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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Prueba de COVID-19 , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 155-162, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During cruises, the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections poses serious organizational problems such as those encountered in 2020 by the Zaandam, the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle or the Diamond Princess. In French Polynesia, the mixed cargo ship Aranui 5 transports both tourists and freight to the Marquesas Islands. The purpose of this article is to show how COVID-19 infections were diagnosed and contained before and after passengers boarded a cruise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On October 15, 2020, 161 passengers including 80 crew members embarked for a 13-day voyage from Papeete to the Marquesas Islands. Prior to boarding, all passengers underwent a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test; the tests results were all negative. On Day 0, 3, 5, 8 and 11, Biosynex® rapid antigen diagnostic tests were carried out on all or some of the crew members and tourists who may have had contact with new positive cases. Each day, forehead or temporal temperatures were measured using an infrared thermometer and questions were asked concerning the subjects' health status. When a subject was positive, the person and their contacts were isolated in individual cabins. The infected person then left the vessel to be received in a communal reception centre on the nearest island. RESULTS: A total of 9 positive cases were observed, including two before departure (a tourist and a crew member). During the trip, 7 crew members tested positive. The patients and their contacts were isolated and then disembarked at the earliest opportunity. At the time of sampling, the subjects were asymptomatic. The patients and their contacts all became symptomatic within 24 to 48 hours after sampling. CONCLUSIONS: In total, the voyage could be completed without any transmission on board among the tourists and with a minimum transmission among the crew members, thus maintaining the tourist and economic activity of the islands during the times of COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Medicina Naval/métodos , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Humanos , Exposición Profesional , Polinesia , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Navíos , Viaje
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257842, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610015

RESUMEN

Carceral settings in the United States have been the source of many single site COVID-19 outbreaks. Quarantine is a strategy used to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in correctional settings, and specific quarantine practices differ state to state. To better understand how states are using quarantine in prisons, we reviewed each state's definition of quarantine and compared each state's definition to the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) definition and recommendations for quarantine in jails and prisons. Most prison systems, 45 of 53, define quarantine, but definitions vary widely. No state published definitions of quarantine that align with all CDC recommendations, and only 9 states provide quarantine data. In these states, the highest recorded quarantine rate occurred in Ohio in May 2020 at 843 per 1,000. It is necessary for prison systems to standardize their definitions of quarantine and to utilize quarantine practices in accordance with CDC recommendations. In addition, data transparency is needed to better understand the use of quarantine and its effectiveness at mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks in carceral settings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Instalaciones Correccionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virología , Prueba de COVID-19/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Cuarentena/normas , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051506, 2021 10 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620662

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore differences in COVID-19 outcomes between male and female cases in the Apulian District of Foggia, Italy. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective epidemiological study among all COVID-19 confirmed cases that occurred in the Apulian District of Foggia from 29 February to 30 June 2020. The surveillance data from a regional registry (GIAVA-COVID) were used. MAIN OUTCOMES: The main outcome measures were the proportion of hospitalisations, virus clearance and the case fatality rate. RESULTS: A total of 1175 cases (50.7% female; median age: 55 years) were identified among 55 131 tests performed. The proportion of hospitalisation with COVID-19 diagnosis was 45.4% in men versus 37.9% in women (p<0.01), while the average length of stay in hospitals was 31.3±14.6 days in women versus 26.8±14.4 days in men (p<0.01). The proportion of cases who achieved virus clearance was higher in women (84.2%; days to clearance: 28.0±12.1) than in men (79.3%; days to clearance: 29.4±12.9; p<0.05). Men were associated with a significantly higher risk of dying from COVID-19 than women (case fatality rate 16.1% vs 10.4%; p<0.01). The mean time, from diagnosis to death, was 14.5±14.4 days in women compared with 10.6±10.7 days in men (p<0.01). The male sex, age ≥55 years and presence of at least one underlying comorbidity significantly raised the risk of hospitalisation, persistent infection and death (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that more attention should be paid to sex as a variable for the interpretation of COVID-19 data. Sex-disaggregated data will help clinicians to make appropriate patient-tailored medical decisions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640901

