Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.932
Filtrar
2.
N Engl J Med ; 382(4): 309-317, 2020 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In September 2015, the United Kingdom introduced the multicomponent meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero) into its publicly funded national immunization program at a reduced two-dose priming schedule for infants, with a 12-month booster. METHODS: Using data from enhanced national surveillance of invasive meningococcal disease in England, we evaluated the effect of vaccination on the incidence of meningococcal group B disease during the first 3 years of the program. The effect of vaccination was assessed by comparing the observed incidence of disease with the expected incidence based on the incidence during the 4-year prevaccination period in equivalent cohorts and with the use of disease trends in cohorts of children younger than 5 years of age who were not eligible to receive the vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated with the use of the indirect screening method. RESULTS: 4CMenB uptake in England remained consistently high; data from the first 3 months of 2018 showed that 92.5% of children had completed the primary immunizations by their first birthday and 87.9% had received all three doses by 2 years. From September 2015 through August 2018, the incidence of meningococcal group B disease in England (average annual birth cohort, approximately 650,000 infants) was significantly lower in vaccine-eligible cohorts than the expected incidence (63 observed cases as compared with 253 expected cases; incidence rate ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.36), with a 75% reduction in age groups that were fully eligible for vaccination. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness against meningococcal group B disease was 52.7% (95% CI, -33.5 to 83.2) with a two-dose priming schedule for infants and 59.1% (95% CI, -31.1 to 87.2) with a two-dose priming schedule plus a booster at 1 year). Over the 3-year period, there were 169 cases of meningococcal group B disease in the vaccine-eligible cohorts, and an estimated 277 cases (95% CI, 236 to 323) were prevented. CONCLUSIONS: The 4CMenB program was associated with continued positive effect against meningococcal group B disease in children in England, and protection after three doses of the vaccine was sustained for at least 2 years. (Funded by Public Health England.).


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Infecciones Meningocócicas/prevención & control , Vacunas Meningococicas/inmunología , Neisseria meningitidis Serogrupo B , Preescolar , Intervalos de Confianza , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Inmunización Secundaria , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Infecciones Meningocócicas/epidemiología , Medicina Estatal , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reino Unido
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792552

RESUMEN

Immunization represents one of the most cost-effective means to improve the health and well-being of populations and contribute to sustainable development. Since the inception of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, considerable gains have been made in improving access to vaccination in all countries. However, the full potential of vaccination is yet to be tapped.Health system weaknesses have prevented universal access to vaccination and are a limitation for sustainable use of the increasing array of new vaccines. Fortunately, solutions exist and opportunities are available to strengthen immunization systems and to implement strategies to achieve the vision of universal access to vaccines. National immunization programmes are responsible for the management of immunization at the country level and cover a range of functions from establishing evidence-based policies to financing and procurement of vaccines, vaccine management and logistics, delivery of vaccination services and collection, as well as analysis and use of immunization data. Well-functioning immunization programmes that deliver high-quality services using tailored strategies to meet the needs of different population groups can reap the health benefits of high and equitable coverage with vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación , Vacunas , Alemania , Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802153

RESUMEN

Immunization has made an enormous contribution to global health. Global vaccination coverage has dramatically improved and mortality rates among children due to vaccine-preventable diseases have been significantly reduced since the creation of the Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974, the formation of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in 2000, and the development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan in 2012. However, challenges remain and persisting inequities in vaccine uptake contribute to the continued occurrence and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Inequalities in immunization coverage by geography, urban-rural, and socio-economic status jeopardize the achievement of global immunization goals and call for renewed immunization strategies. These should take into account emerging opportunities for building better immunization systems and services, as well as the development of new vaccine products and delivery technologies. Such strategies need to achieve equity in vaccination coverage across and within countries. This will require the participation of communities, a better understanding of vaccine acceptance and hesitancy, the expansion of vaccination across the life course, approaches to improve immunization in middle-income countries, enhanced use of data and possible financial and non-financial incentives. Vaccines also have an important role to play in comprehensive disease control, including the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Lessons learned from disease eradication and elimination efforts of polio, measles and maternal and neonatal tetanus are instrumental in further enhancing global immunization strategies in line with the revised goals and targets of the new Immunization Agenda 2030, which is currently being developed.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Inmunización , Niño , Alemania , Salud Global , Humanos , Sarampión , Vacunación
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1212-1217, 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795577

