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1.
South Med J ; 112(12): 610-616, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796969

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective descriptive study compared the academic performance of postbaccalaureate career changer students with that of traditional students during the classroom-based, science-dominated early years of medical school. Earlier studies documented the eventual success of nontraditional medical students, although we found little information specific to the medical school performance of career changers. Our objective was to determine whether postbaccalaureate career changer medical students perform differently from traditionally prepared medical students in the science-dominated early years of medical school classroom education. METHODS: This study analyzed the admission data and academic performance of medical students at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine across 8 years (N = 630). Differences in performance were assessed using examination grades from the first 2 years of medical school, and US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between traditional and career changer students for all science modules in year 1, and 4 of the 5 modules in year 2. Traditional students performed better on USMLE Step 1. Significant differences between the groups disappeared by USMLE Step 2. CONCLUSIONS: Career changer medical students show a small, persistent academic lag in the first 2 years of medical school and on USMLE Step 1 scores. By USMLE Step 2 the difference disappears. Similar undergraduate grade point averages and Medical College Admission Test scores suggest that science exposure, not ability may explain these differences. An unexpected finding is the number of career changer students is not increasing proportional to the proliferation of postbaccalaureate programs in the United States. This study may benefit student advisors and residency directors, and, it is hoped, provide reassurance to career changer students.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
2.
Optom Vis Sci ; 96(9): 637-646, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479018

RESUMEN

SIGNIFICANCE: The interplay of applicants to optometry school and matriculants has not been explored systematically. It is vital that the profession examines these trends to ensure a viable pipeline of future doctors of optometry. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the demographics and academic qualifications of entering optometry classes from autumn 2010 through autumn 2018 of U.S.-based optometric institutions' application pool and matriculants (enrollees). METHODS: Data were gathered from reports generated from accredited schools and colleges of optometry in the United States and compiled by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (publicly available) and the Optometry Centralized Application Service. Metrics included the annual number of verified applicants, the annual number of matriculants, the home region of U.S.-based applicants, and the Optometry Admission Test (OAT) performance and grade point average of verified applicants. RESULTS: The number of verified applicants for autumn 2018 was 0.95% higher than that for autumn 2010, yet the number of matriculants in 2018 compared with 2010 increased by 11.2% with an applicant-to-matriculant ratio in 2010 of 1.53 compared with 1.39 in 2018. Grade point average and academic average OAT scores were stable from 2010 to 2018. The ratios of verified applicants with an academic average OAT score of at least 300 to matriculants were 0.87 for autumn 2018 and 0.92 for autumn 2010. The ratios of verified applicants with a grade point average of at least 3.00 to matriculants were 1.13 for autumn 2018 and 1.23 for autumn 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence supports the conclusion that the applicant pool has remained essentially flat for the last decade, whereas the number of matriculants has increased substantially; thus, the number of qualified applicants to matriculants has logically decreased. In the last 2 years, optometric programs have responded by decreasing their institution's number of matriculants to accommodate the national trends.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Optometría/educación , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
3.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(4): 159-164, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183075

RESUMEN

La educación médica en Costa Rica se inicia en 1959 con la creación de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La interacción entre la Junta de Protección Social y la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social ha fortalecido su desarrollo. La fundación de las escuelas de medicina privadas en la década de los setenta, así como la creación del Sistema Nacional de Acreditación de la Educación Superior como garante de la calidad académica de las instituciones de educación superior y el Colegio de Médicos y Cirujanos, ente que regula el ejercicio profesional y la idoneidad del recurso médico, han contribuido de forma importante a este desarrollo. Todos estos esfuerzos institucionales conjuntos permiten a los estudiantes de grado y posgrado el acceso a planes de estudio de calidad, para dar mejores servicios de salud a la población costarricense, permitiendo el avance en los índices de salud del país y el desarrollo de un sistema sanitario que cubre el 95% de la población. Los desafíos se dirigen a una mejor planificación, que regule la formación de este recurso, a la atención de la población mayor de 65 años, tanto en lo preventivo como en las patologías propias de la edad, al desarrollo de estrategias mediante la tecnología informática que potencie la formación de redes para la investigación en educación médica, a la formación de profesionales a nivel general y a una especialización de mayor calidad


