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1.
J Med Life ; 14(1): 93-99, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767792

RESUMEN

Intellectual property rights such as Copyright, Trademark, Patents and Trade secrets etc. help us to gain some protection against certain inventions by acknowledging the founder. In today's industry it is agreed that Intellectual Property Rights has a big role to play. This current study envisages the knowledge, attitude, practice regarding Intellectual Property Rights among dental task force attending private dental colleges.The survey was conducted among students of which were Interns, Post Graduates, faculty members and other dental surgeons attending private dental colleges in Navi Mumbai. The subjects of this study comprised of a total of 1020 students, faculty members and other dental surgeons from five different private dental institutes. The survey includes closed ended questions. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 17. Explaining calculations were used to summarize all the answers. A total of 889 students, faculty and other dental surgeons from private dental colleges responded. Results showed that about 83.5% believe the statement "Articles and other publications are protected by copyright." 66.6% of participants would select trademark in order to protect their clinic or organization name. About 38.7% were aware of the term Intellectual Property Rights. It also suggests that only 10.9% have attended any seminar/conference pertaining to IPR. The students and faculty members have an overall sense of eagerness to learn and gain more knowledge based on IPR. Thus conducting more workshops and seminars based on IPR should be encouraged.


Asunto(s)
Comités Consultivos , Educación en Odontología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Propiedad Intelectual , Universidades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 490, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706726

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is now 25 years since the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the same concerns raised during its negotiations such as high prices of medicines, market exclusivity and delayed market entry for generics remain relevant as highlighted recently by the Ebola and COVID-19 pandemics. The World Health Organization's (WHO) mandate to work on the interface between intellectual property, innovation and access to medicine has been continually reinforced and extended to include providing support to countries on the implementation of TRIPS flexibilities in collaboration with stakeholders. This study analyses the role of intellectual property on access to medicines in the African Region. METHODS: We analyze patent data from the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) and Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle (OAPI) to provide a situational analysis of patenting activity and trends. We also review legislation to assess how TRIPS flexibilities are implemented in countries. RESULTS: Patenting was low for African countries. Only South Africa and Cameroon appeared in the list of top ten originator countries for ARIPO and OAPI respectively. Main diseases covered by African patents were HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, cancers and tumors. Majority countries have legislation allowing for compulsory licensing and parallel importation of medicines, while the least legislated flexibilities were explicit exemption of pharmaceutical products from patentable subject matter, new or second use of patented pharmaceutical products, imposition of limits to patent term extension and test data protection. Thirty-nine countries have applied TRIPS flexibilities, with the most common being compulsory licensing and least developed country transition provisions. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities exist for WHO to work with ARIPO and OAPI to support countries in reviewing their legislation to be more responsive to public health needs.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Propiedad Intelectual , Patentes como Asunto , África , Comercio/historia , Países en Desarrollo , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Derecho Internacional , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
3.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(3): 293-301, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692518

RESUMEN

Academic institutions play a central role in the biotech industry through technology licensing and the creation of startups, but few data are available on their performance and the magnitude of their impact. Here we present a systematic study of technology licensing by one such institution, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Using data on the 76 therapeutics-focused life sciences companies formed through MIT's Technology Licensing Office from 1983 to 2017, we construct several measures of impact, including MIT patents cited in the Orange Book, capital raised, outcomes from mergers and acquisitions, patents granted to MIT intellectual property licensees, drug candidates discovered and US drug approvals-a key benchmark of innovation in the biopharmaceutical industry. As of December 2017, Orange Book listings for four approved small-molecule drugs cite MIT patents, but another 31 FDA-approved drugs (excluding candidates acquired after phase 3) had some involvement of MIT licensees. Fifty-five percent of the latter were either a new molecular entity or a new biological entity, and 55% were granted priority review, an indication that they address an unmet medical need. The methodology described here may be a useful framework for other academic institutions to track outcomes of intellectual property in the therapeutics domain.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas , Propiedad Intelectual , Concesión de Licencias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Biotecnología , Industria Farmacéutica , Massachusetts
9.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, aug. 2020https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2020.76.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52525