RESUMEN

Post-traumatic tetanus is the main type of non-neonatal tetanus. To reduce the incidence and mortality rate of tetanus and guide the primary medical institutions to prevent and control tetanus after trauma, National Immunization Planning Technical Working Group of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has compiled this document in the reference with Position Paper by World Health Organization, the latest research progress from home and abroad. The guidelines focus on the basic procedures for the prevention and disposition of post-traumatic tetanus, the application of tetanus vaccines and immune preparation, and the pre-exposure immunization in high-risk populations of trauma.


Asunto(s)
Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Toxoide Tetánico/administración & dosificación , Tétanos/prevención & control , Humanos , Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización , Tétanos/inmunología , Vacunación
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(48): 1105-1111, 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805033

RESUMEN

In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the following three milestones for measles control to be achieved by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district, 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to less than five cases per 1 million population, and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate* (1). In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan,† with the objective of eliminating measles§ in five of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. This report updates a previous report (2) and describes progress toward WHA milestones and regional measles elimination during 2000-2018. During 2000-2018, estimated MCV1 coverage increased globally from 72% to 86%; annual reported measles incidence decreased 66%, from 145 to 49 cases per 1 million population; and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 73%, from 535,600 to 142,300. During 2000-2018, measles vaccination averted an estimated 23.2 million deaths. However, the number of measles cases in 2018 increased 167% globally compared with 2016, and estimated global measles mortality has increased since 2017. To continue progress toward the regional measles elimination targets, resource commitments are needed to strengthen routine immunization systems, close historical immunity gaps, and improve surveillance. To achieve measles elimination, all communities and countries need coordinated efforts aiming to reach ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles vaccine (3).


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Sarampión/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Incidencia , Lactante , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/mortalidad , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(48): 1112-1116, 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805034

RESUMEN

In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region countries, including China, resolved to eliminate measles by 2012 or as soon as feasible thereafter (1). As of 2018, nine* of the 37 Western Pacific Region countries or areas† had eliminated§ measles. China's Measles Elimination Action Plan 2006-2012 included strengthening routine immunization; conducting measles risk assessments, followed by supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) at national and subnational levels; strengthening surveillance and laboratory capacity; and investigating and responding to measles outbreaks. Most recently, progress toward measles elimination in China was described in a 2014 report documenting measles elimination efforts in China during 2008-2012 and a resurgence in 2013 (2). This report describes progress toward measles elimination in China during January 2013-June 2019.¶ Measles incidence per million persons decreased from 20.4 in 2013 to 2.8 in 2018; reported measles-related deaths decreased from 32 in 2015 to one in 2018 and no deaths in 2019 through June. Measles elimination in China can be achieved through strengthening the immunization program's existing strategy by ensuring sufficient vaccine supply; continuing to improve laboratory-supported surveillance, outbreak investigation and response; strengthening school entry vaccination record checks; vaccinating students who do not have documentation of receipt of 2 doses of measles-rubella vaccine; and vaccinating health care professionals and other adults at risk for measles.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Sarampión/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/mortalidad , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 977, 2019 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747889

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rabies is estimated to cause 59,000 deaths and economic losses of US$8.6 billion every year. Despite several years of rabies surveillance and awareness programmes, increased availability of post-exposure prophylaxis vaccinations and dog population control, the disease still remains prevalent in Sri Lanka. This study reports the roll-out of a high number, high coverage canine rabies vaccination campaign in Sri Lanka, providing estimates for the vaccination coverage achieved, analysing the local dog demographics, and identifying barriers of attendance to static vaccination clinics. METHODS: A mass dog vaccination campaign was undertaken in Negombo, Sri Lanka. The campaign was composed of static point and door-to-door vaccination stages, with a final survey of vaccination coverage. A large volume of data on the distribution, health, and signalment of vaccinated dogs was collected through a mobile phone application. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate which socio-spatial and dog-related factors influenced attendance of owners to static vaccination points. RESULTS: The campaign vaccinated over 7800 dogs achieving a vaccination coverage of 75.8%. A dog:human ratio of 1:17 was estimated. Most dogs were owned, and the dog population was mostly male, adult, and non-sterilized. Unawareness, unavailability and handling problems were the most common reasons given by owners to explain failure to attend a static vaccination point. The regression analysis showed that increasing distance to a static point, in addition to young age and poor health of the dog, were associated with a decrease in the likelihood of attendance to a static vaccination points. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of high number, high coverage vaccination campaigns in Sri Lanka. The information on dog ecology and barriers of attendance to static point vaccination clinics will facilitate development of future vaccination campaigns.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Vacunas Antirrábicas/inmunología , Rabia/prevención & control , Cobertura de Vacunación/métodos , Animales , Teléfono Celular , Enfermedades de los Perros/inmunología , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Rabia/inmunología , Sri Lanka , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1421, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666039