Medical education in Costa Rica began in 1959 with the creation of the School of Medicine of the University of Costa Rica. The subsequent interaction between the Social Protection Board and the alliances with the Costa Rican Social Security Fund has strengthened its development. Black in the seventies, the foundation of the private schools of medicine, and the creation of the National System of Accreditation of Higher Education as guarantor of the minimum academic quality and the role of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, entity that regulates the professional practice and the suitability of the resource edict, has contributed in an important way with this development. All these joint institutional efforts allow undergraduate and graduate students, access to quality study plans, to provide better health services to the Costa Rican population and allowing advancement in the health indices presented by the country and the development of a health system that covers 95% of the population. The challenges are focused on the achievement of a better planning, that regulates the formation of this course, the attention for the population over 65 years, both in the preventive, as in the pathologies of that time, the development of strategies through the computer technology that enhances the formation of networks for research in medical education and the training of general and specialty professionals of higher quality


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación Médica/métodos , Modelos Educacionales , Educación Basada en Competencias/métodos , Educación de Postgrado/métodos , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Costa Rica , Acreditación , Prueba de Admisión Académica
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 159, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113431

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether graduate entrants to medical school perform better academically than undergraduate entrants remains controversial. Differences in the discipline backgrounds of graduates may, at least in part, have accounted for differences in the results of comparative studies reported to date. This study aimed to address the dual issues of whether academic performance and progression rates were different between GE and UG students and the extent to which the discipline background of GE students may underpin any differences observed. METHODS: Relative academic performance as well as indicators of student progression (supplementary examinations, repeat years, leave of absence, withdrawal from the programme) were compared between graduate entrants (GE) (N = 410) and both school leaver entrants (SLE) (N = 865) and non-standard entrants (some prior tertiary education) (NSE) (N = 148) who combined for the final 4 yr. of a 6 yr. MBBS undergraduate programme in 8 consecutive cohorts from 2006 to 2013 in Western Australia. RESULTS: Examination scores were generally at or very close to a distinction grade or higher across all groups. Higher mean examination scores were seen for GE versus both SLE and NSE in the first 2 years with no significant differences in the final 2 years. GE from biological science / science backgrounds (N = 241) or physical science backgrounds (N = 26) performed the same as SLE and NSE throughout the programme. GE with a health / allied health background (N = 91), however, performed better throughout. They also performed better when compared to their GE counterparts from a humanities (N = 32) or a biological science / science background. GE had increased odds of withdrawing when compared to SLE (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.30, 4.79, P = 0.006), but not compared to NSE. NSE had increased odds of repeating at least one level when compared to either GE (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.21, 6.21, P = 0.016) or SLE (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.93, 8.70, P < 0.001). There were no differences by entry category in the odds of sitting at least one supplementary examination during the programme. There was an increase in the odds of taking at least one leave of absence in both SLE (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.79, 3.63, P < 0.001) and NSE (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.50, 4.07, P < 0.001) compared to GE. CONCLUSIONS: Better academic performance by GE compared to SLE and NSE was predominantly due to higher scores for GE with a health / allied health background. GE were also less likely to have impeded progress during the course.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Australia , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Criterios de Admisión Escolar
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 154, 2019 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gauging medical education quality has always remained challenging. Many studies have examined predictors of standardized exam performance; however, data sets do not distinguish by institution or curriculum. Our objective is to present a summary of variables associated with the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, and thus identify institutions (and therefore curriculums) which deviate from trend lines by producing higher USMLE scores despite having lower entrance grade point averages and medical college admissions test (MCAT) scores. METHODS: Data was obtained from U.S. News and World Report's 2014 evaluation of allopathic U.S. medical schools. A univariate analysis was performed first for each variable using two sample t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test for categorical variables, and Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients for continuous variables. A multivariable linear regression model was developed to identify the factors contributing to USMLE scores. All statistical analyses were two-sided and performed using SAS software version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). RESULTS: Univariate analysis reveals a significant association between USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores with medical college admissions test scores, grade point averages, school type (private vs. public), full-time faculty-to-student ratio, National Institute of Health funds, residency director assessment score, peer assessment score, and class size. Of these nine variables, MCAT scores and Step 1 scores display the strongest correlation (corr = 0.72, P < .0001). Multivariable analysis also supports a significant association between MCAT scores and Step scores, meanwhile National Institute of Health funding size demonstrates a negative correlation with USMLE Step 2 scores. Although MCAT scores and National Institute of Health funds are significantly associated with USMLE performance, six outlier institutions were identified, producing higher USMLE scores than trend line predictions. CONCLUSIONS: Outlier institutions produce USMLE scores that do not follow expected trend lines. Their performance might be explainable by differences in curriculum. Having identified these institutions, their curriculums can be further studied to determine what factors enhance student learning.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/normas , Licencia Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina , Certificación , Bases de Datos Factuales , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estados Unidos
6.
Int Q Community Health Educ ; 39(4): 199-207, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744483