RESUMEN

Population-scale and rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2 continues to be a priority for several parts of the world. We revisit the in vitro technology platforms for COVID-19 testing and diagnostics-molecular tests and rapid antigen tests, serology or antibody tests, and tests for the management of COVID-19 patients. Within each category of tests, we review the commercialized testing platforms, their analyzing systems, specimen collection protocols, testing methodologies, supply chain logistics, and related attributes. Our discussion is essentially focused on test products that have been granted emergency use authorization by the FDA to detect and diagnose COVID-19 infections. Different strategies for scaled-up and faster screening are covered here, such as pooled testing, screening programs, and surveillance testing. The near-term challenges lie in detecting subtle infectivity profiles, mapping the transmission dynamics of new variants, lowering the cost for testing, training a large healthcare workforce, and providing test kits for the masses. Through this review, we try to understand the feasibility of universal access to COVID-19 testing and diagnostics in the near future while being cognizant of the implicit tradeoffs during the development and distribution cycles of new testing platforms.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnología
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(2): 219-225, 2021 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645183

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the performance and application of a fast nucleic acid detection system for testing severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Methods: Clinical samples were collected from February to July 2020 from Beijing Center for Diseases Prevention and Control and the Laboratory Department of China-Japan Friendship Hospital, to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, anti-interference ability, precision and clinical sample coincidence rate of fast nucleic acid detection system for SARS-CoV-2. The analytical sensitivity was determined by a dilution series of 20 replications for each concentration. Analytical specificity study was performed by testing organisms whose infection produces symptoms similar to those observed at the onset of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and of the normal or pathogenic microflora that may be present in specimens collected. Potential interference substances were evaluated with different concentration in the interference study. Precision study was conducted by estimating intra-and inter-batch variability. Clinical evaluation was performed by testing 230 oropharyngeal swab specimens and 95 sputum specimens in fast nucleic acid detection system, comparing with conventional real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and clinical diagnostic results. Results: The analytical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 using fast nucleic acid detection system was 400 copies/ml. The result is negative for testing with the organisms that may likely in the circulating area or causing similar symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 and human nucleic acid, indicating that no cross reactivity with organisms. The results of precision test showed that the Coefficient of variation of Ct value of high, medium and low concentration samples was 1.90%-3.92%, and all of them were less than 5% in intra-and inter-batch testing. The results of the samples were still positive after adding the potential interfering substances, indicating that the possible interfering substances in the samples had no effect on the results. 98.46% and 97.85% diagnosis results of fast nucleic acid detection system were consistent with RT-qPCR and clinical diagnostic results, respectively. Conclusion: The fast nucleic acid detection system based on molecular parallel reaction can be used as a selection method for SARS-CoV-2 testing.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ácidos Nucleicos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Humanos , ARN Viral , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1786, 2021 10 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600513

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Much of what is known about COVID-19 risk factors comes from patients with serious symptoms who test positive. While risk factors for hospitalization or death include chronic conditions and smoking; less is known about how health status or nicotine consumption is associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among individuals who do not present clinically. METHODS: Two community-based population samples (including individuals randomly and nonrandomly selected for statewide testing, n = 8214) underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing in nonclinical settings. Each participant was tested for current (viral PCR) and past (antibody) infection in either April or June of 2020. Before testing, participants provided demographic information and self-reported health status and nicotine and tobacco behaviors (smoking, chewing, vaping/e-cigarettes). Using descriptive statistics and a bivariate logistic regression model, we examined the association between health status and use of tobacco or nicotine with SARS-CoV-2 positivity on either PCR or antibody tests. RESULTS: Compared to people with self-identified "excellent" or very good health status, those reporting "good" or "fair" health status had a higher risk of past or current infections. Positive smoking status was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chewing tobacco was associated with infection and the use of vaping/e-cigarettes was not associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: In a statewide, community-based population drawn for SARS-CoV-2 testing, we find that overall health status was associated with infection rates. Unlike in studies of COVID-19 patients, smoking status was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. More research is needed to further understand the nature of this relationship.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Prueba de COVID-19 , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Nicotina/efectos adversos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 448-452, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625778