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inability to track children's vaccination history coupled with parents' lack of awareness of vaccination due dates compounds the problem of low immunization coverage and timeliness in developing countries. Traditional Reminder/Recall (RR) interventions such as paper-based immunization cards or mHealth based platforms do not yield optimal results in resource-constrained settings. There is thus a need for a low-cost intervention that can simultaneously stimulate demand and track immunization history to help reduce drop-outs and improve immunization coverage and timeliness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of low-cost vaccine reminder and tracker bracelets for improving routine childhood immunization coverage and timeliness in Pakistani children under 2 years of age. METHODS: The study is an individually randomized, three-arm parallel Randomized Controlled Trial with two intervention groups and one control group. Infants in the two intervention groups will be given two different types of silicone bracelets at the time of recruitment, while infants in the control group will not receive any intervention. The two types of bracelets consist of symbols and/or numbers to denote the EPI vaccination schedule and each time the child will come for vaccination, the study staff will perforate a hole in the appropriate symbol to denote vaccine administration. Therefore, by looking at the bracelet, caregivers will be able to see how many vaccines have been received. Our primary outcome measure is the increase in coverage and timeliness of Pentavalent-3/PCV-3/Polio-3 and Measles-1 vaccine in the intervention versus control groups. A total of 1446 participants will be recruited from 4 Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) centers in Landhi Town, Karachi. Each enrolled child will be followed up till the Measles-1 vaccine is administered, or till eleven months have elapsed since enrolment. DISCUSSION: Participant recruitment commenced on July 19, 2017, and was completed on October 10, 2017. Proposed duration of the study is 18 months and expected end date is December 1, 2018. This study constitutes one of the first attempts to rigorously evaluate an innovative, low-cost vaccine reminder bracelet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03310762 . Retrospectively Registered on October 16, 2017.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización/métodos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Padres , Sistemas Recordatorios , Cobertura de Vacunación , Vacunación , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Cuidadores , Preescolar , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Sarampión/prevención & control , Pakistán , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Sistemas Recordatorios/instrumentación , Proyectos de Investigación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Población Urbana
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1514, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer was the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide in 2012 and was the eighth most common cancer in 2014 and the eighth greatest cause of female cancer deaths in Hong Kong in 2015. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been clinically documented to have a high efficacy in reducing HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia incidence. Therefore, receiving vaccination is a crucial public health measure to reduce disease burden. Significant others, such as schools and schoolteachers, have prominent influence in shaping adolescents' health perceptions and behavior. Therefore, the perspective of schools and schoolteachers regarding vaccination can significantly influence students' acceptance and accessibility of the vaccine. However, few studies have analyzed the perceptions of schoolteachers toward HPV vaccination, and even fewer have concerned how schoolteachers' perceptions influence their schools' motivation in implementing school-based HPV vaccination programs. This study was thus conducted to fill this literature gap. METHODS: With a Chinese community as the field site of this study, a qualitative approach of five focus group interviews was conducted with 35 schoolteachers from five primary and eight secondary schools in Hong Kong between July 2014 and January 2015. Thematic content analysis was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Perceptual, institutional, student and parental, and collaborator barriers interacted to discourage the sampled schoolteachers from organizing school-based HPV vaccination programs. Lack of knowledge regarding HPV vaccination, perception of HPV vaccination as inappropriate given the students' age, violation of traditional cultural values, lack of perceived needs and perceived risk, opposition from schools, low priority of HPV vaccination over other health education topics, lack of government support, lack of interest from parents and students, and lack of confidence in implementing organizations, all were the mentioned barriers. CONCLUSIONS: The sampled schoolteachers were demotivated to organize school-based HPV vaccination programs because of their perceptions and various social and cultural factors. As significant influencers of adolescent students, schoolteachers and schools should receive more support and information on organizing school-based HPV vaccination programs in the future.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Maestros , Instituciones Académicas , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adolescente , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virología , Niño , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Masculino , Motivación , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Padres , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Estudiantes , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1454, 2019 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690296

