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1.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. ilus, tab, mapas
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193594

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: el modelo de los activos comunitarios se caracteriza por fomentar condiciones de salud que potencian las capacidades y habilidades individuales y colectivas. El objetivo de este proyecto ha sido identificar el mapa de activos en salud del barrio Arturo Eyries de Valladolid, para promover la prescripción social por parte del personal sanitario y hacer más visibles los recursos de los que dispone la comunidad. METODOLOGÍA: se han utilizado diferentes técnicas de mapeo: búsqueda de datos en internet, redes sociales, periódicos, paseos por el barrio, entrevistas, mapas mudos y fotovoz. Se incluyeron pacientes y profesionales sanitarios del Centro de Salud Arturo Eyries. RESULTADOS: se ha recogido información de un total de 40 participantes: 10 profesionales sanitarios y 30 pacientes del centro de salud. El resultado de esta investigación fueron 37 activos clasificados en seis categorías: sanidad, ocio y cultura, apoyo social, educación, ejercicio físico y transporte. Con todo esto se ha creado un fichero de activos, un mapa del barrio, una página web, un tríptico y una sesión clínica para los profesionales del centro. CONCLUSIONES: este proyecto de mapeo constituye el punto de partida para mejorar el conocimiento que los profesionales sanitarios y los pacientes tienen sobre los recursos de salud de su entorno. Este trabajo representa el inicio de una red para la promoción de la salud, dirigida a implicar a instituciones y responsables políticos en la creación de una cartografía común, a nivel ciudad o incluso comunidad autónoma, de activos para la salud


INTRODUCTION: The community assets model is characterized by fostering health conditions that enhance individual and collective capacities and abilities. The aim of this project has been to identify the map of health assets in the Arturo Eyries neighbourhood of Valladolid to promote social prescription by health personnel, and to make the resources available to the community more visible. METHODOLOGY: Different mapping techniques have been used: internet data search, social networks, newspapers, walks around the neighbourhood, interviews, silent maps and photovoice. Patients and health professionals from the Arturo Eyries health centre were included in this study. RESULTS: Information was collected from a total of 40 participants: 10 health professionals and 30 health centre patients. The result of this research was 37 assets classified into six categories: health, leisure and culture, social support, education, physical exercise and transport. With all this, an asset file, a map of the neighbourhood, a web page, a leaflet and a clinical session for the centre's professionals were created. CONCLUSIONS: This mapping project is the starting point for improving the knowledge that health professionals and patients have about the health resources of their environment. This work represents the beginning of a network for health promotion, and we would like to involve institutions and the politicians in the creation of common mapping, at local or regional level, of health assets


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Medicina Comunitaria , Personal de Salud , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Características de la Residencia , Estado de Salud , España
4.
Soins ; 65(846): 43-44, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012419

RESUMEN

Prevention is at the heart of the government's national health strategy. The health service is the centrepiece of this policy. Since autumn 2018, this has allowed health students to develop and implemente prevention actions in their regions. Nursing students were some of the first to commit to this.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Política de Salud , Humanos
5.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-194191

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) are a list of professional tasks (with associated competency ratings) that pharmacy educational organizations support, and accreditation organizations require, for assessment by colleges and schools of pharmacy. This manuscript assesses the perceived frequency of performing EPAs in the population health promoter (PHP) domain among pharmacists practicing in North Dakota. METHODS: This survey assessed the self-reported EPA activities (inclusive of the PHP domain) of registered pharmacists living and practicing in North Dakota. There were 990 pharmacists surveyed, and 457 (46.1%) of pharmacists responded. RESULTS: Within the PHP domain, pharmacists reported performing "Minimize adverse drug events and medication errors" most frequently (mean=3.4, SD=2.0), followed by "Ensure that patients have been immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases" (mean=2.3, SD 2.3), "Maximize the appropriate use of medications in a population" (mean=2.2, SD 2.3), and "Identify patients at risk for prevalent diseases in a population" (mean=1.3, SD=1.9). In these Core EPAs PHP domains, the clinical pharmacists reported the highest level, followed by pharmacy managers and staff pharmacists. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists in North Dakota reported that EPAs in the PHP domain are practiced regularly. Thus, EPAs in the PHP domain have potential as a means to assess outcomes in pharmacy education and practice


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Educación en Farmacia , Servicios Farmacéuticos/normas , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Estados Unidos , Educación Basada en Competencias , Internado no Médico/métodos , Errores de Medicación/prevención & control
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967093

RESUMEN

Digital nature can provide a substitute for real nature for those who have limited access to green space, or are confined to their homes, for example during the worldwide COVID-19 lockdown. In a large-scale online survey, respondents (N = 1203) watched videos of digital nature, varying in terms of type of nature (wild versus tended nature) and spaciousness. Results show a significant increase of feelings of connectedness to the community after watching digital nature. Furthermore, tended nature scenes elicited more social aspirations than wild nature scenes. A multiple regression model further shows that living further away from nature was a significant predictor for loneliness scores, while number of nature interactions during a week was not. Results of this study confirm the importance of nature interaction for mental and social wellbeing for the general population and stress the potential of digital nature as a complementary strategy. These findings are of particular relevance to those who lack access to nature due to old age and related mobility constraints or a lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Ambiente , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Soledad , Naturaleza , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1463, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993607