RESUMEN

The purpose of this phronetic/pragmatic, mixed-methods study was to integrate quantitative data with qualitative data in examining the complex relations among depression, exercise, screen-viewing time, and life plans among 14 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American young adults. Based on the thematic analysis, the two emerging themes were as follows: life priorities (passing the General Educational Development [GED] test, pursuing profession/career, and being dedicated to church/ministry) and challenges in passing GED examination (e.g., difficulties with the GED test, high stress and low confidence, low interest in studying, health issues, and feelings of rejection/isolation). Based on cross tabulation, depression was highly associated with aerobic exercise and screen-viewing time (Cramer's V = .44 and .42, respectively). Participants' life challenges diminished the antidepressant effect of exercise and were linked to depression and excessive screen use. Two active men and a somewhat active woman experienced educational or health-related struggles, heavy screen watching, and severe depression. All three active men experienced educational challenges and severe depression. Two inactive participants reported limited screen use and limited depression, possibly because of their valued life goals (e.g., writing poetry and spiritually helping others). Contrary to the dominant cultural stereotype about African Americans being lazy, the study results show that the participants had highly similar career goals to the majority population yet faced many, significant structural barriers that interfered with their progress and thus sapped their motivation in achieving their life plans. Policy change is needed to reduce social structural barriers and racial systems of oppression in order to decrease poverty and depression.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Selección de Profesión , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Depresión/etnología , Escolaridad , Ejercicio/psicología , Femenino , Metas , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tiempo de Pantalla , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sudeste de Estados Unidos , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
7.
J Appl Psychol ; 104(6): 814-831, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640487

RESUMEN

We illustrate the effects of range restriction and a form of criterion contamination (individual differences in course-taking patterns) on the validity of SAT scores for predicting college academic performance. College data facilitate exploration of differential validity's determinants because they (a) permit the use multivariate range-restriction corrections to more accurately account for differential range restriction across subgroups and (b) allow for separate examinations of composite performance and specific performance episodes, the latter of which controls for ecological contamination of composite performance due to individuals' choices of performance opportunities. Using data from 363,004 students at 107 U.S. institutions, we found that controlling for course-taking patterns resulted in validity coefficients that were appreciably larger than predictors' correlations with obtained grade point averages (GPAs). The validities of SAT scores for predicting the first-year college performance of Black and Hispanic students were not significantly different from the validity for White students after correcting for both course-taking patterns and differential range restriction, but significant Black-White differences were detected for predicting 4-year cumulative performance. Validity estimates for predicting both first-year and 4-year cumulative performance were significantly smaller among Asian students than White students after making these corrections. The SAT's observed validity for predicting college GPAs was substantially lower for males than females and, unexpectedly, controlling for course-taking patterns increased male-female validity differences. Implications for personnel selection research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico/estadística & datos numéricos , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas de Aptitud/normas , Americanos Asiáticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(1): 307-323, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284666

