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2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(3): 170-176, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132751

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the effect of a permanent gun-carrying restriction on gun-related mortality in Colombia between 2008 and 2014, and determine differences in the effect of the restriction by place of death and sex. Methods: In 2012, Bogotá and Medellín introduced a permanent gun-carrying restriction. We compared gun-related mortality rates in these cities (intervention cities) with the rates in all other Colombian cities with more than 500 000 inhabitants (control cities). We used data from the Colombian National Department of Statistics to calculate monthly gun-related mortality rates between 2008 and 2014 for intervention and control cities. We used a differences-in-differences method with fixed effects to assess differences in gun-related mortality in intervention and control cities before and after the introduction of the gun-carrying restriction. We stratified effects by place of death (public area or residence) and sex. We made robustness checks to test the assumptions of the models. Findings: Gun-related deaths in the control and intervention cities decreased between 2008 and 2014; however, the decrease was greater in the intervention cities (from 20.29 to 14.93 per 100 000 population; 26.4%) than in the control cities (from 37.88 to 34.56 per 100 000 population; 8.8%). The restriction led to a 22.3% reduction in the monthly gun-related mortality rate in Bogotá and Medellín. The reduction was greater in public areas and for males. Robustness checks supported the assumptions of the models. Conclusion: The permanent restriction on carrying guns reduced gun-related deaths. This policy could be used to reduce gun-related injuries in urban centres of other countries with large numbers of gun-related deaths.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad , Colombia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Propiedad
4.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12842, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038808

RESUMEN

Access to and control of resources is a major source of costly conflicts. Animals, under some conditions, respect what others control and use (i.e. possession). Humans not only respect possession of resources, they also respect ownership. Ownership can be viewed as a cooperative arrangement, where individuals inhibit their tendency to take others' property on the condition that those others will do the same. We investigated to what degree great apes follow this principle, as compared to human children. We conducted two experiments, in which dyads of individuals could access the same food resources. The main test of respect for ownership was whether individuals would refrain from taking their partner's resources even when the partner could not immediately access and control them. Captive apes (N = 14 dyads) failed to respect their partner's claim on food resources and frequently monopolized the resources when given the opportunity. Human children (N = 14 dyads), tested with a similar apparatus and procedure, respected their partner's claim and made spontaneous verbal references to ownership. Such respect for the property of others highlights the uniquely cooperative nature of human ownership arrangements.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Propiedad , Respeto , Animales , Conducta Animal , Niño , Femenino , Hominidae/psicología , Humanos , Masculino
5.
N Z Vet J ; 68(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474197

RESUMEN

Aims: To determine the frequency of different types of health and behavioural problems observed in the first month after adoption in kittens and adult cats rehomed through an animal shelter in New Zealand, to assess satisfaction of adopters and to determine the preferences of adopters for provision of post-adoption support.Methods: The adopters of kittens and cats from an animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand between 15 October 2016-4 December 2016 were invited to complete a survey 1 week and 1 month after adoption. Respondents were asked about how well the animal was settling into the household, whether they had observed any health or behavioural problems, and what their preferences were for receiving post-adoption support.Results: Data from at least one survey were available for 83/115 (72.2%) kittens and 70/155 (45.6%) adult cats, with 39/115 (34%) adopters of kittens and 35/155 (23%) adopters of adult cats completing surveys at both 1 week and 1 month after adoption. By 1 month after adoption 57/60 (95%) adopted kittens and 40/53 (75%) adopted adult cats had settled well into their new home. At 1 month after adoption 28/60 (47%) kittens and 26/53 (49%) cats had ≥1 reported behavioural problem, and 16/60 (27%) kittens and 18/53 (34%) cats had ≥1 reported health problem. The most common problem behaviours for kittens were episodes of hyperactivity and scratching household items, and for adult cats were spending most of the time hiding and scratching household items. The most common health problems for kittens were eye problems and sneezing or a runny nose, and for adult cats were sneezing or a runny nose. Amongst respondents, the most helpful support for recent adopters was considered to be an email or phone call 1 month after adoption from the animal shelter.Conclusions and clinical relevance: Although many adopters reported health and/or behavioural issues in their adopted kittens and adult cats, most issues were generally mild and the adopters were generally satisfied with their animals. Providing new adopters with advice about managing common health and behavioural issues such as upper respiratory disease and scratching household items may increase satisfaction with adoptions.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Bienestar del Animal , Conducta Animal , Gatos , Propiedad , Animales , Gatos/fisiología , Gatos/psicología , Nueva Zelanda , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 25, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803340