RESUMEN

Background: The rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide has impo-sed the need to identify a test that quickly recognizes affected subjects, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. The most reliable option has been proven to be the RT-PCR, which allows to detect virus RNA on a specimen from a high viral load site, such as nasopharynx. Nasopha-ryngeal sample collection is possible by means of a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and is a practical and relatively non-invasive technique, but rather bothersome for the recipient. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the discomfort evoked during NPS. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 429 patients receiving NPS before hospitalization or other procedures non related to COVID-19. For each one we noted the discomfort level felt during the swab using a 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain and the total time needed for the procedure to be taken. Sex, age, smoking status and positive history of previous swab have been taken into account. Results: We found that, among the variables, sex had a statistically significant impact on the perceived discomfort of nasal swab, with females experiencing slightly more discomfort. Conclusions: NPS is largely a none-to-minimum discomfort in-ducing procedure. The differences in perceived discomfort could be explained based on anatomical features, and should remark the need for a tailored and anatomy-oriented approach in each patient.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Manejo de Especímenes
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257235, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613981

RESUMEN

During the early months of the current COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing measures effectively slowed disease transmission in many countries in Europe and Asia, but the same benefits have not been observed in some developing countries such as Brazil. In part, this is due to a failure to organise systematic testing campaigns at nationwide or even regional levels. To gain effective control of the pandemic, decision-makers in developing countries, particularly those with large populations, must overcome difficulties posed by an unequal distribution of wealth combined with low daily testing capacities. The economic infrastructure of these countries, often concentrated in a few cities, forces workers to travel from commuter cities and rural areas, which induces strong nonlinear effects on disease transmission. In the present study, we develop a smart testing strategy to identify geographic regions where COVID-19 testing could most effectively be deployed to limit further disease transmission. By smart testing we mean the testing protocol that is automatically designed by our optimization platform for a given time period, knowing the available number of tests, the current availability of ICU beds and the initial epidemiological situation. The strategy uses readily available anonymised mobility and demographic data integrated with intensive care unit (ICU) occupancy data and city-specific social distancing measures. Taking into account the heterogeneity of ICU bed occupancy in differing regions and the stages of disease evolution, we use a data-driven study of the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo as an example to show that smart testing strategies can rapidly limit transmission while reducing the need for social distancing measures, even when testing capacity is limited.


Asunto(s)
Ocupación de Camas/estadística & datos numéricos , Prueba de COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Cuidados Críticos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control
12.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(5): 695-702, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633941

RESUMEN

Cancer patients are exposed to more complications from COVID-19 than non-cancer patients. We report a cohort of 74 cancer patients (87.8% with solid neoplasia and 12.2% with hematological diseases) with COVID-19 infection admitted to a tertiary medical cancer center in Argentina. Pulmonary infiltrates were diagnosed at admission in 78.3% (N = 58) of the cases. COVID-19 infection was hospital-acquired in 20 (27.0%) patients. Thirty-nine patients (52.7%) received anticancer therapy within the 30 days prior to COVID-19 diagnosis; one was on radiation therapy. Twenty-four (32.4%) patients were admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 18 (75.0%) required mechanical ventilation. All cause in-hospital mortality was 32.4% (N = 24) and ICU mortality was 62.5% (N = 15). Mortality under mechanical ventilation was 72.2% (N = 13). In the univariate analysis age, neutrophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte index, D-dimer, ferritin, smoking, and nosocomial acquired infection were associated with in-hospital mortality. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality related to disease stage for solid tumors, neither cancer treatment within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Age and smoking were associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis. The adjusted odds ratios (95 CI) for age = 65 years and smoking were 8.87 (1.35-58.02) and 8.64 (1.32 - 56.64), respectively. Our experience can be useful for other institutions that assist cancer patients during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Anciano , Prueba de COVID-19 , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931570, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635631