RESUMEN

This study used mixed-effects logistic regression to examine undergraduates' (N = 142) evaluations and reasoning about scenarios involving disability-based exclusion. Scenarios varied by disability [autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus learning disability (LD)], the context of exclusion (classroom versus social), and whether or not a grade was at stake. Participants were more likely to determine exclusion was acceptable if the excluded student had an ASD diagnosis, there was a grade at stake, and it occurred in a classroom. Exclusion was less likely to be considered acceptable in the "no grade" compared to the "grade" conditions for LD students, but remained high in both conditions for autistic students. This study also describes contextual variations in participants' justifications for their evaluations.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Metas , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/patología , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Educación Especial/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/clasificación , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
9.
Acad Med ; 94(3): 371-377, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211755

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Schools undergoing curricular reform are reconsidering the optimal timing of Step 1. This study provides a psychometric investigation of the impact on United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores of changing the timing of Step 1 from after completion of the basic science curricula to after core clerkships. METHOD: Data from four schools that recently moved the examination were analyzed in a pre-post format using examinee scores from three years before and after the change. The sample included scores from 2008 through 2016. Several confounders were addressed, including rising national scores and potential differences in cohort abilities using deviation scores and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. A resampling procedure compared study schools' score changes versus similar schools' in the same time period. RESULTS: The ANCOVA indicated postchange Step 1 scores were higher compared with prechange (adjusted difference = 2.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.50-3.83, P < .001; effect size = 0.14) after adjusting for MCAT scores and rising national averages. The average score increase in study schools was larger than changes seen in similar schools. Failure rates also decreased from 2.87% (n = 48) pre change to 0.39% (n = 6) post change (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest moving Step 1 after core clerkships yielded a small increase in scores and a reduction in failure rates. Although these small increases are unlikely to represent meaningful knowledge gains, this demonstration of "noninferiority" may allow schools to implement significant curricular reforms.


Asunto(s)
Prácticas Clínicas , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Canadá , Humanos , Licencia Médica , Psicometría , Estados Unidos
10.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(10): 1429-1437, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The expanding role of pharmacists has influenced admissions committees to consider nonacademic factors other than grade point average (GPA) and test scores and has focused more attention on holistic admissions. METHODS: Database searches were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsychINFO using keywords, "holistic admissions", "holistic review", and "pharmacy admissions" plus "critical thinking skills", "extracurricular", "communication skills", "essay", or "interview". Overall, 64 studies were identified, 17 were excluded, and ultimately, 47 were reviewed. RESULTS: Holistic admissions is not an industry standard in pharmacy but more so in other health professions. For critical thinking skills, the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) was not a good predictor of academic performance even though it was effective in ranking admission applicants. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) however, was a significant predictor for clerkship and practice-related courses. It is unclear whether pharmacy admissions committees are utilizing the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) reading and writing scores, the interview, or other measures to evaluate communication skills. The Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) is an effective assessment tool for measuring noncognitive attributes; however, the efficacy of unstructured interviews in evaluating noncognitive skills was less clear. IMPLICATIONS: Academic measures alone are not nuanced enough to predict success throughout the entire curriculum. An integration of factors, both academic and nonacademic, would be more relevant to predict success. Critical thinking skills and extracurricular experiences may be more significant for admissions selection and admissions ranking respectively, and more predictive of academic success during didactic and experiential stages of the curriculum respectively.