RESUMEN

Introduction: Estimation of dog population is relevant in Animal Health Planning; some of the benefits include rabies control and possible elimination, estimation of quantity of dog vaccines and drugs required in the state, policy development and implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the population of dogs in Nasarawa state; a local government area (LGA) was randomly selected from each of the three senatorial districts and two wards were selected randomly from the selected LGA's. Three hundred and thirteen questionnaires were administered through face to face interview with dog owners and their dogs in view. Results: Analysis indicated 97.7% of the dogs were local breeds, 1.7% mixed and 0.3% exotic breeds. Guard dogs were 77% and 23% were used for hunting. Majority of the dogs (67.5%) were owned/stray while 32.5% were owned/confined. In Nasarawa state, 21% of the dogs were vaccinated and 79% had no vaccination history. The low vaccination rate indicates possible threat to animal and human health; hunting dogs are possible source of rabies introduction into their immediate communities from contact with wild reservoirs of the virus. Majority of dogs were between 1-5 years (73%) and more female dogs (52.5%) than males (47.5%) were reported. The dog to household ratio was 1.1:1 while the dog to human ratio is 1.1:6. Estimated number of dogs in Nasarawa state was 462,586 dogs. Conclusion: Proper sensitization of dog owners on annual antirabies vaccination against rabies in dogs and postexposure prophylaxis in humans is recommended. The local authorities should institute effective measures for the control of stray dogs to prevent the risk of dog bites and other environmental hazards posed by such dogs. The state government should enact and enforce laws on responsible dog ownership to include compulsory annual vaccination of all dogs. This exercise should be replicated in other states of the federation for a comprehensive national dog ecological data necessary for planning, policy development and implementation.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas Antirrábicas/administración & dosificación , Rabia/prevención & control , Animales , Mordeduras y Picaduras/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Perros , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Proyectos Piloto , Rabia/veterinaria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/veterinaria
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1672, 2019 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that having a dog has an impact on the increase in physical activity (PA) of people. However, what is often not taken into account in many such studies is owning of other pets. The aim of this study was to compare PA levels between animal owners and non-owners and to research potential differences between owners of different kinds of animals. METHOD: 111 young females of mean age 21 ± 1.2 years enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Czech version of short International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess PA level, supplemented with a question about whether they owned an animal and what kind. RESULTS: People who owned a pet had higher frequency and duration of moderate physical activity (MPA) and spent more MET/min/wk. (p < 0.05). This difference has projected into total PA duration and also into calories burned in a week. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference between subgroups of animal owners was also confirmed for MPA and total PA in favour of horse owners. CONCLUSIONS: Animal owners generally reported higher PA levels compared to people who do not own any pets. However, similarly significant in this particular age group was the kind of animal these young women owned.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Mascotas , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Perros , Femenino , Caballos , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
BMJ ; 367: l6491, 2019 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852683