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women around the world in which the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the one of the recognized causative agent affecting women health. In response to this health issue, the Malaysian government had officially implemented the HPV immunisation programme for secondary schoolchildren in 2010 at the age of 13 years old and above. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sociodemographic determinants of knowledge and attitude among students of Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) towards the HPV vaccination programme. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires, recruiting 374 UTAR's students as the respondents by using convenience sampling method. Respondents were categorized as having good/poor level of knowledge and positive/negative attitude towards HPV vaccination. RESULTS: Over half of the respondents were females (64.5%) and the majority were aged 20 years old and below (55.8%). Generally, 54.7% of the total respondents had a high level of knowledge towards HPV vaccine while 57.5% of the total respondents showed a negative attitude towards HPV vaccine. Female respondents aged 20 years old and below showed good knowledge (56.4%) and a more positive attitude (55.8%) towards HPV vaccine. Students from the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS) exhibited higher knowledge (67.3%) and positive attitude (62.4%) as compared to the Faculty of Accountancy and Management (FAM) which showed only 32.7% of knowledge and 37.6% of positive attitude towards the HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: The majority of UTAR students possess good knowledge regarding HPV vaccination. Nonetheless, they demonstrated a negative attitude towards HPV vaccination, depicting the necessity to impart and further intensify the sense of health awareness among all students, especially among male students. The judicious use of social media apart from the conventional mass media should be an advantage as to enhance the practice of HPV vaccination among them and thereafter minimize the health and economic burdens of cervical cancer.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Estudiantes/psicología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Malasia , Masculino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Prevención Primaria , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 294, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692797

RESUMEN

The number of children who survive to adolescence is increasing in Nigeria, significantly due to the success of child survival programs, with immunization as a major theme. However, the national immunization schedule in Nigeria is presently restricted to early childhood with no attention paid to immunization in adolescence. Presently, the vaccines that are readily available for adolescents include tetanus toxoid which is normally administered to pregnant women, so necessarily includes adolescent mothers; and a few research programs which offers hepatitis B vaccines. Also, there are few Nigerian adolescents who access immunization as a requirement for travelling outside the country or as a result of parental effort. Knowledge and awareness about adolescent immunization is generally poor. Nigerian adolescents have been shown to be poorly protected from tetanus, rubella and hepatitis B which are vaccine preventable. Neonatal, childhood and adult tetanus, congenital rubella syndrome, cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma are just few of the diseases whose incidence can be reduced with an effective adolescent immunization program. This will also ensure that the gains of childhood immunization is concretized and socio-economic losses as a result of vaccine preventable diseases are eliminated to create a healthy and vibrant workforce. There is an urgent need to build a viable adolescent immunization program in Nigeria as adolescents represent a window of opportunity to prevent diseases which affect both the younger and older age group. This can be extended to other developing countries as well.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Esquemas de Inmunización , Inmunización/métodos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Nigeria
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1029-1033, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725710