Asunto(s)
Empleos en Salud/educación , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/tendencias , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Humanos , Universidades/organización & administración
11.
J Dent Educ ; 82(12): 1327-1334, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504471

RESUMEN

Historically, dental residency programs have used numerical assessment criteria to evaluate and identify qualified candidates for admission. Recent elimination of such assessment tools has undermined many programs' holistic evaluation process. The Advanced Dental Admission Test (ADAT) was developed and recently piloted in hopes of addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary performance and validity of the ADAT by exploring the association between ADAT scores and other variables for a sample of applicants to residency programs. The WebAdMIT admissions database was used to identify the test scores and educational and demographic information of 92 individuals who completed the pilot ADAT and were seeking a 2017 postgraduate specialty position at Indiana University School of Dentistry. The results showed that the ADAT had strong to weak correlations with certain applicant variables (p<0.05). No significant differences were found for age, race, school location, or country of origin. However, males performed better than females (p<0.05), and non-Hispanics performed better than Hispanics (p<0.01). ADAT component scores were also higher for individuals with a history of research activity (p<0.05). This study found that significant associations existed between the ADAT and indices typically associated with competitive applicants. These findings suggest that the ADAT may serve as a useful numerical assessment instrument, with the potential to identify high-performing candidates. Furthermore, the ADAT seemed to be a plausible option for programs seeking to incorporate a quantitative assessment instrument as part of a holistic candidate selection process.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica , Internado y Residencia/normas , Facultades de Odontología , Adulto , Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Indiana , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Odontología/normas , Facultades de Odontología/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
12.
J Dent Educ ; 82(11): 1220-1227, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385689

RESUMEN

Sparse data exist regarding the association between applicants' Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) scores and acceptance into an oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) residency program. The aims of this study were to assess the association between applicants' CBSE scores and acceptance into one OMFS residency program; to determine the association between other applicant-related variables and acceptance into the program; and to identify the mean CBSE score of accepted applicants by their dental schools' American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) district. For this retrospective data analysis conducted in 2017, the study sample consisted of applicants to the University of Illinois at Chicago OMFS residency program for the application cycles of 2013-14, 2014-15, and 2015-16. The primary predictor variable was CBSE score. The primary outcome variable was acceptance to the program. A total of 477 applicants were in the sample. In the multivariate analysis, CBSE score was found to be significantly associated with an increased chance of acceptance into the program (OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15; p<0.001). Other variables associated with acceptance, though to a non-significant degree, were age (p=0.01), dental school grade point average (GPA) (p=0.01), and number of externships completed prior to application (p=0.02). These findings may be useful for both applicants and program directors.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica , Internado y Residencia , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Ciencia , Cirugía Bucal/educación , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
13.
South Med J ; 111(11): 683-687, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392003

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Medical school implementation of a pass/fail grading system offers the opportunity for a reduction in student stress and anxiety and the creation of a less competitive environment, leading to an improvement in overall well-being. Some critics of a pass/fail system have raised concerns of a decrement in academic performance. The purpose of this research project was to determine whether medical students at the Medical College of Georgia experienced a significant change in academic performance when graded using a pass/fail grading system rather than a tiered grading system in the year 1 curriculum. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included a convenience sample of two cohorts of students: the first had tiered grading in the first year of medical school (classes of 2015 and 2016; n = 389) and the second cohort had pass/fail grading in the first year of medical school (classes of 2017 and 2018; n=385). Students' undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test scores in the two cohorts were compared. The first- and second-year averages and comprehensive finals, and the US Medical Licensing Examination step 1 scores were compared. Mann-Whitney U tests were calculated to compare the cohorts' grades. RESULTS: Overall, both cohorts performed similarly in the first and second year of medical school and on US Medical Licensing Examination step 1; however, there were a few unimportant but statistically significant differences of 1 to 2 points on a 100-point scale. In a few instances, the pass/fail cohort performed slightly better and in others, slightly worse. CONCLUSIONS: Overall academic performance was similar. The potential for an enhanced learning environment associated with pass/fail grading does not create an important decrement in academic performance.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Femenino , Georgia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e023274, 2018 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297349