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the implications of car ownership for physical activity and weight in a global city. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cross sectional study. SETTING: Beijing, China, 2011-15. PARTICIPANTS: People aged 18 and older from a random sample of households who had entered a permit lottery to purchase a vehicle between January 2011 and November 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Permit allowing purchase of a vehicle within six months of permit issuance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transit use (number of subway and bus rides each week), physical activity (minutes of walking or bicycling each day), and weight, measured once in early 2016. RESULTS: Of 937 people analysed in total, 180 had won a permit to purchase a new vehicle. Winning the permit lottery resulted in the purchase of an additional vehicle 91% of the time (95% confidence interval 89% to 94%; P<0.001). About five years after winning, winners took significantly fewer weekly transit rides (-2.9 rides (-5.1 to -0.7); P=0.01) and walked and cycled significantly less (-24.2 minutes (-40.3 to -8.1); P=0.003) than those who did not win the lottery. Average weight did not change significantly between lottery winners and losers. Among those aged 50 and older, however, winners' weight had increased relative to that of losers (10.3 kg (0.5 to 20.2); P=0.04) 5.1 years after winning. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that vehicle ownership in a rapidly growing global city led to long term reductions in physical activity and increase in weight. Continuing increases in car use and ownership in developing and middle income countries could adversely affect physical health and obesity rates.


Asunto(s)
Automóviles , Peso Corporal , Ejercicio , Propiedad , Adulto , Beijing , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto
9.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 647-652, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867923

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine whether the serum concentration of the phosphate (Pi) and the Ca x P value correlate with the IRIS stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats and, thus, whether they can be used as markers of the disease progression. Another aim was to assess whether the concentration of Ca in blood needs to be corrected based on the albumin concentration. The study was performed on 165 cats divided into five groups: the healthy group - C and study groups: I, II, III and IV with cats assigned to the groups based on the IRIS scale. Blood was collected from all the animals. The product of Ca x Pi, Cacorr and the product of Cacorrx Pi were calculated based on the obtained results. Despite no differences between groups I-III, there was a clear upward trend in the Pi concentration, in the Ca x Pi and in the Cacorr x Pi with CKD progression. In group IV, the Pi concentration and the Ca x Pi as well as the Cacorr x Pi value were significantly higher than the other groups. The concentration of Ca and its albumin-corrected serum values did not differ significantly. The serum concentration of Pi and the Ca x P product cannot be used as indicators of CKD progression in cats, but they may be used as additional elements in the diagnosis of stage IV CKD. The results also suggest that the serum calcium concentrations do not need to be albumin-corrected in cats.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos/sangre , Fosfatos/sangre , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/veterinaria , Animales , Biomarcadores , Calcio/sangre , Gatos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Propiedad , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/sangre
10.
South Med J ; 112(11): 581-585, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682739

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The number of deaths from gun violence continues to increase in the United States. Despite multiple studies demonstrating that counseling patients leads to safer gun storage, it is not routinely practiced by physicians. There are multiple barriers to discussing firearms with patients. A barrier in Florida, until recently, was a law preventing physicians from asking patients about firearms. The law was overturned in 2017; however, it is unclear whether physicians are aware of this decision. We undertook a survey to study University of Florida faculty physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to discussing firearms safety. METHODS: The survey consisted of 15 questions related to firearms and counseling. Invitations to participate were e-mailed in 2018 to faculty in general internal medicine, emergency medicine, and surgery within our institution. RESULTS: The response rate was 50% (n = 71/142). The majority of faculty surveyed did not own a gun (56%). Ninety-one percent of faculty surveyed agreed that "gun violence is a public health issue" and 93% agreed that gun safety discussion with patients at risk for suicidal or violent behavior is important. More than half of the respondents (62%) believed they could effectively discuss firearms safety with patients; 73% strongly agreed or agreed that they would discuss gun safety with at-risk patients, whereas 27% were either neutral or disagreed. Fewer still (55%) feel comfortable initiating conversations, and only 5% of participants always talk to at-risk patients about gun safety. Twenty-four percent discussed gun safety most of the time, 30% discussed it sometimes, 32% rarely discussed it, and 9% never discussed it; 76% were aware of the 2017 court decision overturning the physician gag law in Florida. The most-often cited barriers to discussions included lack of time (36%), worry about negative reaction from patient (30%), worry about lack of support from administration (13%), and lack of knowledge (20%). Gun owners and nonowners differed significantly on only two survey items: having taken a firearms safety course (gun owners more likely, relative risk 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.29, P = 0.001) and agreeing with gun violence being a public health issue (gun owners being less likely, relative risk 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.49, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Faculty miss opportunities to prevent gun violence despite acknowledging that it is important to do so. More than 40% of the physicians who were surveyed do not counsel at-risk patients about gun safety, citing a lack of knowledge, a persisting belief that asking patients about guns in Florida is illegal, worry about negative patient reactions, and time limitations. Inaction persists despite increased awareness and activism by physicians regarding gun violence. A wider availability of continuing medical education opportunities to learn about firearms counseling should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Armas de Fuego , Propiedad , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Consejo , Armas de Fuego/legislación & jurisprudencia , Florida , Humanos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1428, 2019 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684914