RESUMEN

Afghanistan and Pakistan are the only countries that continue to confirm ongoing wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission (1). During January 2018-September 2019 the number of WPV1 cases in Pakistan increased, compared with the number during the previous 4 years. This report updates previous reports on Pakistan's polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges (2,3). In 2018, Pakistan reported 12 WPV1 cases, a 50% increase from eight cases in 2017, and a 31% increase in the proportion of WPV1-positive sites under environmental surveillance (i.e., sampling of sewage to detect poliovirus). As of November 7, 2019, 80 WPV1 cases had been reported, compared with eight cases by the same time in 2018. An intensive schedule of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)* implemented by community health workers in the core reservoirs (i.e., Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta) where WPV1 circulation has never been interrupted, and by mobile teams, has failed to interrupt WPV1 transmission in core reservoirs and prevent WPV1 resurgence in nonreservoir areas. Sewage samples have indicated wide WPV1 transmission in nonreservoir areas in other districts and provinces. Vaccine refusals, chronically missed children, community campaign fatigue, and poor vaccination management and implementation have exacerbated the situation. To overcome challenges to vaccinating children who are chronically missed in SIAs and to attain country and global polio eradication goals, substantial changes are needed in Pakistan's polio eradication program, including continuing cross-border coordination with Afghanistan, gaining community trust, conducting high-quality vaccination campaigns, improving oversight of field activities, and improving managerial processes to unify eradication efforts.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Pakistán/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738865

RESUMEN

This eleventh national annual immunisation coverage report focuses on data for the calendar year 2017 derived from the Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) and the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. This is the first report to include data on HPV vaccine course completion in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) adolescents. 'Fully immunised' vaccination coverage in 2017 increased at the 12-month assessment age reaching 93.8% in December 2017, and at the 60-month assessment age reaching 94.5%. 'Fully immunised' coverage at the 24-month assessment age decreased slightly to 89.8% in December 2017, following amendment in December 2016 to require the fourth DTPa vaccine dose at 18 months. 'Fully immunised' coverage at 12 and 60 months of age in Indigenous children reached the highest ever recorded levels of 93.2% and 96.9% in December 2017. Catch-up vaccination activity for the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella-containing vaccine was considerably higher in 2017 for Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous adolescents aged 10-19 years (20.3% vs. 6.4%, respectively, of those who had not previously received that dose). In 2017, 80.2% of females and 75.9% of males aged 15 years had received a full course of three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Of those who received dose one, 79% and 77% respectively of Indigenous girls and boys aged 15 years in 2017 completed three doses, compared to 91% and 90% of non-Indigenous girls and boys, respectively. A separate future report is planned to present adult AIR data and to assess completeness of reporting.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Inmunización , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Papillomaviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Cobertura de Vacunación , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Australia/epidemiología , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Servicios de Salud del Indígena , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Sistema de Registros
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738867

RESUMEN

Introduction: Maternal influenza vaccination was introduced in 2010 due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with influenza in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the maternal influenza vaccination uptake in Northern Territory public hospitals and identify gaps to improve uptake. Methods: Birth data from Northern Territory (NT) public hospitals obtained from the Perinatal Register for deliveries in 2016 were merged with vaccination records from the NT immunisation register. Results: There were 3,392 viable pregnancies in NT public hospitals in 2016 with 45.6% vaccination coverage against influenza. There was a statistically significant difference in coverage with 68.5% in Indigenous vs 31.7% in non-Indigenous deliveries (p < 0.001), yielding an odds ratio of 4.67 (95% CI 4.02, 5.42) for maternal influenza vaccination across Indigenous status. Influenza vaccination coverage for preterm births (< 37 weeks) was low especially in non-Indigenous mothers at 27.2% vs 65.05% in Indigenous mothers (p < 0.001). A distinct immunisation administration pattern was noted for 2016 with 58.9% of vaccinations occurring between April and June regardless of Indigenous status and maternal gestational age. This correlated with the annual influenza immunisation campaign by the NT and Commonwealth. Conclusion: A year-round maternal influenza vaccination campaign is crucial to avoid missed opportunities and increase vaccination protection for mother and baby. Antenatal influenza vaccination campaign with health care workers education and increasing patient awareness should continue throughout the year.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Cobertura de Vacunación , Vacunación , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/virología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres , Northern Territory , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Embarazo , Sistema de Registros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
20.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46835

RESUMEN

A efetividade das vacinas contendo o componente sarampo é influenciada pela idade à vacinação, de tal forma que crianças vacinadas em idade menor do que 12 meses apresenta efetividade de 84% e aos 12 meses 92,5%


Asunto(s)
Vacunación , Programas de Inmunización
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA