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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231484, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287289

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of motor control immaturity in the speech production characteristics of 4-year-old children, compared to adults. Specifically, two indices were examined: trial-to-trial variability, which is assumed to be linked to motor control accuracy, and anticipatory extra-syllabic vowel-to-vowel coarticulation, which is assumed to be linked to the comprehensiveness, maturity and efficiency of sensorimotor representations in the central nervous system. METHOD: Acoustic and articulatory (ultrasound) data were recorded for 20 children and 10 adults, all native speakers of Canadian French, during the production of isolated vowels and vowel-consonant-vowel (V1-C-V2) sequences. Trial-to-trial variability was measured in isolated vowels. Extra-syllabic anticipatory coarticulation was assessed in V1-C-V2 sequences by measuring the patterns of variability of V1 associated with variations in V2. Acoustic data were reported for all subjects and articulatory data, for a subset of 6 children and 2 adults. RESULTS: Trial-to-trial variability was significantly larger in children. Systematic and significant anticipation of V2 in V1 was always found in adults, but was rare in children. Significant anticipation was observed in children only when V1 was /a/, and only along the antero-posterior dimension, with a much smaller magnitude than in adults. A closer analysis of individual speakers revealed that some children showed adult-like anticipation along this dimension, whereas the majority did not. CONCLUSION: The larger trial-to-trial variability and the lack of anticipatory behavior in most children-two phenomena that have been observed in several non-speech motor tasks-support the hypothesis that motor control immaturity may explain a large part of the differences observed between speech production in adults and 4-year-old children, apart from other causes that may be linked with language development.


Asunto(s)
Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Habla/fisiología , Acústica , Adulto , Anticipación Psicológica/fisiología , Canadá , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Masculino , Fonética , Espectrografía del Sonido/métodos , Acústica del Lenguaje , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Medición de la Producción del Habla/métodos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227699, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986165

RESUMEN

Previously, we demonstrated a strong correlation between the amplitude of human speech and the emission rate of micron-scale expiratory aerosol particles, which are believed to play a role in respiratory disease transmission. To further those findings, here we systematically investigate the effect of different 'phones' (the basic sound units of speech) on the emission of particles from the human respiratory tract during speech. We measured the respiratory particle emission rates of 56 healthy human volunteers voicing specific phones, both in isolation and in the context of a standard spoken text. We found that certain phones are associated with significantly higher particle production; for example, the vowel /i/ ("need," "sea") produces more particles than /ɑ/ ("saw," "hot") or /u/ ("blue," "mood"), while disyllabic words including voiced plosive consonants (e.g., /d/, /b/, /g/) yield more particles than words with voiceless fricatives (e.g., /s/, /h/, /f/). These trends for discrete phones and words were corroborated by the time-resolved particle emission rates as volunteers read aloud from a standard text passage that incorporates a broad range of the phones present in spoken English. Our measurements showed that particle emission rates were positively correlated with the vowel content of a phrase; conversely, particle emission decreased during phrases with a high fraction of voiceless fricatives. Our particle emission data is broadly consistent with prior measurements of the egressive airflow rate associated with the vocalization of various phones that differ in voicing and articulation. These results suggest that airborne transmission of respiratory pathogens via speech aerosol particles could be modulated by specific phonetic characteristics of the language spoken by a given human population, along with other, more frequently considered epidemiological variables.