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dog ownership is suggested to improve mental well-being, although empirical evidence among community dog owners is limited. This study examined changes in human mental well-being following dog acquisition, including four measures: loneliness, positive and negative affect, and psychological distress. METHODS: We conducted an eight-month controlled study involving three groups (n = 71): 17 acquired a dog within 1 month of baseline (dog acquisition); 29 delayed dog acquisition until study completion (lagged control); and 25 had no intentions of acquiring a dog (community control). All participants completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible scores 0-60), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Kessler10 at baseline, three-months and eight-months. We used repeated measures ANCOVAs to analyse data with owner age and sex included as covariates. Post-hoc tests were performed for significant effects (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There was a statistically significant group by time interaction for loneliness (p = 0.03), with an estimated reduction of 8.41 units (95% CI -16.57, - 0.26) from baseline to three-months and 7.12 (95% CI -12.55, - 1.69) from baseline to eight-months in the dog acquisition group. The group by time interaction for positive affect was also significant (p = 0.03), although there was no change in the dog acquisition group. CONCLUSIONS: Companion dog acquisition may reduce loneliness among community dog owners. Our study provides useful direction for future larger trials on the effects of dog ownership on human mental well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was retrospectively registered on 5th July 2017 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12617000967381 ).


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Mascotas/psicología , Adulto , Afecto , Anciano , Animales , Australia , Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Soledad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1443, 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684923

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria infections and other complications during pregnancy contribute to the high burden of maternal morbidity and mortality. Preventive measures are available, however little is known about the factors influencing the uptake of maternal health services and interventions by pregnant women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We analyzed data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2016 in three rural districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, with 3784 women who had a pregnancy outcome in the year preceding the survey. We used multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering to identify the determinants of antenatal care (ANC) attendance and insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use, and the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among pregnant women. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of interviewed women reported receiving at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy, while 47% reported attending four or more ANC visits. Common reasons for not attending ANC included women's lack of awareness of its importance (48%), distance to health facility (23%) and unavailability of transportation (14%). Important determinants of ANC attendance included higher education level and wealth status, woman's ability to make healthcare decisions, and pregnancy intendedness. An estimated 48% of women reported owning an ITN during their last pregnancy. Of these, 55% reported to have always slept under it during their last pregnancy. Analysis revealed that the odds of owning and using ITNs were respectively 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.63) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32-2.27) times higher among women who attended at least one ANC visit. The self-reported prevalence of malaria infection during pregnancy was low (1.4%) across the three districts. We found that young, uneducated, and unemployed women presented higher odds of malaria infection during their last pregnancy. CONCLUSION: ANC and ITN uptake during pregnancy in Jimma Zone fall below the respective targets of 95 and 90% set in the Ethiopian Health Sector Transformation Plan for 2020, suggesting that more intensive programmatic efforts still need to be directed towards improving access to these health services. Reaching ANC non-users and ITN ownership and use as part of ANC services could be emphasized to address these gaps.