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has recently been described in children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This report describes 2 children with MIS-C who were initially diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome but who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, supporting the diagnosis of MIS-C. CASE REPORT Case 1. A 7-year-old boy with fever, cough, and dyspnea was treated with oxygen, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion, and methylprednisolone and showed a worsening of clinical conditions, persistent fever, hypotension, and hematological parameters compatible with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Three intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day) were followed by a progressive resolution. Case 2. A 14-year-old girl with syncope, fever, diarrhea, oliguria, and increased creatinine levels required fluid infusion and correction of electrolyte imbalance. The increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), myoglobin, troponin, and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was associated with grade I atrioventricular block and pericardial effusion. The patient showed myositis and severe muscular weakness, with hematological parameters compatible with MIS-C. She started IVIG and 3 intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone. However, bradycardia, tachypnea, severe hypotension, loss of consciousness, oliguria, bilateral ground-glass pneumonia, bilateral pleural, and peritoneal effusion, in the absence of thromboembolism, required treatment with furosemide, albumin, and enoxaparin, and was followed by a prompt resolution. CONCLUSIONS These 2 pediatric cases highlight the importance of SARS-CoV-2 testing in all patients with acute symptoms and signs of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. As new variants of SARS-CoV-2 emerge, cases of MIS-C can become more prevalent, and pediatricians should be aware of diagnostic and management guidelines.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Choque Séptico , Adolescente , Prueba de COVID-19 , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 711616, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650947

RESUMEN

Introduction: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been the most significant event in 2020, with ~86.8 million cases and 1.88 million deaths worldwide. It is a highly infectious disease, wherein the virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) rapidly multiplies and spreads to all parts of the body. Therefore, COVID-19 is not only respiratory disease but also a multisystem disease. Many people, including physicians, incorrectly believe that the disease affects only the respiratory tract. In this study, we aimed to describe COVID-19 manifestations and the underlying pathophysiology to provide the readers with a better understanding of this disease to achieve good management and to control the spread of this disease. Methods: Secondary data were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. The keywords used for the search were as follows: COVID-19, COVID-19 pulmonary manifestations, COVID-19 extra pulmonary manifestations, and pathophysiology of COVID-19. We collected secondary data from systemic reviews, metaanalyses, case series, and case reports in the form of public data that was published on websites of the government, medical corporations, medical peer-reviewed journals, and medical academies, all of which were indexed in PubMed, Google Scholar, or Scopus. Our questions were as follows: Is COVID-19 a respiratory disease only? and What are the extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19? Results: From our data, we found that a patient with COVID-19 may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Symptomatic cases may have either pulmonary or extrapulmonary manifestations. Pulmonary manifestations occur as mild, moderate, or severe cases. In mild and moderate cases, extrapulmonary manifestations such as gastroenteritis, fever, or vomiting may present alone. Some of these cases may be missed for diagnosis, and the patient may receive symptomatic treatment without a COVID-19 diagnosis, leading to increased spread of the infection. Extrapulmonary manifestations may occur in severe and critical cases as complications of severe infections (high viral overload) or the cytokine storm, such as in acute kidney injury (AKI), heart failure (HF), and venous thromboembolic (VTE) manifestation. Conclusion: COVID-19 is not a respiratory disease alone; rather, it is a multisystem disease. Pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations should be considered for early diagnosis and to control the spread of the infection.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 2, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650652

RESUMEN

In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, numerous commercial assays have been developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 for use in the clinical diagnostic laboratories. To date, there is limited comparison of testing methods performed in different hospital laboratory sites. The aims of the study were to evaluate the analytical performance of Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 when compared to RT-PCR. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 155 nasopharyngeal swabs were taken in duplicate from patients presenting with suspected COVID-19 to 8 hospitals in Oman. One swab was tested by the hospital laboratory and the duplicate swab was sent to the national Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) for testing. We compared the analytical performance of the commercially available point of care Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay which was used in the 8 different hospitals with assays including Liferiver, Sansure, TIB MOL BIOL, Kingfisher and COBAS 6800 by Roche which were performed at the CPHL. Testing of the duplicate swabs revealed excellent agreement of results with the viral loads of Ct values ranging from 16-43 for the E gene, 18-44 for the N gene and 17-44 for the ORF gene using the Liferiver assay. The overall sample sensitivity and specificity of the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay were both 100% and there was 100% agreement across specimens. We conclude that the rapid GeneXpert and RT-PCR kits assessed in this study may be used for routine diagnostic testing of COVID-19 patients by experienced clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. Our results highlight the importance of rapid molecular testing at different sites within a country in a public health emergency.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Laboratorios de Hospital , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Omán , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , ARN Viral/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes , Carga Viral
16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e413-e417, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596626

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The viral dynamics and the role of children in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not completely understood. Our aim was to evaluate reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values among children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 compared with that of adult subjects. METHODS: Patients (from 2 months to ≤18 years of age and adults) with signs and symptoms of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection for less than 7 days were prospectively enrolled in the study from May to November 2020. All participants performed RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection; Ct values of ORF1ab, N and S gene targets and the average of all the 3 probes were used as surrogates of viral load. RESULTS: There were 21 infants (2 months to <2 years), 40 children (≥2 to <12 years), 22 adolescents (≥12 to <18 years) and 293 adults of 376 participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. RT-PCR Ct values from all participants less than 18 years of age, as well as from all childhood subgroups, were not significantly different from adults, comparing ORF1ab, N, S and all the gene targets together (P = 0.453). CONCLUSIONS: Ct values for children were comparable with that of adults. Although viral load is not the only determinant of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, children may play a role in the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 in the community.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Brasil , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , ARN Viral , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/normas , Carga Viral
17.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 2203636, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603483

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) arising from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a global pandemic since its first report in December 2019. So far, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection has been deemed as the golden standard of COVID-19 diagnosis. However, this detection method often leads to false negatives, thus triggering missed COVID-19 diagnosis. Therefore, it is urgent to find new biomarkers to increase the accuracy of COVID-19 diagnosis. To explore new biomarkers of COVID-19 in this study, expression profiles were firstly accessed from the GEO database. On this basis, 500 feature genes were screened by the minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy (mRMR) feature selection method. Afterwards, the incremental feature selection (IFS) method was used to choose a classifier with the best performance from different feature gene-based support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The corresponding 66 feature genes were set as the optimal feature genes. Lastly, the optimal feature genes were subjected to GO functional enrichment analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. All in all, it was posited that the 66 feature genes could effectively classify positive and negative COVID-19 and work as new biomarkers of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Biología Computacional , Reacciones Falso Negativas , Reacciones Falso Positivas , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Modelos Estadísticos , Análisis de Componente Principal , Mapeo de Interacción de Proteínas , Proyectos de Investigación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
18.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E261-E269, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604564

