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3.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 3): 108, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641901

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While the evidence supporting the effectiveness of community health worker (CHW) programmes is substantial, there is also considerable evidence that many of these programmes have notable weaknesses that need to be addressed in order for them to reach their full potential. Thus, considerations about CHW programme performance and its assessment must be taken into account as the importance of these programmes is becoming more widely appreciated. In this paper, the tenth in our 11-paper series, "Community health workers at the dawn of a new era", we address CHW programme performance and how it is assessed from a systems perspective. METHODS: The paper builds on the 2014 CHW Reference Guide, a compendium of case studies of 29 national CHW programmes, the 2018 WHO guideline on health policy and system support to optimize CHW programmes, and scientific studies on CHW programme performance published in the past 5 years. RESULTS: The paper provides an overview of existing frameworks that are useful for assessing the performance of CHW programmes, with a specific focus on how individual CHW performance and community-level outcomes can be measured. The paper also reviews approaches that have been taken to assess CHW programme performance, from programme monitoring using the routine health information system to national assessments using quantitative and/or qualitative study designs and assessment checklists. The paper also discusses contextual factors that influence CHW programme performance, and reflects upon gaps and needs for the future with regard to assessment of CHW programme performance. CONCLUSION: Assessments of CHW programme performance can have various approaches and foci according to the programme and its context. Given the fact that CHW programmes are complex entities and part of health systems, their assessment ideally needs to be based on data derived from a mix of reliable sources. Assessments should be focused not only on effectiveness (what works) but also on contextual factors and enablers (how, for whom, under what circumstances). Investment in performance assessment is instrumental for continually innovating, upgrading, and improving CHW programmes at scale. Now is the time for new efforts in implementation research for strengthening CHW programming.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Política de Salud , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
4.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 3): 116, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This is the ninth paper in our series, "Community Health Workers at the Dawn of a New Era". Community health workers (CHWs) are in an intermediary position between the health system and the community. While this position provides CHWs with a good platform to improve community health, a major challenge in large-scale CHW programmes is the need for CHWs to establish and maintain beneficial relationships with both sets of actors, who may have different expectations and needs. This paper focuses on the quality of CHW relationships with actors at the local level of the national health system and with communities. METHODS: The authors conducted a selective review of journal articles and the grey literature, including case study findings in the 2020 book Health for the People: National CHW Programs from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. They also drew upon their experience working with CHW programmes. RESULTS: The space where CHWs form relationships with the health system and the community has various inherent strengths and tensions that can enable or constrain the quality of these relationships. Important elements are role clarity for all actors, working referral systems, and functioning supply chains. CHWs need good interpersonal communication skills, good community engagement skills, and the opportunity to participate in community-based organizations. Communities need to have a realistic understanding of the CHW programme, to be involved in a transparent process for selecting CHWs, and to have the opportunity to participate in the CHW programme. Support and interaction between CHWs and other health workers are essential, as is positive engagement with community members, groups, and leaders. CONCLUSION: To be successful, large-scale CHW programmes need well-designed, effective support from the health system, productive interactions between CHWs and health system staff, and support and engagement of the community. This requires health sector leadership from national to local levels, support from local government, and partnerships with community organizations. Large-scale CHW programmes should be designed to enable local flexibility in adjusting to the local community context.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Programas de Gobierno , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública , Zimbabwe
5.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 132, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645454

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health research governance is an essential function of national health research systems. Yet many African countries have not developed strong health research governance structures and processes. This paper presents a comparative analysis of national health research governance in Botswana, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, where health sciences research production is well established relative to some others in the region and continues to grow. The paper aims to examine progress made and challenges faced in strengthening health research governance in these countries. METHODS: We collected data through document review and key informant interviews with a total of 80 participants including decision-makers, researchers and funders across stakeholder institutions in the four countries. Data on health research governance were thematically coded for policies, legislation, regulation and institutions and analysed comparatively across the four national health research systems. RESULTS: All countries were found to be moving from using a research governance framework set by national science, technology and innovation policies to one that is more anchored in health research structures and policies within the health sectors. Kenya and Zambia have adopted health research legislation and policies, while Botswana and Uganda are in the process of developing the same. National-level health research coordination and regulation is hampered by inadequate financial and human resource capacities, which present challenges for building strong health research governance institutions. CONCLUSION: Building health research governance as a key pillar of national health research systems involves developing stronger governance institutions, strengthening health research legislation, increasing financing for governance processes and improving human resource capacity in health research governance and management.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Formulación de Políticas , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Kenia , Uganda
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615662