Asunto(s)
Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida/estadística & datos numéricos , Malaria/prevención & control , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
J Vet Med Educ ; 46(4): 438-448, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756148

RESUMEN

The stress of veterinary school and the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary students have been well documented. Pet ownership is known to improve overall health and reduce stress among the public. Yet, for veterinary students, owning a pet (especially a dog) can offer both rewards and challenges. The academic schedule for veterinary students often comprises long hours that can make caring for a dog challenging. This study explores the area of veterinary students' dog care options and perspectives by examining two aspects of this issue: (a) currently available options, as reported by academic administrators, and (b) perceived need for these options, as reported by veterinary students. A survey of associate deans for academic affairs (n = 30) found that routine on-site kenneling options for student-owned dogs are available at eight (26.6%) veterinary schools. Simultaneously, results of a student survey (n = 768) revealed a great desire for on-campus services. Among students who did not have access to on-campus kenneling facilities, 71.5% (453 of 634) felt that creating these options would be important or very important. Across all students surveyed, 76% (581 of 764) felt it would be important to have on-site dog housing/care available. Students experience considerable stress over having to find accommodations or care for their dogs while engaged in academic activities. Thus, providing on-site boarding and care options for student-owned dogs can play an important role in both recruiting prospective veterinary students and enhancing the well-being of those currently in the program.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Veterinaria , Propiedad , Mascotas/psicología , Facultades de Medicina Veterinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Animales , Perros , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 87-99, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1026107

RESUMEN

Esse artigo tem por objetivo refletir sobre as possibilidades de contribuição da Psicologia a ações de enfrentamento a práticas violentas, e junto às lutas transversais travadas pelos grupos com os quais trabalhamos. Para tanto, partimos do conceito de lutas transversais de Michel Foucault, entendidas como lutas antiautoritárias e democratizantes que têm por alvo os mecanismos de dominação, exploração e submissão. Entendemos que os saberes psis, ao se colocarem a serviço das lutas transversais, podem servir como ferramentas de análise e enfrentamento a estes mecanismos. Nesse sentido, trazemos duas experiências de pesquisa e extensão realizadas em territórios que se encontravam em meio a processos de remoção, um deles na Comunidade Indiana, no bairro Tijuca, no Rio de Janeiro e o outro na Grande Cruzeiro, em Porto Alegre. Tais análises assumem o caráter de denúncia das violências decorrentes de gestões estatais, dando visibilidade às formas de submissão que operam pela produção do que chamaremos de uma "subjetividade culpada" e pela inscrição das populações alvo das remoções no lugar de não cidadãos, de sujeitos de um não direito. Buscaremos, ainda, evidenciar as articulações entre essas ferramentas de produção de subjetividade e as problemáticas materiais, decorrentes das desigualdades de acesso à moradia e à cidade. Por fim, afirmamos o caráter de resistência presente na compreensão de subjetividade como processo em constante construção e nas possibilidades de produzirmos rupturas nas práticas que encerram determinados modos de habitar e viver nas cidades como mais ou menos legítimos....(AU)