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19-related deaths are growing rapidly around the world, especially in Europe and the United States. Purpose: In this study we attempt to measure the association of these variables with case fatality rate (CFR) and recovery rate (RR) using up-to-date data from around the world. Methods: Data were collected from eight global databases. According to the raw data of countries, the CFR and RR and their relationship with different predictors was compared for countries with 1,000 or more cases of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Results: There were no significant correlation between the CFR and number of hospital beds per 1,000 people, proportion of population aged 65 and older ages, and the number of computed tomography per one million inhabitants. Furthermore, based on the continents-based subgroup univariate regression analysis, the population (R2 = 0.37, P = 0.047), GPD (R2 = 0.80, P < 0.001), number of ICU Beds per 100,000 people (R2 = 0.93, P = 0.04), and number of CT per one million inhabitants (R2 = 0.78, P = 0.04) were significantly correlated with CFR in America. Moreover, the income-based subgroups analysis showed that the gross domestic product (R2 = 0.30, P = 0.001), number of ICU Beds per 100,000 people (R2 = 0.23, P = 0.008), and the number of ventilator (R2 = 0.46, P = 0.01) had significant correlation with CFR in high-income countries. Conclusions: The level of country's preparedness, testing capacity, and health care system capacities also are among the important predictors of both COVID-19 associated mortality and recovery. Thus, providing up-to-date information on the main predictors of COVID-19 associated mortality and recovery will hopefully improve various countries hospital resource allocation, testing capacities, and level of preparedness.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Atención a la Salud/normas , Capacidad de Camas en Hospitales , Pandemias , Asignación de Recursos , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/complicaciones , Comorbilidad , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2124946, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633425

RESUMEN

Importance: Machine learning could be used to predict the likelihood of diagnosis and severity of illness. Lack of COVID-19 patient data has hindered the data science community in developing models to aid in the response to the pandemic. Objectives: To describe the rapid development and evaluation of clinical algorithms to predict COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization using patient data by citizen scientists, provide an unbiased assessment of model performance, and benchmark model performance on subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic and prognostic study operated a continuous, crowdsourced challenge using a model-to-data approach to securely enable the use of regularly updated COVID-19 patient data from the University of Washington by participants from May 6 to December 23, 2020. A postchallenge analysis was conducted from December 24, 2020, to April 7, 2021, to assess the generalizability of models on the cumulative data set as well as subgroups stratified by age, sex, race, and time of COVID-19 test. By December 23, 2020, this challenge engaged 482 participants from 90 teams and 7 countries. Main Outcomes and Measures: Machine learning algorithms used patient data and output a score that represented the probability of patients receiving a positive COVID-19 test result or being hospitalized within 21 days after receiving a positive COVID-19 test result. Algorithms were evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and area under the precision recall curve (AUPRC) scores. Ensemble models aggregating models from the top challenge teams were developed and evaluated. Results: In the analysis using the cumulative data set, the best performance for COVID-19 diagnosis prediction was an AUROC of 0.776 (95% CI, 0.775-0.777) and an AUPRC of 0.297, and for hospitalization prediction, an AUROC of 0.796 (95% CI, 0.794-0.798) and an AUPRC of 0.188. Analysis on top models submitting to the challenge showed consistently better model performance on the female group than the male group. Among all age groups, the best performance was obtained for the 25- to 49-year age group, and the worst performance was obtained for the group aged 17 years or younger. Conclusions and Relevance: In this diagnostic and prognostic study, models submitted by citizen scientists achieved high performance for the prediction of COVID-19 testing and hospitalization outcomes. Evaluation of challenge models on demographic subgroups and prospective data revealed performance discrepancies, providing insights into the potential bias and limitations in the models.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Benchmarking , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reglas de Decisión Clínica , Colaboración de las Masas , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Área Bajo la Curva , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Prueba de COVID-19 , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Pronóstico , Curva ROC , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Washingtón/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 244, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659617

RESUMEN

Numerous genetic tests for the detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, including those based on the ever-popular real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique, have been reported. These diagnostic tests give false negatives particularly during the early and late stages of COVID-19 clearly indicating inadequate test sensitivity. The entire COVID-19 diagnostic workflow is often overlooked and given very little attention. Herein, we propose that volumetric modifications to COVID-19 workflows would significantly improve detection limits. We would therefore encourage researchers to adopt a holistic approach, in which all the steps of a COVID-19 diagnostic workflow, are carefully scrutinised, particularly those upstream factors at the viral sampling and pre-analytical stages.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Prueba de COVID-19/normas , Reacciones Falso Negativas , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/normas , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes
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