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Medical admissions must balance two potentially competing missions: to select those who will be successful medical students and clinicians and to increase the diversity of the medical school population and workforce. Many countries address this dilemma by reducing the heavy reliance on prior educational attainment, complementing this with other selection tools. However, evidence to what extent this shift in practice has actually widened access is conflicting. AIM: To examine if changes in medical school selection processes significantly impact on the composition of the student population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational study of medical students from 18 UK 5-year medical programmes who took the UK Clinical Aptitude Test from 2007 to 2014; detailed analysis on four schools. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Proportion of admissions to medical school for four target groups (lower socioeconomic classes, non-selective schooling, non-white and male). DATA ANALYSIS: Interrupted time-series framework with segmented regression was used to identify the impact of changes in selection practices in relation to invitation to interview to medical school. Four case study medical schools were used looking at admissions within for the four target groups. RESULTS: There were no obvious changes in the overall proportion of admissions from each target group over the 8-year period, averaging at 3.3% lower socioeconomic group, 51.5% non-selective school, 30.5% non-white and 43.8% male. Each case study school changed their selection practice in decision making for invite to interview during 2007-2014. Yet, this within-school variation made little difference locally, and changes in admission practices did not lead to any discernible change in the demography of those accepted into medical school. CONCLUSION: Although our case schools changed their selection procedures, these changes did not lead to any observable differences in their student populations. Increasing the diversity of medical students, and hence the medical profession, may require different, perhaps more radical, approaches to selection.


Asunto(s)
Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Masculino , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Reino Unido
15.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206570, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372469

RESUMEN

The process of selecting students likely to complete science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) doctoral programs has not changed greatly over the last few decades and still relies heavily on Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores in most U.S. universities. It has been long debated whether the GRE is an appropriate selection tool and whether overreliance on GRE scores may compromise admission of students historically underrepresented in STEM. Despite many concerns about the test, there are few studies examining the efficacy of the GRE in predicting PhD completion and even fewer examining this question in STEM fields. For the present study, we took advantage of a long-lived collaboration among institutions in the Northeast Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (NEAGEP) to gather comparable data on GRE scores and PhD completion for 1805 U.S./Permanent Resident STEM doctoral students in four state flagship institutions. We found that GRE Verbal (GRE V) and GRE Quantitative (GRE Q) scores were similar for women who completed STEM PhD degrees and those who left programs. Remarkably, GRE scores were significantly higher for men who left than counterparts who completed STEM PhD degrees. In fact, men in the lower quartiles of GRE V or Q scores finished degrees more often than those in the highest quartile. This pattern held for each of the four institutions in the study and for the cohort of male engineering students across institutions. GRE scores also failed to predict time to degree or to identify students who would leave during the first year of their programs. Our results suggests that GRE scores are not an effective tool for identifying students who will be successful in completing STEM doctoral programs. Considering the high cost of attrition from PhD programs and its impact on future leadership for the U.S. STEM workforce, we suggest that it is time to develop more effective and inclusive admissions strategies.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica , Educación de Postgrado/normas , Escolaridad , Ciencia/educación , Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación de Postgrado/estadística & datos numéricos , Ingeniería/educación , Ingeniería/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educación , Matemática/normas , Ciencia/normas , Factores Sexuales , Abandono Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Tecnología/educación , Tecnología/normas , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(7): 6326, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323388

RESUMEN

Objective. To determine factors associated with advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) performance in the pre-pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum and establish whether performance on the multiple mini interview (MMI) independently predicts APPE evaluation scores. Methods. A multi-case MMI has been used in the admissions process since 2008. Students are scored anywhere from 1 to 7 (unsatisfactory to outstanding) on each interview. Traditional factors (GPA, PCAT, etc.) are also used in the admissions determination. Pearson product-moment correlation and ordinary least squares regression were used to explore the relationships between admissions data, pharmacy GPA, and APPE evaluation scores for the graduating classes of 2011-2014. These analyses identified which factors (pharmacy GPA, PCAT, MMI score, age, gender, rurality, resident status, degree, and underrepresented minority status) related to APPE performance. Results. Students (n=432) had a mean APPE score of 4.6; a mean MMI score of 5.5; mean pharmacy GPA, PCAT and age of 3.14, 73.2, 22.6 years, respectively. Pre-pharmacy GPA and pharmacy GPA positively correlated with mean APPE scores. MMI score demonstrated positive correlations with overall APPE score; including subcategories patient care, documentation, drug information/EBM, public health, and communication. MMI scores were positively related to overall APPE scores in the multivariable regression. Variables showing negative associations with APPE scores included a pre-pharmacy GPA of <3.0 (ref= GPA >3.5) and pharmacy school GPA of >3.0 - 3.5 and GPA 2.6 - 3.0 when compared to GPAs >3.5. Conclusion. GPA (pre-pharmacy and pharmacy) and MMI positively correlate with preceptor-rated performances in the APPE year.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación en Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Curriculum/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
19.
Korean J Med Educ ; 30(2): 131-139, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860779