This article aims to reflect on the possibilities of contribution of Psychology to actions to confront violent practices, and the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work. To do so, we start from the concept of transverse struggles of Michel Foucault, understood as anti-authoritarian and democratizing struggles that aim at the mechanisms of domination, exploitation and submission. We understand that psis knowledge, when placed in the service of the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work, can serve as tools of analysis and coping with these mechanisms. In this sense, in this article, we bring two research and extension experiments carried out in territories that were in the midst of removal processes, one in the Indiana Community, in the Tijuca neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, and the other in the region of Grande Cruzeiro in Porto Alegre. Such analyses assume the character of denunciation of the violence arising from state management, promoted through the removal processes of Indiana and part of the Grande Cruzeiro, giving visibility to the forms of submission that operate through the production of what we will call a "guilty subjectivity" and by the inscription of the target populations of the removals in the place of non-citizens, of subjects of a non-right, of illegitimate inhabitants of the city. We will also seek, with our analyses, to highlight the articulations between these tools of production of subjectivity and the concrete material problems arising from the inequalities of access to housing and the city. Finally, we affirm the character of resistance present in the understanding of subjectivity as a process in constant construction and in the possibilities of producing ruptures in practices that contain certain ways of living in cities as more or less legitimate....(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre las posibilidades de la contribución de la Psicología para hacer frente a las prácticas violentas, y junto con las luchas transversales que libran los grupos con los que trabajamos. Con este fin, partimos del concepto de luchas transversales de Michel Foucault, entendido como luchas antiautoritarias y democratizadoras que apuntan a los mecanismos de dominación, explotación y sumisión. Entendemos que el conocimiento psis, al ponerse al servicio de las luchas transversales, puede servir como herramienta para el análisis y para hacer frente a estos mecanismos. En este sentido, traemos dos experiencias de investigación y extensión llevadas a cabo en territorios que se encontraban en medio de procesos de remoción, una en la Comunidad de Indiana, en el barrio de Tijuca, en Río de Janeiro y la otra en Grande Cruzeiro, en Porto Alegre. Dichos análisis asumen el carácter de denunciar la violencia resultante de la gestión estatal, dando visibilidad a las formas de sumisión que operan produciendo lo que llamaremos una "subjetividad culpable" y por la inscripción de las poblaciones objetivo de los retiros en el lugar de los no ciudadanos, de sujetos de un no derecho. También buscaremos resaltar las articulaciones entre estas herramientas de producción de subjetividad y los problemas materiales que surgen de las desigualdades en el acceso a la vivienda y la ciudad. Finalmente, afirmamos el carácter de resistencia presente en la comprensión de la subjetividad como un proceso en constante construcción y en las posibilidades de producir rupturas en las prácticas que incluyen ciertas formas de vivir y vivir en ciudades como más o menos legítimas....(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Propiedad , Psicología Social , Política Pública , Violencia , Dominación-Subordinación , Explotación Social , Vivienda , Psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Med Care ; 57(12): 968-976, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567860

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Hospitals that serve poorer populations have higher readmission rates. It is unknown whether these hospitals effectively lowered readmission rates in response to the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). OBJECTIVE: To compare pre-post differences in readmission rates among hospitals with different proportion of dual-eligible patients both generally and among the most highly penalized (ie, low performing) hospitals. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using piecewise linear model with estimated hospital-level risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) as the dependent variable and a change point at HRRP passage (2010). Economic burden was assessed by proportion of dual-eligibles served. SETTING: Acute care hospitals within the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older discharged alive from January 1, 2003 to November 30, 2014 with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Decrease in hospital-level RSRRs in the post-law period, after controlling for the pre-law trend. RESULTS: For AMI, the pre-post difference between hospitals that service high and low proportion of dual-eligibles was not significant (-65 vs. -64 risk-standardized readmissions per 10000 discharges per year, P=0.0678). For CHF, RSRRs declined more at high than low dual-eligible hospitals (-79 vs. -75 risk-standardized readmissions per 10000 discharges per year, P=0.0006). For pneumonia, RSRRs declined less at high than low dual-eligible hospitals (-44 vs. -47 risk-standardized readmissions per 10000 discharges per year, P=0.0003). Among the 742 highest penalized hospitals and all conditions, the pre-post decline in rate of change of RSRRs was less for high dual-eligible hospitals than low dual-eligible hospitals (-68 vs. -74 risk-standardized readmissions per 10000 discharges per year for AMI, -88 vs. -97 for CHF, and -47 vs. -56 for pneumonia, P<0.0001 for all). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: For all hospitals, differences in pre-post trends in RSRRs varied with disease conditions. However, for the highest-penalized hospitals, the pre-post decline in RSRRs was greater for low than high dual-eligible hospitals for all penalized conditions. These results suggest that high penalty, high dual-eligible hospitals may be less able to improve performance on readmission metrics.