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare facilities are notorious for occupational health and safety problems. Multi-level interventions are needed to address interacting exposures and their overlapping origins in work organization features. Worker participation in problem identification and resolution is essential. This study evaluates the CPH-NEW Healthy Workplace Participatory Program (HWPP), a Total Worker Health® protocol to develop effective employee teams for worker safety, health, and wellbeing. METHODS: Six public sector, unionized healthcare facilities are enrolled, in three pairs, matched by agency. The unit of intervention is a workplace health and safety committee, adapted here to a joint labor-management "Design Team" (DT). The DT conducts root cause analyses, prioritizes problems, identifies feasible interventions in light of the constraints and needs of the specific setting, makes business-case presentations to facility leadership, and assists in evaluation. Following a stepped-wedge (cross-over) design, one site in each pair is randomly assigned to "immediate intervention" status, receiving the full coached intervention at baseline; in the "lagged intervention" site, coaching begins about half-way through the study. Program effectiveness and cost-effectiveness outcomes are assessed at both organizational (e.g., workers' compensation claim and absenteeism rates, perceived management support of safety) and individual levels (e.g., self-rated health, sleep quality, leisure-time exercise). Targeted pre-post analyses will also examine specific outcomes appropriate to the topics selected for intervention. Process evaluation outcomes include fidelity of the HWPP intervention, extent of individual DT member activity, expansion of committee scope to include employee well-being, program obstacles and opportunities in each setting, and sustainability (within the available time frame). DISCUSSION: This study aims for a quantitative evaluation of the HWPP over a time period long enough to accomplish multiple intervention cycles in each facility. The design seeks to achieve comparable study engagement and data quality between groups. We will also assess whether the HWPP might be further improved to meet the needs of U.S. public sector healthcare institutions. Potential challenges include difficulty in pooling data across study sites if Design Teams select different intervention topics, and follow-up periods too short for change to be observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04251429 (retrospectively registered January 29, 2020), protocol version 1.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Compromiso Laboral , Lugar de Trabajo/organización & administración , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Grupos de Población , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Indemnización para Trabajadores
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008539, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956374

RESUMEN

During the initial phase of the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia, all hospitals' isolation capacities were overwhelmed by the sheer caseload. As a stop-gap measure to halt transmission, Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) distributed household disinfection kits to those who were at high risk of EVD contamination. The kit contained chlorine and personal protective materials to be used for the care of a sick person or the handling of a dead body. This intervention was novel and controversial for MSF. This paper shed the light on this experience of distribution in Monrovia and assess if kits were properly used by recipients. Targeted distribution was conducted to those at high risk of EVD (relatives of confirmed EVD cases) and health staff. Mass distributions were also conducted to households in the most EVD affected urban districts. A health promotion strategy focused on the purpose and use of the kit was integrated into the distribution. Follow-up phone calls to recipients were conducted to enquire about the use of the kit. Overall, 65,609 kits were distributed between September and November 2014. A total of 1,386 recipients were reached by phone. A total of 60 cases of sickness and/or death occurred in households who received a kit. The majority of these (46, 10%) were in households of relatives of confirmed EVD cases. Overall, usage of the kits was documented in 56 out of 60 affected households. Out of the 1322 households that did not experience sickness and/or death after the distribution, 583 (44%) made use of elements of the kit, mainly (94%) chlorine for hand-washing. At the peak of an EVD outbreak, the distribution of household disinfection kits was feasible and kits were appropriately used by the majority of recipients. In similar circumstances in the future, the intervention should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Compuestos de Cloro , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Ebolavirus , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/instrumentación , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Liberia
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847040

RESUMEN

This study aimed to develop a physical education fitness program for adolescents to counteract the declining physical activity levels caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to investigate the program's effect. This mixed-methods study developed and implemented a five-component "Music Beeps" (MB) program to promote adolescents' physical fitness. A total of 240 students from two high schools in South Korea-divided into experimental and control groups-participated in 32 sessions over 16 weeks. The changes in students' fitness were analyzed, and the educational effects were examined via inductive analysis of the observation logs and group and in-depth interviews. The results demonstrated that, whereas the comparison group demonstrated no statistically significant changes in power, muscular strength and endurance, or cardiopulmonary endurance, the experimental group showed changes in all these variables, along with changes in flexibility. Further, the MB program had significant educational effects. First, students reported that musical cues enhanced their fitness motivation and sense of responsibility. Second, record-keeping and active participation contributed to self-led fitness management. Third, activity in a small space with few pieces of equipment led to the positive perception that the program was efficient and enabled regular exercise regardless of climate conditions.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Música , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico/métodos , Aptitud Física , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , República de Corea , Instituciones Académicas
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764128

RESUMEN

While large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide, we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic immediately and for the longer term.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Higiene , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Política de Salud , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
18.
Sex Health ; 17(4): 384-386, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838836