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. En este estudio se identifican y describen los cambios introducidos en el entramado constitucional y legal, y la política económica y social de Cuba entre los años 2015 y 2020 que inciden en el acceso a la salud y se actualiza el mapa conceptual sobre salud pública y propiedad intelectual en Cuba (MC SPPIC). Se realizó la búsqueda de documentos, ajustada al período de tiempo analizado, en la Gaceta Oficial de la República de Cuba y los sitios en Internet de la Oficina Cubana de la Propiedad Industrial, los organismos de la Administración Central del Estado y del Grupo de las Industrias Biotecnológica y Farmacéutica BioCubaFarma. El MC SPPIC actualizado refleja los cambios en la nueva Constitución de la República de Cuba adoptada en 2019, la actualización de los Lineamientos de la Política Económica y Social para el quinquenio 2016-2021 y las leyes, decretos leyes y otras disposiciones legales relacionados con la propiedad intelectual en el período 2015-2020. La Política sobre el Sistema de Propiedad Industrial aprobada se fortaleció con legislaciones específicas para la protección de la propiedad industrial, en especial las que inciden en la protección de los resultados obtenidos por la industria biotecnológica y farmacéutica cubana. Los cambios reflejados en el MC SPPIC actualizado favorecen la interacción y la sinergia entre los diversos actores que inciden en el acceso a la salud —en su sentido más amplio— de la población cubana.


[ABSTRACT]. This study identifies and describes the changes introduced in Cuba’s constitutional and legal framework, and the country’s economic and social policy between 2015 and 2020, in terms of the effects on access to health. The conceptual map of public health and intellectual property in Cuba was also updated. A document search for the time period of the study was conducted in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba and on the webpages of the Cuban Office of Industrial Property, Cuban government agencies, and the Cuban Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries group (BioCubaFarma). The updated conceptual map reflects amendments to the new Constitution of the Republic of Cuba adopted in 2019, updated guidelines on economic and social policy for the quinquennium 2016-2021, and laws, decrees, and legal provisions adopted in the period 2015-2020 in relation to intellectual property. The approved policy on the industrial property system was strengthened with specific legislation to protect industrial property, especially for the protection of the results obtained by the Cuban biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The changes reflected in the updated conceptual map favor interactions and synergy among the various actors that affect the Cuban population’s access to health in the broadest sense.


[RESUMO]. Neste estudo, procuramos identificar e descrever as mudanças introduzidas no quadro constitucional e legal e na política econômica e social de Cuba entre 2015 e 2020 que afetam o acesso à saúde, bem como atualizar o mapa conceitual sobre saúde pública e propriedade intelectual em Cuba (MC SPPIC). Realizamos uma busca em documentos, ajustada ao período analisado, no Diário Oficial da República de Cuba e nos sites do Escritório Cubano de Propriedade Industrial, dos órgãos da Administração Central do Estado e do grupo da indústria biotecnológica e farmacêutica BioCubaFarma. O MC SPPIC atualizado reflete as mudanças na nova Constituição da República de Cuba adotada em 2019, a atualização das Diretrizes de Política Econômica e Social para o quinquênio 2016-2021 e as leis, decretos-lei e outras disposições legais relacionadas à propriedade intelectual no período 2015-2020. A Política sobre o Sistema de Propriedade Industrial, adotada previamente, foi fortalecida com legislação específica para a proteção da propriedade industrial, especialmente no que diz respeito à proteção dos resultados obtidos pela indústria biotecnológica e farmacêutica cubana. As mudanças refletidas no MC SPPIC atualizado favorecem a interação e sinergia entre os diversos atores que influenciam o acesso à saúde — em seu sentido mais amplo — por parte da população cubana.


Asunto(s)
Propiedad Intelectual , Legislación como Asunto , Industria Farmacéutica , Derecho a la Salud , Cuba , Propiedad Intelectual , Legislación como Asunto , Industria Farmacéutica , Derecho a la Salud , Propiedad Intelectual , Legislación como Asunto , Industria Farmacéutica , Derecho a la Salud
10.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(2): 47-53, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193246

RESUMEN

En la actualidad se defiende la interacción entre la cognición, la emoción y la motivación en el desarrollo de la alta capacidad intelectual; sin embargo, pocos son los estudios que describen los niveles de función corticales y subcorticales superpuestos para explicar su manifestación. Esta revisión pretende integrar los mecanismos neurobiológicos que facilitan la motivación y la práctica en los niños con altas capacidades durante las primeras fases de su aprendizaje. La alta sensibilidad al entorno parece estar relacionada con unas neuronas piramidales y espinosas más rápidas y eficientes, la detección y la búsqueda de la novedad con la actividad de los sistemas neuromoduladores dopaminérgicos, noradrenérgicos y glutamatérgicos en el hipocampo y el sistema mesolímbico, la mayor predisposición al desafío con un mayor número de conexiones en la corteza cingulada anterior, la motivación intrínseca y la perseverancia con la maduración precoz y la mayor plasticidad de las vías frontoparietales, frontoestriales y mesolímbicas