Asunto(s)
Medicaid/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicare/legislación & jurisprudencia , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comorbilidad , Planes de Aranceles por Servicios , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio/terapia , Propiedad , Neumonía/epidemiología , Neumonía/terapia , Pobreza , Características de la Residencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109621, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569021

RESUMEN

The application of organic fertilizer by farmers is an important method for promoting the transition of agricultural production from increasing the yield to improving the quality and safety of agricultural products and realizing the green development of agriculture. The behavior of farmers can have a direct impact on organic fertilizer application, and the active participation of farmers can effectively reduce moral hazards and improve governance efficiency. A consensus appears to have been reached regarding the importance of land property rights stability (LPRS) for farmers' organic fertilizer application (FOFA) in China; however, few studies have focused on the conditions under which LPRS exerts an effect or the extent of the effect. Moreover, the grain-growing purpose and farm size are rarely included as driving factors underlying the impact of LPRS on FOFA; thus, biased estimations are easily formed. This study analyzed the influence mechanism of LPRS on FOFA and its dependent conditions using the 2017 China Rural Household Panel Survey from Zhejiang University and conducted an empirical analysis via a logit model. The results showed that LPRS could enable farmers to apply organic fertilizer, although the degree of its impact will vary due to differences in the grain-growing purpose and farm size. Currently, selling products is not conducive to the application of organic fertilizer and will reduce the positive impact of LPRS on the application of organic fertilizer by farmers, whereas expanding the farm size will enhance the positive impact of LPRS. The government should constantly improve the methods and channels for realizing high-quality and high-priced agricultural products and fully acknowledge the role of market demand in guiding farmers' agricultural production, which will increase their enthusiasm for organic fertilizer application. The government should also improve the contract management system for land transfer to strengthen the ability of farmers to expand their farm size to fully demonstrate the role of large-scale farmers.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , China , Granjas , Humanos , Propiedad
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569522

RESUMEN

Recent studies show evidence that human-dog companionship has healthy effects on humans. For example, findings demonstrate that owning a dog leads to a reduction in stress levels. Aspects that have not been taken into consideration so far are underlying theoretical principles of stress like the sense of coherence (SOC) by Aaron Antonovsky. The SOC consists of psycho-social, biochemical and physical conditions which indicate whether or not inner and outer stimuli are comprehensive, manageable and meaningful to an individual. In addition, it is still unclear if owning a dog affects the subjective assessment of critical life events (CLE), which is associated with the strength of the SOC (the stronger the SOC, the better the handling and assessment of stressful situations). Based on these aspects, the goal of the study was to examine if dog ownership, as well as values of the SOC, have an impact on the subjective evaluation of CLE (including daily hassles as well as unexpected critical life events). For this purpose, dog owners and non-dog owners were surveyed online and were compared based on their personal estimations regarding these constructs. Statistical analysis including t-tests, correlations and interaction-analyses were performed and a significant difference between dog owners and non-dog owners regarding the assessment of daily hassles was found. Contrary to expectations, results show that dog owners assessed daily stressors to be more stressful than non-dog owners did. Moreover, data show that the higher the number of stated relationships (inner- and cross-species), the more stressful life events were assessed to be. Calculations showed no evidence for the influence of dogs regarding the SOC. Based on the actual findings, it might be assumed, that an overestimation of the dog's protective role regarding stress has taken place in public media and in research as well.


