absence of evidence on the development of a standard formula for drugs with indication for such diseases was demonstrated. The need for an annual investment of approximately US$74.75 per capita was estimated to offer treatments in adequate presentations to SUS users, which should reflect in the improvement of the quality of life of about 26 thousand people. It was observed that this investment amount corresponds to only 3% of the budget for the purchase of medicines financed exclusively by the Ministry of Health thorugh the Strategic Component of Pharmaceutical Assistance (CESAF) approved for 2021.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Esenciales , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Niño , Humanos , Brasil , Calidad de Vida , Programas de Gobierno , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 6)2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Indonesia introduced a universal National Health Insurance (NHI) programme Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN) in 2014. However, challenges in timely consultation and access to health services resulted in the introduction of formal and informal patient navigation initiatives which facilitates access for patients. Informal patient navigation may emerge from the gaps in the services of the formal patient navigation. This study assesses how three informal non-government patient navigation initiatives emerged, are organised, operate and interact with JKN authorities to enhance patient empowerment and JKN responsiveness. METHODS: This was a qualitative study comprising of document review, semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and direct observations at JKN-contracted health facilities. Data was analysed deductively and inductively using Molyneux et al's accountability assessment framework to assess context, content, and process of the informal patient navigation initiatives. RESULTS: Our study found that informal patient navigation initiatives bridge a gap left by formal navigation initiatives. The navigators help spread awareness among patients of their benefits and entitlements and assist patients to communicate with health providers and authorities. However, we find limited effects on people's ability to navigate the system themselves, on systemic change, or on JKN responsiveness. CONCLUSION: We may know that when access to health services is challenged then formal or informal patient navigation initiatives to facilitate access for patients may emerge. What this study adds is how informal patient navigation bridge a gap left by formal navigation initiatives, from how they are organized, operate and interact with the NHI authorities. We demonstrate that in the absence of well-functioning formal navigation initiatives, the informal initiatives may fill a critical gap. However, their efforts are time intensive and do not translate across the population. What is implied here is that more is required from JKN authorities to enhance interaction with informal patient navigation to advance systemic change toward equitable access to NHI.


Asunto(s)
Navegación de Pacientes , Participación del Paciente , Humanos , Indonesia , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
6.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 40(12): 1131-1142, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348153

RESUMEN

The USA pays more for brand-name prescription drugs than any other country and new legislation from August 2022 gives Medicare the authority to directly negotiate certain drug prices with manufacturers starting in 2026-something the federal insurer had been prohibited from doing for its prior history. As the USA prepares for negotiations, we therefore surveyed how comparable industrialized countries use statutory requirements and procedures to negotiate brand-name drug prices. Guidance documents, regulations, government and academic publications were reviewed to identify the process of negotiating drug prices in peer countries that have been cited as potential examples for US payment reform: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and the UK. Processes for arriving at a final price for a drug generally fall under three approaches: statutory rebates, setting a maximum price, and arbitration between national (public) insurers and manufacturers. Each approach to price negotiation could be adopted by Medicare and reduce spending even if Medicare does not adopt an exclusionary or closed formulary. Much remains to be determined about how the new price negotiation authority in the USA will be implemented, and policymakers can learn from comparator countries' statutory and regulatory strategies for price negotiation.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Negociación , Anciano , Humanos , Aseguradoras , Alemania , Australia
7.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 439, 2022 11 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with an increased risk of other gynecological disorders, such as endometrial hyperplasia (EH). However, substantial factors in the comorbidity of EH and PCOS remain to be investigated. We analyzed trend changes in PCOS and factors related to the comorbidity of PCOS and EH using data from the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) claims database. METHODS: The data for this population-based study of people diagnosed with PCOS or EH in Korea from 2009 to 2016 were collected from the KNHI claims database between 2007 and 2017. We conducted a trend analysis of the prevalence and incidence of PCOS and EH. In addition, we performed a logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with EH incidence in people with PCOS using the matched case-control methodology. RESULTS: The average annual growth rate of the incidence of PCOS was 14.1% from 2009 to 2016, whereas the EH rate increased by only 3.4% annually. Comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infertility, increased the risk of EH in PCOS patients. Additionally, the cumulative duration of oral contraceptive & progestin treatment for PCOS correlated highly with the comorbidity of EH and PCOS. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the relationship between PCOS and EH using big data suitable for time series analyses of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Endometrial evaluation should be done with more caution if oral contraceptives & progestins have been used for a long time.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperplasia Endometrial , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico , Femenino , Humanos , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/complicaciones , Hiperplasia Endometrial/epidemiología , Hiperplasia Endometrial/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Análisis Factorial , Programas Nacionales de Salud
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363486