The interaction between cognition, emotion and motivation in giftedness development is currently advocated; however, few studies describe the levels of cortical and subcortical functions superimposed to explain their manifestation. This review aims to integrate neurobiological mechanisms that facilitate motivation and practice in giftedness children during the early stages of their learning. High sensitivity to the environment seems to be related to faster and more efficient pyramidal and spiny neurons, detection and search for novelty with the activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuromodulator systems in the hippocampus and the mesolimbic system, the greater predisposition to the challenge with a greater number of connections in the anterior cingulate cortex, the intrinsic motivation and the perseverance with the early maturation and greater plasticity of the frontoparietal, frontostriatal and mesolimbic net


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Motivación , Propiedad Intelectual , Cognición/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Neurobiología , Neuronas Dopaminérgicas/fisiología , Niño Superdotado/psicología
13.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 28(14): e604-e611, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692096

RESUMEN

Physicians offer unique contributions to the orthopaedic implant design process by providing creative ideas and insightful clinical expertise. This article provides a brief overview of the pertinent considerations of transforming a concept into an orthopaedic implant and bringing it to the market. Implant concept choice should consider medical or surgical necessity, regional variability, market characteristics, cost of goods sold, and average selling price. Implant development requires adherence to regulatory requirements and device classification. Implant production incorporates design specifications, mechanical testing, sterilization, packaging, and marketing and sales. Orthopaedic implant company agreements determine physician compensation through royalties and/or the purchase of intellectual property. After rollout, physicians participate in monitoring for device safety. Bringing an orthopaedic implant from a concept to the market can be lengthy and complicated, but innovation is essential for advancing patient care and well-being.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Mercadotecnía/economía , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Procedimientos Ortopédicos , Médicos/economía , Prótesis e Implantes/economía , Diseño de Prótesis/economía , Compensación y Reparación , Seguridad de Equipos , Humanos , Propiedad Intelectual
14.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 541-544, 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521971

RESUMEN

With the worldwide adoption of minimally invasive surgery, innovation again becomes the theme. In the past hundred years, molecular biology technology, minimally invasive surgery technology, pharmaceutical research and therapies have been constantly innovated to promote the development of medicine. As the subject of medical innovation, the innovative idea from medical staff is also very important. For surgeons, the invention and improvement of a new operation or surgical instrument directly depends on curiosity and exploration. Whether a novel idea or technology can be transformed and used in clinical practice depends on its commercial prospects and the adjustment of macro health policies. The protection of intellectual property and appropriate distribution of interests are the key to ensure sustainable innovation. We should put scientific and technological innovation and achievement transformation in the important position of the "healthy China" strategy, take scientific and technological innovation as the basis and achievements transformation as the means, promote the development of China's health protection, implement the healthy China strategy, and make our own contribution to provide people with all-round health services.


Asunto(s)
Invenciones , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos/tendencias , Logro , Investigación Biomédica , Tecnología Biomédica , China , Humanos , Propiedad Intelectual
15.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 562-565, 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521975

RESUMEN

The combination of medicine and engineering is a new interdisciplinary subject, which is a mode of cross integration and collaborative innovation between medical science and engineering. The combination and collaborative innovation of medicine and industry means more about the improvement, innovation and R&D of medical devices. However, the combination of traditional industry with biomedical engineering, modern medical imaging technology, electronic information technology and other high-tech in medical device industry is a reflection of the manufacturing industry and high-tech level of a country. The development mode of medical industry integration and collaborative innovation in China is mainly to merge medical colleges and universities with science and engineering colleges, promote the cross of different departments, and set up biomedical engineering specialty under the support of a series of relevant national policies, relying on large-scale comprehensive hospitals and research institutes, establish numerous research centers of translational medicine, thus achieving a series of achievements. Our team has made some explorations in the practice of the combination of medicine and engineering, including the utility model patent "reusable simple anal expander" and "incision protective cover of transanal multi-channel endoscopic surgery operation platform", which have been authorized by the State Intellectual Property Office, meanwhile the ultra-fine laparoscope, intragastric gasbag and other projects have been demonstrated by relevant research and development teams and are to be transformed into production. On January 10, 2020, with the approval of Guangdong Pharmaceutical Association, the Medical Innovation and Transformation Expert Committee of Guangdong Pharmaceutical Association was established jointly with the representatives of medical colleagues, scientific research institutions and enterprises, who are interested in the combination of medical industry and collaborative innovation. This Committee provides a platform for the exchange of medical colleagues, scientific research institutions and enterprises. We realize that clinical practice is the source of the combination of medical workers and collaborative innovation, and clinicians are the driving force of the combination of medical workers and collaborative innovation. At present, the main problems faced by the development of medical industry integration in China are as follows: insufficient integration of medical industry integration disciplines in the basic research stage; less interaction of clinical application needs in the application research stage; difficult transformation of scientific research achievements; the unconnected whole chain of "production, learning, research and application". If we can increase the investment in scientific research and policy incentives, strengthen the communication and interaction with enterprises, pay more attentions to the social and economic benefits of the promotion of achievements, open the whole process of the combination of medicine and industry, and improve the evaluation mechanism of the innovation ability of such combination, combination of medicine and engineering and collaborative innovation in China will enter the golden period of rapid development.