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to evaluate the factors affecting the results of comprehensive pre-internship exam (CPIE) among medicals students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. METHODS: In this descriptive-analytical study, all students (n=240) participating in CPIE over a 3-year period (2012-2014) were selected. Data were gathered by a questionnaire, including the CPIE results and educational and demographic data. Spearman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney U-test, and analysis of variance were used to analyze the association of students' success with study variables. Also, regression analysis was applied to determine the role of independent variables in students' success. RESULTS: The frequency of the failed units in apprenticeship course was one of the most important risk factors associated with failure in CPIE. Average scores of pre-internship course were the most important factors of success in CPIE. The CPIE score had the highest direct relationship with grade point average (GPA) of apprenticeship course, total GPA of all three courses, GPAs of physiopathology and basic sciences courses, and score of comprehensive basic sciences examination, respectively. CONCLUSION: CPIE showed the highest inverse correlation with the number of failed units in apprenticeship course. The most important factors influencing this exam were failure in apprenticeship course and GPA of previous educational stages.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Prueba de Admisión Académica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Internado y Residencia , Criterios de Admisión Escolar , Facultades de Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Logro , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Mil Med ; 183(11-12): e680-e684, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718290

RESUMEN

Introduction: This is an empirical study to better understand commonly used medical school admission measures and disenrollment decisions during undergraduate medical education as well as graduate medical education (GME) probation or termination decisions. Materials and Methods: Based on the data of USUHS medical students matriculating between 1998 and 2011 (N = 2,460), we compared medical school graduates and those disenrolled from medical school on MCAT scores, undergraduate BCPM (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Math) GPA, and undergraduate overall GPA. We also reported more specific reasons for disenrollment decisions. Next, we compared the students who were referred to the student promotion committee (SPC) with other students on these measures. Moving onto GME, we compared trainees who were put on probation or terminated from training with those who were not on MCAT and undergraduate GPA measures. In addition, we examined the association between being referred to the SPC and GME probation or termination. Results: There were 2,347 graduates and 113 disenrolled students from medical school (4.8%). For the disenrolled students, 43 (38.7%) students were disenrolled for exclusively (or primarily) non-academic reasons, and 68 (61.3%) were disenrolled for exclusively (or primarily) academic reasons. The t-tests showed statistically significant differences on the MCAT score of the first attempt (t(2,449) = 7.22, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.70), average MCAT score (t(2,449) = 4.22, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.41), and highest MCAT score (t(2,449) = 3.51, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.34). Logistic regression model selection also revealed that the best predictor for disenrollment was the first MCAT score (exp(b) = 0.83, 95% CI = (0.78, 0.88)). No significant differences on these measures were found from the group comparisons on SPC and GME probation or termination. There was no significant association between SPC appearance and GME probation or termination. Conclusions: Academic difficulties, especially in the basic sciences, appear to be the most common factor for disenrollment from medical school. These students also had lower MCAT scores, particularly on the first attempt. The MCAT performance indicators and undergraduate GPA were consistently lower, but not statistically significant, for those who appeared before SPC or were put on probation or terminated from training during GME.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Selección de Personal/métodos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Prueba de Admisión Académica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Selección de Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Criterios de Admisión Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Facultades de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos
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