Asunto(s)
Vínculo Ser Humano-Animal , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Sentido de Coherencia , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Animales , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
19.
JAMA ; 322(10): 957-973, 2019 09 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503308

RESUMEN

Importance: For-profit (vs nonprofit) dialysis facilities have historically had lower kidney transplantation rates, but it is unknown if the pattern holds for living donor and deceased donor kidney transplantation, varies by facility ownership, or has persisted over time in a nationally representative population. Objective: To determine the association between dialysis facility ownership and placement on the deceased donor kidney transplantation waiting list, receipt of a living donor kidney transplant, or receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study that included 1 478 564 patients treated at 6511 US dialysis facilities. Adult patients with incident end-stage kidney disease from the US Renal Data System (2000-2016) were linked with facility ownership (Dialysis Facility Compare) and characteristics (Dialysis Facility Report). Exposures: The primary exposure was dialysis facility ownership, which was categorized as nonprofit small chains, nonprofit independent facilities, for-profit large chains (>1000 facilities), for-profit small chains (<1000 facilities), and for-profit independent facilities. Main Outcomes and Measures: Access to kidney transplantation was defined as time from initiation of dialysis to placement on the deceased donor kidney transplantation waiting list, receipt of a living donor kidney transplant, or receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant. Cumulative incidence differences and multivariable Cox models assessed the association between dialysis facility ownership and each outcome. Results: Among 1 478 564 patients, the median age was 66 years (interquartile range, 55-76 years), with 55.3% male, and 28.1% non-Hispanic black patients. Eighty-seven percent of patients received care at a for-profit dialysis facility. A total of 109 030 patients (7.4%) received care at 435 nonprofit small chain facilities; 78 287 (5.3%) at 324 nonprofit independent facilities; 483 988 (32.7%) at 2239 facilities of large for-profit chain 1; 482 689 (32.6%) at 2082 facilities of large for-profit chain 2; 225 890 (15.3%) at 997 for-profit small chain facilities; and 98 680 (6.7%) at 434 for-profit independent facilities. During the study period, 121 680 patients (8.2%) were placed on the deceased donor waiting list, 23 762 (1.6%) received a living donor kidney transplant, and 49 290 (3.3%) received a deceased donor kidney transplant. For-profit facilities had lower 5-year cumulative incidence differences for each outcome vs nonprofit facilities (deceased donor waiting list: -13.2% [95% CI, -13.4% to -13.0%]; receipt of a living donor kidney transplant: -2.3% [95% CI, -2.4% to -2.3%]; and receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant: -4.3% [95% CI, -4.4% to -4.2%]). Adjusted Cox analyses showed lower relative rates for each outcome among patients treated at all for-profit vs all nonprofit dialysis facilities: deceased donor waiting list (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.36]); receipt of a living donor kidney transplant (HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.51 to 0.54]); and receipt of a deceased donor kidney transplant (HR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.44 to 0.45]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among US patients with end-stage kidney disease, receiving dialysis at for-profit facilities compared with nonprofit facilities was associated with a lower likelihood of accessing kidney transplantation. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this association.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Privadas de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Trasplante de Riñón , Propiedad , Diálisis Renal , Humanos , Donadores Vivos , Diálisis Renal/economía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera
20.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109586, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563050

RESUMEN

Evaluating the effectiveness and functional boundary of different types of industry policies and their mixes on the innovation performance of wind power enterprises (WPEs) is an important but unresolved key issue. This study, based on dual perspectives of regional innovation environment and enterprise ownership, empirically examines the impacts of different types of industry policies and their mixes on enterprise innovation. The results show that different types of policies have significantly different effects on innovation performance of WPEs; policy mixes have a significant synergy but may not be fully effective, and environmental-side policy and demand-side policy mixes still show significant inhibition. Taking into account boundary conditions, this study finds that policy mixes are implemented better in regions with weak innovation environments, especially in terms of the innovation performance of private-owned WPEs in the region. However, there is no significant impact for WPEs located in regions with strong innovation environments and state-owned enterprises in regions with weak innovation environments. This study expands an understanding of external boundaries for the effective implementation of different industry policies and their mixes, and has important implications for China in improving the applicability and matching ability of policies in the wind power industry.


Asunto(s)
Propiedad , Viento , China , Política Ambiental , Industrias
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