RESUMEN

Sex workers confront unique challenges in the face of COVID-19. Data from an international sex work website popular with cisgender men and transgender men and women suggest that, after a period of physical distancing, many sex workers are returning to in-person work: from May to August 2020, active sex work profiles increased 9.4% (P < 0.001) and newly created profiles increased by 35.6% (P < 0.001). Analysis of sex work and COVID-19 guidelines published by five community-based organisations found that they focused on altering sexual practices, enhancing hygiene and pivoting to virtual work. To capitalise on these guidelines, funding and research for implementation and evaluation are needed to support COVID-19 risk reduction strategies for sex workers.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexo Seguro , Apoyo Social , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
19.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(3): 229-242, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749875

RESUMEN

Latinxs in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and present with more advanced disease than their non-Latinx peers, due to numerous barriers to care including HIV stigma. We describe the adaptation, implementation, and reach of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez (You Only Live Once), Baltimore's first social marketing campaign promoting HIV screening among Spanish-speaking Latinxs. The 6-month campaign promoted free HIV testing by addressing HIV stigma. The campaign included a website, a social marketing campaign, community outreach events, and advertisements via radio, billboards, local partners, and buses. During the campaign, there were 9,784 unique website users, and ads were served to over 84,592 people on social media platforms. Among Latinx HIV testers at the Baltimore City Health Department, 31.6% reported having seen or heard of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez and 25.3% of Latinx HIV testers reported that the campaign influenced them to get tested.


Asunto(s)
Serodiagnóstico del SIDA/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hispanoamericanos/educación , Mercadeo Social , Estigma Social , Migrantes/educación , Baltimore , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Desarrollo de Programa , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Migrantes/psicología , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237571, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810195

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pre-gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pre-conception care (PCC) in improving maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Databases from MEDLINE, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE, and Cochrane Library were searched, including the CENTRAL register of controlled trials, and CINHAL up until March 2019, without any language restrictions, for any pre-pregnancy care aiming at health promotion, glycemic control, and screening and treatment of diabetes complications in women with type I or type II pre-gestational diabetes. Trials and observational studies were included in the review. Newcastle-Ottawa scale and the Cochrane collaboration methodology for data synthesis and analysis were used, along with the GRADE tool to evaluate the body of evidence. RESULTS: The search identified 8500 potentially relevant citations of which 40 reports of 36 studies were included. The meta-analysis results show that PCC reduced congenital malformations risk by 71%, (Risk ratio (RR) 0.29; 95% CI: 0.21-0.40, 25 studies; 5903 women; high-certainty evidence). The results also show that PCC may lower HbA1c in the first trimester of pregnancy by an average of 1.27% (Mean difference (MD) 1.27; 95% CI: 1.33-1.22; 4927 women; 24 studies, moderate-certainty evidence). Furthermore, the results suggest that PCC may lead to a slight reduction in the risk of preterm delivery of 15%, (RR 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73-0.99; nine studies, 2414 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Moreover, PCC may result in risk reduction of perinatal mortality by 54%, (RR 0.46; 95% CI: 0.30-0.73; ten studies; 3071 women; moderate-certainty evidence). There is uncertainty about the effects of PCC on the early booking for antenatal care (MD 1.31; 95% CI: 1.40-1.23; five studies, 1081 women; very low-certainty evidence) and maternal hypoglycemia in the first trimester, (RR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.07-1.79; three studies; 686 women; very low- certainty evidence). In addition, results of the meta-analysis indicate that PCC may lead to 48% reduction in the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37-0.75; six studies, 2261 women; moderate-certainty evidence). PCC may reduce the risk of neonatal admission to intensive care unit (NICU) by 25% (RR 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.84; four studies; 1322 women; moderate-certainty evidence). However, PCC may have little or no effect in reducing the cesarean section rate (RR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.96-1.07; 14 studies; 3641 women; low-certainty evidence); miscarriage rate (RR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.70-1.06; 11 studies; 2698 women; low-certainty evidence); macrosomia rate (RR 1.06; 95% CI: 0.97-1.15; nine studies; 2787 women, low-certainty evidence); neonatal hypoglycemia (RR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.74-1.18; five studies; 880 women; low-certainty evidence); respiratory distress syndrome (RR 0.78; 95% CI: 0.47-1.29; four studies; 466 women; very low-certainty evidence); or shoulder dystocia (RR 0.28; 95% CI: 0.07-1.12; 2 studies; 530 women; very low-certainty evidence). CONCLUSION: PCC for women with pre-gestational type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus is effective in improving rates of congenital malformations. In addition, it may improve the risk of preterm delivery and admission to NICU. PCC probably reduces maternal HbA1C in the first trimester of pregnancy, perinatal mortality and SGA. There is uncertainty regarding the effects of PCC on early booking for antenatal care or maternal hypoglycemia during the first trimester of pregnancy. PCC has little or no effect on other maternal and perinatal outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Atención Preconceptiva , Resultado del Embarazo , Embarazo en Diabéticas/terapia , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/normas , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Atención Preconceptiva/métodos , Atención Preconceptiva/organización & administración , Atención Preconceptiva/normas , Atención Preconceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Embarazo en Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Embarazo en Diabéticas/epidemiología , Pronóstico , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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