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Disease-specific 'vertical' programmes and health system strengthening (HSS) 'horizontal' programmes are not mutually exclusive; programmes may be implemented with the dual objectives of achieving both disease-specific and broader HSS outcomes. However, there remains an ongoing need for research into how dual objective programmes are operationalised for optimum results. METHODS: A qualitative study encompassing four grantee programmes from two partner countries, Tanzania and Sierra Leone, in the Comic Relief and GlaxoSmithKline 'Fighting Malaria, Improving Health' partnership. Purposive sampling maximised variation in terms of geographical location, programme aims and activities, grantee type and operational sector. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was informed by a general inductive approach. RESULTS: 51 interviews were conducted across the four grantees. Grantee organisations structured and operated their respective projects in a manner generally supportive of HSS objectives. This was revealed through commonalities identified across the four grantee organisations in terms of their respective approach to achieving their HSS objectives, and experienced tensions in pursuit of these objectives. Commonalities included: (1) using short-term funding for long-term initiatives; (2) benefits of being embedded in the local health system; (3) donor flexibility to enable grantee responsiveness; (4) the need for modest expectations; and (5) the importance of micro-innovation. CONCLUSION: Health systems strengthening may be pursued through disease-specific programme grants; however, the respective practice of both the funder and grantee organisation appears to be a key influence on whether HSS will be realised as well as the overall extent of HSS possible.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Gobierno , Malaria , Humanos , Malaria/prevención & control , Investigación Cualitativa , Sierra Leona , Tanzanía
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1047, 2021 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Actively involving patients and communities in health decisions can improve both peoples' health and the health system. One key strategy is Patient-Public Engagement (PPE). This scoping review aims to identify and describe PPE research in Sub-Saharan Africa; systematically map research to theories of PPE; and identify knowledge gaps to inform future research and PPE development. METHODS: The review followed guidelines for conducting and reporting scoping reviews. A systematic search of peer-reviewed English language literature published between January 1999 and December 2019 was conducted on Scopus, Medline (Ovid), CINAHL and Embase databases. Independent full text screening by three reviewers followed title and abstract screening. Using a thematic framework synthesis, eligible studies were mapped onto an engagement continuum and health system level matrix to assess the current focus of PPE in Sub-Saharan Africa. RESULTS: Initially 1948 articles were identified, but 18 from 10 Sub-Saharan African countries were eligible for the final synthesis. Five PPE strategies implemented were: 1) traditional leadership support, 2) community advisory boards, 3) community education and sensitisation, 4) community health volunteers/workers, and 5) embedding PPE within existing community structures. PPE initiatives were located at either the 'involvement' or 'consultation' stages of the engagement continuum, rather than higher-level engagement. Most PPE studies were at the 'service design' level of the health system or were focused on engagement in health research. No identified studies reported investigating PPE at the 'individual treatment' or 'macro policy/strategic' level. CONCLUSION: This review has successfully identified and evaluated key PPE strategies and their focus on improving health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. PPE in Sub-Saharan Africa was characterised by tokenism rather than participation. PPE implementation activities are currently concentrated at the 'service design' or health research levels. Investigation of PPE at all the health system levels is required, including prioritising patient/community preferences for health system improvement.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Médica , Participación del Paciente , África del Sur del Sahara , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(2): e20210146, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614105

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to know health professionals' perceptions about care actions provided to children with Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome and their families. METHODS: this is a qualitative study, carried out in a capital of center-western Brazil, based on the Unified Health System theoretical precepts. Data were collected in September and October 2020, through audio-recorded interviews with 12 health professionals from a specialized service and submitted to analysis of content, thematic modality. RESULTS: the implementation of care actions with these children occurs through multidimensional assessment of children and their families, use of the Unique Therapeutic Project, therapeutic interventions for the development of children and the communication and exchange of interprofessional and family experiences, in addition to considering professionals' prior knowledge and their search for it. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: children with CZS and their families need individualized, frequent, integrated and continuous care.


Asunto(s)
Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Brasil , Niño , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Infección por el Virus Zika/terapia
9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(Suppl 5)2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548289

RESUMEN

This practice paper describes our experience of implementing accredited social health activists (ASHA) Kirana, a digital technology-enabled Maternal Clinical Assessment Tool (M-CAT) and how the ASHAs felt empowered in the process. M-CAT aimed to train ASHAs to collect data that assists doctors in identifying maternal risks, in Karnataka, India. Systematic clinical assessment is not common in rural public health institutions. High caseloads, a tendency to 'normalise' maternal risks, varied competence of doctors and task shifting to insufficiently trained cadres may be some contributing factors. M-CAT was a response to this challenge. ASHAs asked a set symptom-cluster-based questions during home visits that were analysed by software algorithms to generate reports for doctors. M-CAT was implemented in one primary health centre with a group of 14 ASHAs, 2 auxiliary nurse midwives and 349 pregnant and postpartum women over 4 months. Our team worked with the ASHAs to refine the tool and supported them with training, hands-on assistance and regular debrief meetings. By learning how to collect individual-level data that they could interpret and act on, the ASHAs felt empowered with new knowledge on maternal risks. Their perfunctory data collection at home visits changed to substantive interactions with women and families, during which they captured pertinent qualitative information. The information asymmetry between doctors and ASHAs reduced. ASHAs started taking proactive steps on early indications of maternal risks. They changed from being mere transmitters of information to active users of it. Thus, technology-driven initiatives that include empowerment as an objective can strengthen the role of front-line workers in health systems.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Tecnología Digital , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , India , Embarazo , Población Rural
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(9): 4163-4172, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586268

RESUMEN

Since the liberalization of foreign capital in health a new trend has arisen in the process of capital accumulation in the industrial economic complex of health, especially at the levels of outsourced care and Services of Care, Treatment and Diagnosis (SCTD). In order to contribute to the understanding of this dynamic, this article sought to analyze the acquisition process of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) clinics by international capital companies in Brazil. To achieve this, a two-stage methodological path was developed; the first consisted in the quantitative-descriptive analysis of the economic type of all the international capital companies that operate in the production of input and technologies and in RRT care services; the second was developed by a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews of key actors from the private and public sectors and organized civil society. Therefore, the process of the advance of international capital brings with it a qualitative change in the organization, assistance and financing of RRT. It can be seen that, especially in the cases of complementary public and private services, there is a tendency to restrict care and create an obstacle to the universal right to health.


Asunto(s)
Sector Público , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal , Brasil , Programas de Gobierno , Organizaciones
13.
Lancet ; 398(10308): 1317-1343, 2021 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: We estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050. FINDINGS: In 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7-8·8) or $1132 (1119-1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geographical regions. Of this total, $40·4 billion (0·5%, 95% UI 0·5-0·5) was development assistance for health provided to low-income and middle-income countries, which made up 24·6% (UI 24·0-25·1) of total spending in low-income countries. We estimate that $54·8 billion in development assistance for health was disbursed in 2020. Of this, $13·7 billion was targeted toward the COVID-19 health response. $12·3 billion was newly committed and $1·4 billion was repurposed from existing health projects. $3·1 billion (22·4%) of the funds focused on country-level coordination and $2·4 billion (17·9%) was for supply chain and logistics. Only $714·4 million (7·7%) of COVID-19 development assistance for health went to Latin America, despite this region reporting 34·3% of total recorded COVID-19 deaths in low-income or middle-income countries in 2020. Spending on health is expected to rise to $1519 (1448-1591) per person in 2050, although spending across countries is expected to remain varied. INTERPRETATION: Global health spending is expected to continue to grow, but remain unequally distributed between countries. We estimate that development organisations substantially increased the amount of development assistance for health provided in 2020. Continued efforts are needed to raise sufficient resources to mitigate the pandemic for the most vulnerable, and to help curtail the pandemic for all. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Desarrollo Económico , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Agencias Internacionales/economía , COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/epidemiología , Financiación Gubernamental/economía , Financiación Gubernamental/organización & administración , Salud Global/economía , Programas de Gobierno/economía , Programas de Gobierno/organización & administración , Programas de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Gobierno/tendencias , Producto Interno Bruto , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Gastos en Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Agencias Internacionales/organización & administración , Cooperación Internacional
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00235120, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468563

RESUMEN

This study aimed to understand the forms of professional work and proposed actions to achieve the human right to adequate food (HRAF) in the context of primary healthcare (PHC). Using a qualitative approach, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews (from May 2013 to July 2014) with healthcare workers that conducted educational groups on food and nutrition in PHC in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was performed to identify the proposed actions on food, with HRAF as the theoretical basis. We identified three categories of professional work based on the proposed actions for food and nutrition. The first approaches food as a biomedical dimension. The second focuses on access and availability of foods in the territory. The third approaches users' local food reality, centered on the team's work. The proposed actions feature those conducted by individuals with obligations towards HRAF (healthcare workers in PHC) and those performed by rights-holder (users of PHC in the Brazilian Unified National Health System). Food in contexts of poverty is treated as a problem with no solution. This study allowed approximations between "what to do" and "how to act" based on ways of grasping food through the definitions, professional work, and proposed actions to achieve HRAF in PHC. It also allowed elucidating the need to understand food as a human right and strengthening the responsibility of healthcare workers in PHC as duty-bearers towards HRAF in the context of social policies.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Programas de Gobierno , Personal de Salud , Humanos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501637

RESUMEN

Strengthening the health systems through gaps identification is necessary to ensure sustainable improvements especially in facing a debilitating outbreak such as COVID-19. This study aims to explore public perspective on health systems' response towards COVID-19, and to identify gaps for health systems strengthening by leveraging on WHO health systems' building blocks. A qualitative study was conducted using open-ended questions survey among public followed by in-depth interviews with key informants. Opinions on Malaysia's health systems response towards COVID-19 were gathered. Data were exported to NVIVO version 12 and analysed using content analysis approach. The study identified various issues on health systems' response towards COVID-19, which were then mapped into health systems' building blocks. The study showed the gaps were embedded among complex interactions between the health systems building blocks. The leadership and governance building block had cross-cutting effects, and all building blocks influenced service deliveries. Understanding the complexities in fostering whole-systems strengthening through a holistic measure in facing an outbreak was paramount. Applying systems thinking in addressing gaps could help addressing the complexity at a macro level, including consideration of how an action implicates other building blocks and approaching the governance effort in a more adaptive manner to develop resilient systems.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Brotes de Enfermedades , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Liderazgo , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 196, 2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Achievement of successful health outcomes depends on evidence-based programming and implementation of effective health interventions. Routine Health Management Information System is one of the most valuable data sets to support evidence-based programming, however, evidence on systemic use of routine monitoring data for problem-solving and improving health outcomes remain negligible. We attempt to understand the effects of systematic evidence-based review mechanism on improving health outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India. METHODS: Data comes from decision-tracking system and routine health management information system for period Nov-2017 to Mar-2019 covering 6963 health facilities across 25 high-priority districts of the state. Decision-tracking data captured pattern of decisions taken, actions planned and completed, while the latter one provided information on service coverage outcomes over time. Three service coverage indicators, namely, pregnant women receiving 4 or more times ANC and haemoglobin testing during pregnancy, delivered at the health facility, and receive post-partum care within 48 h of delivery were used as outcomes. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Total 412 decisions were taken during the study reference period and a majority were related to ante-natal care services (31%) followed by delivery (16%) and post-natal services (16%). About 21% decisions-taken were focused on improving data quality. By 1 year, 67% of actions planned based on these decisions were completed, 26% were in progress, and the remaining 7% were not completed. We found that, over a year, districts witnessing > 20 percentage-point increase in outcomes were also the districts with significantly higher action completion rates (> 80%) compared to the districts with < 10 percentage-point increase in outcomes having completion of action plans around 50-70%. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed a significantly higher improvement in coverage outcomes among the districts which used routine health management data to conduct monthly review meetings and had high actions completion rates. A data-based review-mechanisms could specifically identify programmatic gaps in service delivery leading to strategic decision making by district authorities to bridge the programmatic gaps. Going forward, establishing systematic evidence-based review platforms can be an important strategy to improve health outcomes and promote the use of routine health monitoring system data in any setting.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Administrativa , Servicios de Salud Materna , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , India , Asistencia Médica , Embarazo
18.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 70(4): 1-21, 2021 09 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499632

RESUMEN

PROBLEM/CONDITION: After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, approximately 400,000 persons were exposed to toxic contaminants and other factors that increased their risk for certain physical and mental health conditions. Shortly thereafter, both federal and nonfederal funds were provided to support various postdisaster activities, including medical monitoring and treatment. In 2011, as authorized by the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010, the CDC World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program began providing medical screening, monitoring, and treatment of 9/11-related health conditions for WTC responders (i.e., persons who were involved in rescue, response, recovery, cleanup, and related support activities after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks) and affected WTC survivors (i.e., persons who were present in the dust or dust cloud on 9/11 or who worked, lived, or attended school, child care centers, or adult day care centers in the New York City disaster area). REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2012-2020. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services WTC Health Program is administered by the director of CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The WTC Health Program uses a multilayer administrative claims system to process members' authorized program health benefits. Administrative claims data are primarily generated by clinical providers in New York and New Jersey at the Clinical Centers of Excellence and outside those states by clinical providers in the Nationwide Provider Network. This report describes WTC Health Program trends for selected indicators during 2012-2020. RESULTS: In 2020, a total of 104,223 members were enrolled in the WTC Health Program, of which 73.4% (n = 76,543) were responders and 26.6% (n = 27,680) were survivors. WTC Health Program members are predominantly male (78.5%). The median age of members was 51 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 44-57) in 2012 and 59 years (IQR: 52-66) in 2020. During 2012-2020, enrollment and number of certifications of WTC-related health conditions increased among members, with the greatest changes observed among survivors. Overall, at enrollment, most WTC Health Program members lived in New York (71.7%), New Jersey (9.3%), and Florida (5.7%). In 2020, the total numbers of cancer and noncancer WTC-related certifications among members were 20,612 and 50,611, respectively. Skin cancer, male genital system cancers, and in situ neoplasms (e.g., skin and breast) are the most common WTC-related certified cancer conditions. The most commonly certified noncancer conditions are in the aerodigestive and mental health categories. The average number of WTC-related certified conditions per certified member is 2.7. In 2020, a total of 40,666 WTC Health Program members received annual monitoring and screening examinations (with an annual average per calendar year of 35,245). In 2020, the total number of WTC Health Program members who received treatment was 41,387 (with an annual average per calendar year of 32,458). INTERPRETATION: Since 2011, the WTC Health Program has provided health care for a limited number of 9/11-related health conditions both for responders and survivors of the terrorist attacks. Over the study period, program enrollment and WTC certification increased, particularly among survivors. As the members age, increased use of health services and costs within the WTC Health Program are expected; chronic diseases, comorbidities, and other health-related conditions unrelated to WTC exposures are more common in older populations, which might complicate the clinical management of WTC-related health conditions. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Analysis of administrative claims data in the context of WTC research findings can better clarify the health care use patterns of WTC Health Program members. This information guides programmatic decision-making and might also help guide future disaster preparedness and response health care efforts. Strengthening the WTC Health Program health informatics infrastructure is warranted for timely programmatic and research decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Socorristas/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Programas de Gobierno , Promoción de la Salud , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Ataques Terroristas del 11 de Septiembre , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 908, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479559

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hypertension represents a substantial and growing burden in Guatemala and other low and middle-income countries. As a part of the formative phase of an implementation research study, we conducted a needs assessment to define short- and long-term needs and opportunities for hypertension services within the public health system. METHODS: We conducted a multi-method, multi-level assessment of needs related to hypertension within Guatemala's public system using the World Health Organization's health system building blocks framework. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at national (n = 17), departmental (n = 7), district (n = 25), and community (n = 30) levels and focus groups with patients (3) and frontline auxiliary nurses (3). We visited and captured data about infrastructure, accessibility, human resources, reporting, medications and supplies at 124 health posts and 53 health centers in five departments of Guatemala. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews and focus group discussions supported by matrix analysis. We summarized quantitative data observed during visits to health posts and centers. RESULTS: Major challenges for hypertension service delivery included: gaps in infrastructure, insufficient staffing and high turnover, limited training, inconsistent supply of medications, lack of reporting, low prioritization of hypertension, and a low level of funding in the public health system overall. Key opportunities included: prior experience caring for patients with chronic conditions, eagerness from providers to learn, and interest from patients to be involved in managing their health. The 5 departments differ in population served per health facility, accessibility, and staffing. All but 7 health posts had basic infrastructure in place. Enalapril was available in 74% of health posts whereas hydrochlorothiazide was available in only 1 of the 124 health posts. With the exception of one department, over 90% of health posts had a blood pressure monitor. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-level multi-method needs assessment using the building blocks framework highlights contextual factors in Guatemala's public health system that have been important in informing the implementation of a hypertension control trial. Long-term needs that are not addressed within the scope of this study will be important to address to enable sustained implementation and scale-up of the hypertension control approach.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Programas de Gobierno , Guatemala/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Evaluación de Necesidades , Atención Primaria de Salud
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3435-3446, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468640

RESUMEN

The scope of this critical narrative review is the analysis of the national literature on the implementation of the More Doctors Program (PMM), from January 2016 to May 2019, distributed according to its three programmatic aspects: 1. Improvement of Infrastructure of the Primary Health Care Networks; 2. Expansion of Vacancies and Courses in Medicine and the Reform of Medical Education; and 3. Emergency Medical Supplies. After consulting the Scielo and Lilacs databases through the key words Programa Mais Médicos, and the English and Spanish equivalents, 37 articles were located, of which 31 were selected because they focused specifically on the implementation of one or more aspects. Aspect 1 had the lowest number of publications, while the highest concentration of articles occurred in aspects 2 and 3, in 2016 and 2019, respectively, depending on the timely implementation of the PMM. The literature analyzed points to successes and weaknesses in the formulation and implementation of the Program. This should be taken into consideration in the elaboration and execution of future projects, based on the expansion of access and the universalization of medical care to vulnerable populations.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Gobierno , Médicos , Brasil , Atención a la Salud , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Recursos Humanos
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