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Mimasaka city is a relatively small city with a population of 28,381, and an aging rate (≥65 years old) of 38.9%, where only one nephrology clinic is available. Since 2013, the city has conducted its own unique lifestyle intervention for the participants of the National Health Insurance specific medical health checkup, aiming to prevent the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity. Materials and Methods: The persons in National Health Insurance specific medical health checkup (40-74 years old) conducted in Mimasaka city in 2013, with eGFR less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m² or 50-90 mL/min/1.73 m² with urine dipstick protein 1+ or more, were registered for the CKD follow-up project, as high-risk subjects for advanced renal dysfunction. Municipal workers directly visited the subjects' homes to provide individual health guidance and encourage medical consultation. We aimed to examine the effect of home-visit intervention on the changes of renal function and related factors until 2017. Results: The number of the high-risk subjects who continuously received the health checkup until 2017 was 63, and only 23 (36.5%) visited a medical institution in the first year. The eGFR decreased by only 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m²/year, and the subjects with urinary protein 1+ or higher decreased significantly from 20 (31.7%) to 9 (14.3%) (p = 0.034) in the high-risk subjects. The changes in eGFR and urinary protein was almost in the same fashion regardless of their medical institution visits. Next, we examined the effects of various factors on ΔeGFR, the changes of eGFR from 2013 to 2017, by multivariate linear regression analysis. The effects of medical institution visit were not significant, and the degree of urinary protein (coefficient B: 4.503, ß: 0.705, p < 0.001), age (coefficient B: 4.753, ß: 0.341, p = 0.004), and smoking (coefficient B: 5.878, ß: 0.295, p = 0.031) had independent significant effects, indicating that they were the factors exacerbating the decrease in eGFR from the baseline. Conclusions: The personalized lifestyle intervention by home-visit in CKD follow-up project showed the possibility of beneficial effects on the deterioration of renal function. This may be an efficient method to change behavior in a small community with limited medical resources.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Anciano , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios de Cohortes , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Estudios de Seguimiento , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Progresión de la Enfermedad
9.
J Telemed Telecare ; 28(10): 726-732, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346935

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic was a catalyst for the introduction of additional telehealth funding (telehealth item numbers) for general practitioner (GP) consultations through the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) in Australia. This study evaluated the impact of telehealth funding on costs to the MBS for GP consultations from January 2017 to December 2021. An interrupted time series analysis assessed MBS costs (initial and monthly growth) for GP consultations (in-person, videoconference, telephone) before and after additional telehealth item numbers were introduced. From January 2017 to February 2020, total MBS costs for GP consultations were, on average, $545 million per month compared to $592 million per month from March 2020 to December 2021. There was an initial cost increase of approximately $39 million in the first month after additional telehealth funding was introduced (p = 0.0001). Afterwards, there was no significant change in monthly costs (p = 0.539). The introduction of additional MBS telehealth funding increased overall MBS costs for GP consultations. This increased cost for GP telehealth services could save costs to society if it translates into improved continuity of care, decreased hospitalisations, reduced productivity losses and improved patient outcomes. Future policy reform should incorporate a cost-benefit analysis to determine if increased MBS costs for GP consultations are a good investment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Médicos Generales , Telemedicina , Anciano , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Derivación y Consulta
10.
J Telemed Telecare ; 28(10): 733-739, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346931

RESUMEN

In Australia, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the exponential growth in the delivery of telehealth services. Medicare data indicates that the majority of telehealth consultations have used the telephone, despite the known benefits of using video. The aim of this study was to understand the perceived quality and effectiveness of in-person, telephone and videoconsultations for cancer care. Data was collected via online surveys with consumers (n = 1162) and health professionals (n = 59), followed by semi-structured interviews with telehealth experienced health professionals (n = 22) and consumers (n = 18). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and significance was tested using the chi-square test. A framework analysis and thematic analysis were used for qualitative data. Results indicate telehealth is suitable for use across the cancer care pathway. However, consumers and health professionals perceived videoconsultations facilitated visual communication and improved patients' quality of care. The telephone was appropriate for short transactional consultations such as repeat prescriptions. Consumers were rarely given the choice of consultation modality. The choice of modality depended on a range of factors such as the type of consultation and stage of cancer care. Hybrid models of care utilising in-person, video and telephone should be developed and requires further guidance to promote the adoption of telehealth in cancer care.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Telemedicina , Anciano , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Pandemias , Derivación y Consulta , Teléfono , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Telemedicina/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(20): e026743, 2022 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250658

RESUMEN

Background Although endocrine therapy is an effective treatment for breast cancer, its antiestrogen effects are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between endocrine therapy and the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes among breast cancer survivors in Korea, in consideration of various age groups. Methods and Results In the National Health Insurance Service database of Korea, a total of 133 171 patients with breast cancer aged ≥20 years were included in the current study. Endocrine therapy was treated as time-varying exposure, and patients were categorized as nonusers, selective estrogen receptor modulator users, aromatase inhibitor users, and both users. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Age at diagnosis, socioeconomic status, histological type, other treatments, and comorbidities were adjusted in the model. Compared with nonusers, selective estrogen receptor modulator users were associated with higher risks of stroke (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.04-1.40]) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.13-1.90]), whereas aromatase inhibitor users were associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.06-1.41]). The risk of type 2 diabetes was associated with selective estrogen receptor modulator users (HR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.05-1.21]), aromatase inhibitor users (HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05-1.23]), and both users (HR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.10-1.39]). In particular, the risk of a composite of cardiovascular diseases was higher in younger or premenopausal patients. Conclusions In breast cancer survivors in Korea, endocrine therapy is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Monitoring of cancer comorbidities after endocrine therapy is needed in younger and older patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Supervivientes de Cáncer , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Femenino , Inhibidores de la Aromatasa/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Tamoxifeno/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/inducido químicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/inducido químicamente , Moduladores Selectivos de los Receptores de Estrógeno , Programas Nacionales de Salud
13.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 63(12): 1298-1306, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279007

RESUMEN

Since 2020, digital health applications (DiGA) can be prescribed at the expense of the German statutory health insurance (SHI) system after undergoing an approval procedure by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). DiGA can be approved provisionally for 1 year (with the option of extension) or permanently. The latter is dependent on scientific evidence of a positive effect on care, which can be a medical benefit or a patient-relevant structural and procedural improvement in care. However, it is apparent that the investigation of DiGA in scientific studies is challenging, as they are often complex interventions whose success also includes user and prescriber factors. In addition, health services research data underpinning the benefits of DiGA are lacking to date. In the current article, methodological considerations for DiGA research are presented, and a selection of internal medicine DiGAs is used to critically discuss current research practice.


Asunto(s)
Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Humanos
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 952415, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311577

RESUMEN

The health information system is a component of the healthcare system. The health information system in health services in Indonesia has experienced many problems in getting support for policy making, the implementation of the industrial revolution 4.0, and national health insurance (JKN). To answer the above problems, it is necessary to make a concept of health information systems in health services that based on environment and one health perspectives. This research was part of the thematic research of the 2019 JKN National Health Facilities Survey (Rifaskes) in Indonesia. The systems approach and cross-sectional research were carried out by collecting quantitative data. A structural equation model with Lisrel 88 software was used to model the health information system. The health information system produced a concept that included the following structured input components: governance, human resources, infrastructure, types of information system (IS) (program, JKN, management), and financing; process components: funding, technical guidance, and verification and validation; and output components: open access, standards and quality, utilization, bridging, and security. The concept for strengthening the health information system prioritizes improving the output components (standards, utilization, bridging, open access, and security) in the process components (funding, verification, technical guidance) while the input components (financing, human resources, governance, IS programs, infrastructure, IS JKN, IS management).


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información en Salud , Salud Única , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Indonesia , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Servicios de Salud
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 957528, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311602

RESUMEN

Introduction: Many low- and middle-income countries are attempting to finance healthcare through voluntary membership of insurance schemes. This study examined willingness to prepay for health care, social solidarity as well as the acceptability of subsidies for the poor as factors that determine enrolment in western Kenya. Methods: This study employed a sequential mixed method design. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey (n = 1,746), in-depth household interviews (n = 36), 6 FGDs with community stakeholders and key informant interviews (n = 11) with policy makers and implementers in a single county in western Kenya. Social solidarity was defined by willingness to make contributions that would benefit people who were sicker ("risk cross-subsidization") and poorer ("income cross-subsidization"). We also explored participants' preferences related to contribution cost structure - e.g., flat, proportional, progressive, and exemptions for the poor. Results: Our study found high willingness to prepay for healthcare among those without insurance (87.1%) with competing priorities, low incomes, poor access, and quality of health services, lack of awareness of flexible payment options cited as barriers to enrolment. More than half of respondents expressed willingness to tolerate risk and income cross-subsidization suggesting strong social solidarity, which increased with socio-economic status (SES). Higher SES was also associated with preference for a proportional payment while lower SES with a progressive payment. Few participants, even the poor themselves, felt the poor should be exempt from any payment, due to stigma (being accused of laziness) and fear of losing power in the process of receiving care (having the right to demand care). Conclusion: Although there was a high willingness to prepay for healthcare, numerous barriers hindered voluntary health insurance enrolment in Kenya. Our findings highlight the importance of fostering and leveraging existing social solidarity to move away from flat rate contributions to allow for fairer risk and income cross-subsidization. Finally, governments should invest in robust strategies to effectively identify subsidy beneficiaries.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Kenia , Pobreza
16.
Public Health Res Pract ; 32(3)2022 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220564

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to identify challenges in current health service approaches to providing optimal care for people who seek treatment for obesity. Type of program or service: Health service management of obesity in Australia Methods: Drawing on lived experience, clinical and academic perspectives, and available evidence, we reflect on the current state of the healthcare system to support people seeking treatment for obesity. We suggest actions to enable effective, acceptable and equitable care for this group of people. RESULTS: Identified challenges include the complexity of care required to adequately manage obesity, existing service capability and capacity, and high out-of-pocket patient costs. LESSONS LEARNT: To address these challenges, a comprehensive response is required at all levels of the healthcare system. As a starting point, we propose eight areas of action: partner with people living with obesity; eliminate weight stigma; increase healthcare professional education, guidelines and resources; establish clear referral pathways and working partnerships; scale services to meet demand; ensure flexible and accessible service delivery; implement changes to the Medicare Benefits Schedule to increase service provision and pursue opportunities for subsidised medicines.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Anciano , Australia , Humanos , Obesidad/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos
17.
Yonsei Med J ; 63(11): 991-998, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303307

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In South Korea, investigations into Turner syndrome (TS) prevalence and TS-associated cancer and mortality are lacking. Accurate data were estimated from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) and the Rare Diseases Registry (RDR) records. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on patients with TS who were registered in the RDR between 2007 and 2017 were collected. To estimate TS-associated cancer and mortality risk, the data were compared with data of 1:3 age-matched controls. RESULTS: In 2017, 2054 patients with TS were identified from a total population of 26186952 South Korean women; therefore, the prevalence was 7.84 per 100000 persons. TS prevalence across 10-year interval age groups were 11.82, 23.17, 18.37, 10.49, 4.09, and 0.38 for age under 10 years, teenagers, 20s, 30s, 40s, and older than 50, respectively (per 100000 persons). The cancer risk in patients with TS was higher than that of age-matched controls over 5.3 person-years [hazard ratio (HR)=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-3.27, p=0.045]. Among different types of cancer, thyroid cancer risk in patients with TS was significantly higher than that of age-matched controls (HR=2.78, 95% CI 1.06-7.26, p=0.037). We also observed that TS-associated all-cause mortality risk was higher than that of age-matched controls (HR=3.36, 95% CI 1.59-7.10, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: National prevalence of TS was suggested, and an increased risk of TS-associated thyroid cancer and mortality were observed in this study.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Síndrome de Turner , Adolescente , Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Preescolar , Síndrome de Turner/complicaciones , Síndrome de Turner/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Riesgo , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Neoplasias/epidemiología
18.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 37(5): 759-769, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195551

RESUMEN

BACKGRUOUND: This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of diabetes drug costs on cardiovascular (CV) events and death. METHODS: This retrospective observational study used data from 2009 to 2018 from the National Health Insurance in Korea. Among the patients with type 2 diabetes, those taking antidiabetic drugs and who did not have CV events until 2009 were included. Patients were divided into quartiles (Q1 [lowest]-4 [highest]) according to the 2009 diabetes drug cost. In addition, the 10-year incidences of CV events (non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, and coronary revascularization) and CV death (death due to CV events) were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 441,914 participants were enrolled (median age, 60 years; men, 57%). CV events and death occurred in 28.1% and 8.36% of the patients, respectively. The 10-year incidences of CV events and deaths increased from Q1 to 4. After adjusting for sex, age, income, type of diabetes drugs, comorbidities, and smoking and drinking status, the risk of CV events significantly increased according to the sequential order of the cost quartiles. In contrast, the risk of CV death showed a U-shaped pattern, which was the lowest in Q3 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.913 to 0.995) and the highest in Q4 (HR, 1.266; 95% CI, 1.213 to 1.321). CONCLUSION: Diabetes drug expenditure affects 10-year CV events and mortality. Therefore, affording an appropriate diabetes drug cost at a similar risk of CV is an independent protective factor against CV death.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infarto del Miocardio , Masculino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Costos de los Medicamentos , Factores de Riesgo , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Programas Nacionales de Salud
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e066671, 2022 10 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261238

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: South Africa's National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) National HIV Cohort was established in 2015 to facilitate monitoring, evaluation and research on South Africa's National HIV Treatment Programme. In South Africa, 84.8% of people living with HIV know their HIV status; 70.7% who know their status are on ART; and 87.4% on ART are virologically suppressed. PARTICIPANTS: The NHLS National HIV Cohort includes the laboratory data of nearly all patients receiving HIV care in the public sector since April 2004. Patients are included in the cohort if they have received a CD4 count or HIV RNA viral load (VL) test. Using an anonymised unique patient identifier that we have developed and validated to linked test results, we observe patients prospectively through their laboratory results as they receive HIV care and treatment. Patients in HIV care are seen for laboratory monitoring every 6-12 months. Data collected include age, sex, facility location and test results for CD4 counts, VLs and laboratory tests used to screen for potential treatment complications. FINDINGS TO DATE: From April 2004 to April 2018, 63 million CD4 count and VL tests were conducted at 5483 facilities. 12.6 million unique patients had at least one CD4 count or VL, indicating they had accessed HIV care, and 7.1 million patients had a VL test indicating they had started antiretroviral therapy. The creation of NHLS National HIV Cohort has enabled longitudinal research on all lab-monitored patients in South Africa's national HIV programme, including analyses of (1) patient health at presentation; (2) care outcomes such as 'CD4 recovery', 'retention in care' and 'viral resuppression'; (3) patterns of transfer and re-entry into care; (4) facility-level variation in care outcomes; and (5) impacts of policies and guideline changes. FUTURE PLANS: Continuous updating of the cohort, integration with available clinical data, and expansion to include tuberculosis and other lab-monitored comorbidities.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Programas Nacionales de Salud , ARN/uso terapéutico , Carga Viral , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico
20.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275493, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197932

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Inadequate, inefficient and slow processing of claims are major contributors to the cost of health insurance schemes, and therefore undermining their sustainability. This study uses the Technology, Organisation and Environment (TOE) framework to examine the preparedness of health facilities of the Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) to implement a digital mobile health insurance claims processing software (CLAIM-it), which aims to increase efficiency. METHODS: The study used a cross-sectional mixed method design to collect data (technology and human capital capacity and baseline operational performance of claims management) from a sample of 20 CHAG health facilities across Ghana. While quantitative data was analysed using simple descriptive statistics statistics (frequencies, mean, minimum and maximum values), qualitative interviews were recorded, transcribed and abstracted into two major themes that were reported to re-enforce the quantitative findings. RESULTS: The quantitative results revealed challenges including inadequate computers and accessories, adequate numbers and skills for claims processing, poor intranets and internet access, absence of a robust post-implementation support system and inadequate standard operating procedures (SOPs) for seamless automation of claims processing. In addition to the above, the qualitative results emphasised the need to make CLAIM-it more flexible and capable of being integrated into third-party softwares. Notwithstanding the challenges, decision-makers in CHAG health facilities see the CLAIM-it software as having better functionality and superior capabilities compared to existing claims processing systems in Ghana. CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding the challenges, the CLAIM-it software is more likely to be adopted by decision-makers, given the positive perception in terms of superior functionality. It is important that key actors in claims management at the National Health Insurance collaborate with relevant stakeholders to adopt the CLAIM-it software for claims processing and management in Ghana.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Ghana , Humanos , Seguro de Salud , Programas Informáticos
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