Asunto(s)
Invenciones , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos , Transferencia de Tecnología , Investigación Biomédica , Tecnología Biomédica , China , Humanos , Propiedad Intelectual , Universidades
16.
Am J Law Med ; 46(1): 55-88, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460655

RESUMEN

Patent rights are recognized as a property asset with an attendant right to exclude. However, recent policy developments highlight that the right to exclude is not inviolable. This paper explores two rapidly evolving exceptions to patent exclusivity, both of which take the form of compulsory licenses. First, under the international Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ("TRIPS"), national governments can compel patent owners to out-license technology in service of greater good. These egalitarian compulsory licenses improve access to technology but undermine patent value. Second, compulsory licenses are increasingly relied upon as an equitable remedy in U.S. patent litigation. Typically referred to as "ongoing royalties," these court-mandated compulsory licenses are a modern alternative to injunctions against adjudged infringers. TRIPS compulsory licenses and ongoing royalties arise under independent legal frameworks, but necessarily invoke parallel economic considerations. While the wisdom of each has been discussed at length by others, this paper explores principles of royalty determination employed in each context. Considering both frameworks, an analysis of where each succeeds and fails is provided, together with an exploration of optimized royalty frameworks.


Asunto(s)
Tecnología Biomédica/economía , Tecnología Biomédica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Propiedad Intelectual , Patentes como Asunto/legislación & jurisprudencia , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/economía , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derecho Internacional , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 528-536, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394875

RESUMEN

Data-sharing helps advance scientific research and assures the benefits of research data are maximized. Previous work has highlighted ethical challenges, especially in low- and middle-income countrie (LMIC) countries. This study examined the views of researchers in a middle-income country, Thailand, regarding the most important data-sharing challenges. The target researchers worked in biomedical and related research. The survey was distributed to 38 academic and health-science institutes, 18 university hospitals, 84 nonuniversity hospitals, and 22 research institutes across Thailand; 229 researchers in clinical/basic and social/behavioral sciences, and pubxxlic health/policy participated. Thai researchers were less concerned with informed consent and the feasibility of conducting research and sharing data, focusing on the importance of safeguards when handling data, including transfer to others, and possible lack of control over subsequent data use. The respondents felt that researchers should decide what types of project data are shareable and which data are likely useful to the scientific community. They were more concerned with appropriate acknowledgment and protecting the legal rights of the primary data collectors and providers. Although they had concerns about data access conditions, they rated sharing sufficient data and metadata to reproduce the analysis of the primary outcomes as highly important. These results are important for future efforts of the LMIC countries to develop efficient data-sharing frameworks and establish institutional data access committees. They highlight the importance, for the sustainability and fairness of these efforts, to ensure that parties in LMIC countries receive appropriate credit and are involved in determining where/when/how their data may be used.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Investigación Biomédica , Difusión de la Información , Investigadores , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Exactitud de los Datos , Países en Desarrollo , Ética en Investigación , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Propiedad Intelectual , Masculino , Política Organizacional , Salud Pública , Ciencias Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia
19.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 13 p. (Nota Técnica / IPEA. Diset, 61).
Monografía en Portugués | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1102235

RESUMEN

Esta nota técnica apresenta alguns dos pontos que vêm sendo debatidos em meio à pandemia: i) as disputas e os acordos envolvendo empresas e seus direitos de propriedade industrial (DPIs), já em andamento e com potencial de aumentar ao longo do tempo; ii) as mudanças legais que já estão sendo discutidas e adotadas por alguns países para facilitar o licenciamento compulsório de patentes; e iii) os movimentos internacionais para a adoção de uma solução global.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Vacunas , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Propiedad Intelectual , Tecnología Biomédica , Pandemias
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