Asunto(s)
Espiración/fisiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/transmisión , Habla/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Aerosoles , Microbiología del Aire , Tos/microbiología , Tos/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fonética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Acústica del Lenguaje , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Voz/fisiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 128: 109692, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568953

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lipofilling of the upper lip as secondary treatment in patients with a cleft lip (and palate) (CL ±â€¯P) has been proposed to improve projection and volume especially in profile view. The purpose of the present study was to document differences in functional (i.e. logopaedic) and self-reported aesthetic outcomes by comparing pre- and postoperative results after lipofilling of the upper lip in patients with CL ±â€¯P. METHODS: Eight Dutch-speaking youngsters and young adults (three women, five men) with CL ±â€¯P were included. The median age was 19 years (range: 14-24 years). Logopaedic outcomes (i.e. assessment of orofacial myofunctional behavior, articulation and lip strength) and self-reported aesthetic outcome (i.e. patients' satisfaction using the Cleft Evaluation Profile) were determined. RESULTS: Neither for lip strength and orofacial myofunctional behavior nor for articulation statistically significant differences were found when comparing measurements before and after lipofilling. Regarding patients' satisfaction, a statistically significant increased self-evaluation of appearance in profile was found after lipofilling. CONCLUSION: Regarding functionality, the present study did not find any differences when comparing outcomes before and after lipofilling. Nevertheless, patients were more satisfied with appearance in profile after performance of this technique. As this is a small sample study, further research and long-term follow-up studies are necessary.


Asunto(s)
Labio Leporino/fisiopatología , Labio Leporino/terapia , Rellenos Dérmicos/uso terapéutico , Labio/fisiopatología , Satisfacción del Paciente , Adolescente , Labio Leporino/complicaciones , Labio Leporino/cirugía , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Estética , Músculos Faciales/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular , Proyectos Piloto , Habla , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Trastornos del Habla/etiología , Adulto Joven
4.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(3): 668-681, 2019 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950741

RESUMEN

Purpose Intelligibility is a core concept of speech-language pathology, central both to the assessment of speech disorders and to intervention in such disorders. One purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and usability of a single-word assessment procedure, the Swedish Test of Intelligibility for Children (STI-CH), in a clinical setting. Another purpose was to investigate the validity and reliability of an assessment method designed to assess functional intelligibility: the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS). Method Thirty children aged 4;1-10;1 years;months were recruited from speech-language pathology clinics in Western Sweden. Each child's treating speech-language pathologist served as listener in the STI-CH assessment while the ICS was completed by each child's parents. External listeners (2 last-year speech-language pathology students) were used to assess the validity of the speech-language pathology. Results The mean duration of the test procedure for the STI-CH was about 19 min, and 57% of the test sessions were reported as difficult. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between the results from the STI-CH and the ICS ( r = .40, p < .05), and both methods showed high reliability in terms of interlistener reliability (intraclass correlation exceeding .97) and internal consistency, respectively. Conclusions The STI-CH had high reliability and was time efficient but had some procedural problems. The ICS had moderate validity but high reliability. The STI-CH is promising for clinical use but needs to be developed further. The validity of the ICS can be discussed and needs to be further investigated.


Asunto(s)
Inteligibilidad del Habla , Medición de la Producción del Habla/métodos , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Suecia
5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 122: 180-184, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035177

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Speech and language pathologists need to assess speech stimulability as a crucial component of assessment in clients with speech sound disorders. The purpose of the current survey was to develop and validate an instrument to assess speech stimulability in Persian speaking children. METHODS: The present study was accomplished in two steps. In step I, the test material was developed based on extensive literature review, and five experts were requested to make judgment on the content validity of the test. We evaluated other psychometric properties in step II. A pilot study was performed by the administration of the test on 25 children, and then the correct answer percentages of 100 participants for each item of the Persian test of speech stimulability were calculated. The participants were divided into four groups by six-month intervals. Inter-rater reliability, test-retest, and internal consistency were computed for the reliability measures. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 24.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for the statistical analysis of the data. The significance level was (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The final version of the test includes 132 items (consonant and vowel singleton words and sentences). There was no significant difference among experts' judgment in the content validity of the items (P > 0.05). All of the children could easily repeat the items in the pilot study. The participants were stimulable more than 80% for all of the consonants except/ʒ/and 100% for the vowels in the items of the final version of the Persian test of speech stimulability. All of the reliability values (inter-rater reliability, test-retest, and internal consistency) were higher than 0.8. CONCLUSION: Investigation of psychometric properties of the Persian test of speech stimulability showed that this test is a valid and reliable scale to assess the speech stimulability in Persian speaking children.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Trastorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Lenguaje , Masculino , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Proyectos Piloto , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/métodos
6.
Nature ; 568(7753): 493-498, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019317

RESUMEN

Technology that translates neural activity into speech would be transformative for people who are unable to communicate as a result of neurological impairments. Decoding speech from neural activity is challenging because speaking requires very precise and rapid multi-dimensional control of vocal tract articulators. Here we designed a neural decoder that explicitly leverages kinematic and sound representations encoded in human cortical activity to synthesize audible speech. Recurrent neural networks first decoded directly recorded cortical activity into representations of articulatory movement, and then transformed these representations into speech acoustics. In closed vocabulary tests, listeners could readily identify and transcribe speech synthesized from cortical activity. Intermediate articulatory dynamics enhanced performance even with limited data. Decoded articulatory representations were highly conserved across speakers, enabling a component of the decoder to be transferrable across participants. Furthermore, the decoder could synthesize speech when a participant silently mimed sentences. These findings advance the clinical viability of using speech neuroprosthetic technology to restore spoken communication.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Movimiento/fisiología , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Acústica del Lenguaje , Habla/fisiología , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Inteligibilidad del Habla
7.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 54(3): 401-416, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) often demonstrate speech impairments and reduced intelligibility. However, traditional treatment methods, which involve using repetitive verbal and non-verbal exercises, may not be fully suitable for this population. As adults with ID tend to lose interest and motivation facing the demands of a typical speech therapy session, other intervention methods are needed. The current study tested a novel intervention technique, Beatalk, based on practising vocally produced sounds and rhythms, imitating the sounds produced by rhythm machines in an a cappella musical context (i.e., human beatboxing). Human beatboxing may be a particularly effective tool since it involves intense production of speech sounds (phonemes) that can be misarticulated in the presence of speech disorders; it is relatively easy to learn and practice, and is also considered 'fun'. AIMS: As many of the features of beatboxing make it a promising method for speech therapy, this pioneering study aimed to examine its effectiveness in comparison with a traditional speech therapy. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Twelve adults with moderate ID and low speech intelligibility (age 24-48 years) participated in a speech therapy group for 6 weeks. Six participants were assigned to the Beatalk (study) group and six to a traditional (control) therapy group. Pre- to post-treatment changes in speech intelligibility and voice measures were assessed. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: The preliminary data demonstrate that both types of therapy groups resulted in improved performance in articulation accuracy and voice measures, yet the Beatalk technique yielded larger gains. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The results present initial evidence for the beneficial effect of the Beatalk technique as an intervention tool for adults with ID. It is an easy-to-use technique in the context of speech therapy, and may enhance verbal communication skills in this population.


Asunto(s)
Discapacidad Intelectual/psicología , Musicoterapia/métodos , Trastornos del Habla/etiología , Trastornos del Habla/terapia , Logoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fonación/fisiología , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Trastornos del Habla/fisiopatología , Inteligibilidad del Habla , Adulto Joven
8.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 117: 61-66, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579091

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Speech disorder in children is the most common disorder reported by speech and language pathologists in all languages and its evaluation and diagnosis requires valid and reliable tools. This study aimed to develop a Kurdish Speech Test for children aged 3-5 years and to determine its psychometric properties. METHODS: The validation included 120 monolingual Kurdish-speaking children aged 3-5 years in the city of Bukan, Iran. Content validity was determined according to expert opinions of Kurdish speech and language pathologists and linguists. Test-retest (one-week interval) and scoring-rescoring by two independent examiners were conducted to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability. The tests ability to discriminate between four age groups (36-60 months) was investigated for construct validity. Differences related to gender were assessed. RESULTS: Intra- and inter-rater reliability showed no significant difference between the first and second week of administration (p < 0.001) and scoring-rescoring by two independent raters confirmed the reliability of the Kurdish Speech Test (P < 0.001). Discriminating properties, reflecting construct validity showed higher scores with increasing age. No gender differences were found. CONCLUSION: The Kurdish Speech Test is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluation of articulation in three-to-five-year-old children. Results suggest that the test is appropriate for clinical assessment of children with speech sound disorders.


Asunto(s)
Psicometría/métodos , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Trastornos del Habla/diagnóstico , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Lenguaje , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Habla
9.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 144(5): EL392, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522328

RESUMEN

When using ultrasound imaging of the tongue for speech recording/research, submental transducer stabilization is required to prevent the ultrasound transducer from translating or rotating in relation to the tongue. An iterative prototype of a lightweight three-dimensional-printable wearable ultrasound transducer stabilization system that allows flexible jaw motion and free head movement is presented. The system is completely non-metallic, eliminating interference with co-recorded signals, thus permitting co-collection and co-registration with articulometry systems. A motion study of the final version demonstrates that transducer rotation is limited to 1.25° and translation to 2.5 mm-well within accepted tolerances.


Asunto(s)
Impresión Tridimensional/instrumentación , Habla/fisiología , Lengua/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Alemania/etnología , Movimientos de la Cabeza/fisiología , Humanos , Maxilares/fisiología , Masculino , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Transductores
10.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(4): 174-183, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-176632

RESUMEN

Antecedentes: La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa rara y de rápido progreso que causa un deterioro en las motoneuronas de la corteza cerebral, tronco encefálico (bulbo) y la médula espinal. Entre las alteraciones más comunes se encuentra la disartria y otros problemas logopédicos que requieren de una intervención de la que actualmente no existen protocolos. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es crear un protocolo de evaluación de disartria en pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica en español, que evalúe la respiración, fonación, articulación, resonancia en estos pacientes, para obtener con exactitud los aspectos afectados de cada paciente y elaborar un tratamiento que se adapte al paciente. Materiales y métodos: El estudio se realiza con 3 pacientes de esclerosis lateral amiotrófica bulbar con un estado leve-moderado de la enfermedad. Para la evaluación se utilizaron un protocolo breve de evaluación de la disartria y el protocolo de evaluación de la disartria elaborado para este trabajo. Resultados: Tras la evaluación final se comprobó una mejoría en todos los apartados evaluados tras la intervención. Con el protocolo mejorado, se obtuvieron mejores resultados en los distintos apartados. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos han sido óptimos debido a la utilización del protocolo adaptado a las necesidades y a la aplicación de tratamientos específicos que producen una evolución positiva de la enfermedad


Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare, rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease that causes deterioration in the motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. Among the most common disorders are dysarthria and other logopaedic problems that require intervention for which there are currently no protocols. Objective: The objective of this study is to create a protocol for the evaluation of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Spanish, which evaluates respiration, phonation, articulation, and resonance in these patients, in order to accurately obtain the symptoms of each patient and a develop a treatment adapted to the patient. Materials and methods: The study was carried out with 3 patients with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a mild-moderate state of the disease. For evaluation, a short protocol to assess dysarthria and the protocol for evaluating dysarthria prepared for this study were used. Results: After the final evaluation, an improvement was observed in all the sections evaluated after the intervention. With the improved protocol, better results were obtained in the different sections. Conclusions: The results were optimal due to the use of the protocol adapted to needs and the application of specific treatments that have a positive effect on the outcome of the disease


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatología , Disartria/fisiopatología , Trastornos de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Respiratorios/fisiopatología , Disfonía/fisiopatología
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(11): 2772-2778, 2018 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383150

RESUMEN

Purpose: Mean articulatory rate (MAR) is an alternative approach to measure articulation rate and is defined as the mean of 5 rate measures in minimally 10 to maximally 20 consecutive syllables in perceptually fluent speech without pauses. This study examined the validity of this approach. Method: Reading and spontaneous speech samples were collected from 80 typically fluent adults ranging in age between 20 and 59 years. After orthographic transcription, all samples were subjected to an articulation rate analysis first using the prevailing "global" method, which takes into account the entire speech sample and involves manipulation of the speech sample, and then again applying the MAR method. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to compare global measurements to MAR measurements. Results: For both spontaneous speech and reading, a strong correlation was found between the 2 methods. However, for both speech tasks, the paired-samples t tests revealed a significant difference with MAR values being higher than the global method values. Conclusions: The MAR method is a valid method to measure articulation rate. However, it cannot be used interchangeably with the prevailing global method. Further standardization of the MAR method is needed before general clinical use can be suggested.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Habla , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Espectrografía del Sonido , Acústica del Lenguaje , Adulto Joven
12.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(10): 2502-2515, 2018 10 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286232

RESUMEN

Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of time and sentence length on speech rate and its characteristics, articulation rate and pauses, within 2 groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Thirty-four children with CP, 18 with no speech motor involvement and 16 with speech motor involvement, produced sentences of varying lengths at 3 time points that were 1 year apart (mean age = 56 months at first time point). Dependent measures included speech rate, articulation rate, proportion of time spent pausing, and average number and duration of pauses. Results: There were no significant effects of time. For children with no speech motor involvement, speech rate increased with longer sentences due to increased articulation rate. For children with speech motor involvement, speech rate did not change with sentence length due to significant increases in the proportion of time spent pausing and average number of pauses in longer sentences. Conclusions: There were no significant age-related differences in speech rate in children with CP regardless of group membership. Sentence length differentially impacted speech rate and its characteristics in both groups of children with CP. This may be due to cognitive-linguistic and/or speech motor control factors.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis Cerebral/fisiopatología , Trastornos del Habla/fisiopatología , Habla/fisiología , Trastornos de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Trastornos Psicomotores/fisiopatología , Lectura , Acústica del Lenguaje , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Codas ; 30(6): e20180008, 2018 Oct 11.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328903

RESUMEN

To verify the effects of Speech Therapy focusing on phonological awareness and articulatory awareness in speech skills and in the literacy process of children with speech sound disorders. Seven children, aged between six and seven years old, male and female, and with speech disorders complaints participated in this study. These children were submitted to the following speech and language assessments: Children Phonological Assessment, Articulation Test, Articulatory Awareness Assessment, Phonological Awareness Testing by Oral Production and Word Writing Evaluation. Afterwards, they underwent speech and language therapy through the software "Pedro em uma noite assustadora". The sessions took place once a week, lasting approximately 30 minutes each. At the end of eight sessions, the children were reassessed with the same instruments used in the initial assessment. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the analysis of data obtained, improvement in speech, articulatory awareness and phonological awareness skills, and Spelling Hypothesis of all children was observed. It can be concluded that speech therapy focusing on phonological awareness and articulatory awareness skills based on specific software has influenced the organization of speech patterns and acquisition of written language in most subjects.


Asunto(s)
Programas Informáticos , Trastorno Fonológico/fisiopatología , Trastorno Fonológico/terapia , Logoterapia/métodos , Habla/fisiología , Concienciación/fisiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Pruebas del Lenguaje , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje/fisiopatología , Alfabetización , Masculino , Fonética , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Resultado del Tratamiento , Escritura
14.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203562, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216358

RESUMEN

In the first years of life, children differ greatly from adults in the temporal organization of their speech gestures in fluent language production. However, dissent remains as to the maturational direction of such organization. The present study sheds new light on this process by tracking the development of anticipatory vowel-to-vowel coarticulation in a cross-sectional investigation of 62 German children (from 3.5 to 7 years of age) and 13 adults. It focuses on gestures of the tongue, a complex organ whose spatiotemporal control is indispensable for speech production. The goal of the study was threefold: 1) investigate whether children as well as adults initiate the articulation for a target vowel in advance of its acoustic onset, 2) test if the identity of the intervocalic consonant matters and finally, 3) describe age-related developments of these lingual coarticulatory patterns. To achieve this goal, ultrasound tongue imaging was used to record lingual movements and quantify changes in coarticulation degree as a function of consonantal context and age. Results from linear mixed effects models indicate that like adults, children initiate vowels' lingual gestures well ahead of their acoustic onset. Second, while the identity of the intervocalic consonant affects the degree of vocalic anticipation in adults, it does not in children at any age. Finally, the degree of vowel-to-vowel coarticulation is significantly higher in all cohorts of children than in adults. However, among children, a developmental decrease of vocalic coarticulation is only found for sequences including the alveolar stop /d/ which requires finer spatiotemporal coordination of the tongue's subparts compared to labial and velar stops. Altogether, results suggest greater gestural overlap in child than in adult speech and support the view of a non-uniform and protracted maturation of lingual coarticulation calling for thorough considerations of the articulatory intricacies from which subtle developmental differences may originate.


Asunto(s)
Gestos , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Habla , Acústica del Lenguaje , Medición de la Producción del Habla
15.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(9): 2205-2214, 2018 09 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208408

RESUMEN

Purpose: This study describes a phonetic complexity-based approach for speech intelligibility and articulatory precision testing using preliminary data from talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Method: Eight talkers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 8 healthy controls produced a list of 16 low and high complexity words. Sixty-four listeners judged the samples for intelligibility, and 2 trained listeners completed phoneme-level analysis to determine articulatory precision. To estimate percent intelligibility, listeners orthographically transcribed each word, and the transcriptions were scored as being either accurate or inaccurate. Percent articulatory precision was calculated based on the experienced listeners' judgments of phoneme distortions, deletions, additions, and/or substitutions for each word. Articulation errors were weighted based on the perceived impact on intelligibility to determine word-level precision. Results: Between-groups differences in word intelligibility and articulatory precision were significant at lower levels of phonetic complexity as dysarthria severity increased. Specifically, more severely impaired talkers showed significant reductions in word intelligibility and precision at both complexity levels, whereas those with milder speech impairments displayed intelligibility reductions only for more complex words. Articulatory precision was less sensitive to mild dysarthria compared to speech intelligibility for the proposed complexity-based approach. Conclusions: Considering phonetic complexity for dysarthria tests could result in more sensitive assessments for detecting and monitoring dysarthria progression.


Asunto(s)
Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/complicaciones , Disartria/diagnóstico , Fonética , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Inteligibilidad del Habla/fisiología , Anciano , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Disartria/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 70(3-4): 156-164, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157482

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the differences in perceptual ratings of mild and moderate dysphonia related to the speech task, and their impact on intrarater and interrater reliabilities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Voice recordings of 15 outpatients with mild or moderate dysphonia related to laryngopharyngeal reflux were presented to 6 female experienced judges blinded to the clinical state of the patients. From these, the GRBASI (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain, and Instability) evaluations were performed on connected speech and sustained vowel of the pretreatment voice recordings and absolute agreement, and both intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed. RESULTS: The average GRBASI scores were significantly worse when performed on sustained vowel. Intrarater reliability substantially varied according to the judge and the task. Good interrater reliability was broadly found for the evaluations of all GRBASI components irrespective of the speech task. Concerning agreement, we only found absolute agreement between judges for G and R items assessed on text. CONCLUSION: Average grade of perceptual voice impairment, intrarater reliability, and agreement vary according to the speech task.


Asunto(s)
Disfonía/diagnóstico , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Percepción del Habla , Adulto , Disfonía/etiología , Disfonía/psicología , Femenino , Ronquera/diagnóstico , Ronquera/etiología , Ronquera/psicología , Humanos , Juicio , Reflujo Laringofaríngeo/complicaciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Fonética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Calidad de la Voz , Adulto Joven
17.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 70(3-4): 138-148, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138930

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Speech impairment during the initial phase of removable partial denture (RPD) treatment can prevent patient adaptation to RPDs. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of oral morphology on speech production in subjects wearing RPDs with major connectors. METHODS: Two types of connectors were fabricated for 17 subjects with normal dentitions: covering the middle palate (M-bar) and the anterior/posterior palate (AP-bar). Four target sounds ([∫i], [t∫i], [çi], and [ki]) were evaluated under 3 recording conditions: no connector, M-bar, and AP-bar. The mean appearance ratios of correct labels (MARCs) were calculated as parameters representing speech production accuracy with the speech evaluation system. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on palate height, dental arch width, and front space volume of the oral cavity. RESULTS: Based on the multiple linear regression test, a significant association was found between the MARCs of [∫i] with M-bar and front space (p = 0.036). In the subgroup analysis, the AP-bar had a significant effect on the MARCs of [∫i] among subjects with high palate (p = 0.026), narrow arch (p = 0.004), and small front space (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: RPDs with major connectors could disturb speech production among patients with high palates, narrow arches, and small front spaces.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/etiología , Arco Dental/anatomía & histología , Diseño de Dentadura , Dentadura Parcial Removible , Paladar (Hueso)/anatomía & histología , Adulto , Antropometría , Dentadura Parcial Removible/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxilar , Persona de Mediana Edad , Espectrografía del Sonido , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Adulto Joven
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(8): 1907-1925, 2018 08 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073296

RESUMEN

Purpose: The function of child-directed speech has been debated for decades. This study examined the perceptual and acoustic characteristics of child- and adult-directed Cantonese tones to test the hyperarticulation and prosodic hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the acoustic modifications in child-directed speech. Method: Sixty-two mother-child dyads participated in the study. The mothers verbally labeled 30 pictures in monosyllabic isolated words and in the final position of a carrier sentence to the experimenter and their 1- to 5-year-old children. The 8,634 adult- and child-directed productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and presented to 5 judges for tone identification. Acoustic analysis was performed on the productions. Results: Acoustically, child-directed tones were produced with an elevated pitch, and the pitch level decreased as the child's age increased. Acoustic contrasts between phonetically similar and more confusing tones were not enhanced in child-directed speech, and unexpectedly, child-directed tones were identified with a lower accuracy than adult-directed tones. The perceptual errors of child-directed tones mirrored the errors found in identifying tones excised from sentence-final position, which had a pitch-lowering effect on the tones. The lower perceptual accuracy, the lack of enhanced acoustic contrasts in confusing tone pairs, and the similarities in the error patterns in identifying tones in child-directed speech and tones in utterance-final position suggest that the acoustic modifications in child-directed tones are prosodic effects serving pragmatic purposes. Conclusion: The findings reject the hyperarticulation hypothesis and support the prosodic hypothesis of child-directed speech.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/psicología , Lenguaje Infantil , Fonética , Acústica del Lenguaje , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Adulto , Preescolar , Femenino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Lactante , Lenguaje , Masculino , Madres , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla
19.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 32(11): 1027-1041, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969299

RESUMEN

Children's speech difficulties can be motor (phone misarticulation) or linguistic (impaired knowledge of phonological contrasts and constraints). These two difficulties sometimes co-occur. This paper reports longitudinal data from the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS) at 4 and 7 years of age. Of 1494 participants, 93 made non-age appropriate speech errors on standardised assessments at 4 years, and were able to be reassessed at 7 years. At 4 years, 85% of these children only made phonological errors, 14% made both articulation and phonological errors and one child only made articulation errors (a lateral lisp). In total, 8 of 13 children making both articulation and phonological errors at 4 years had resolved by 7 years. Unexpectedly, eight children who had demonstrated articulation of fricatives at 4 years, acquired distorted production of ≥ 50% of occurrences of/s, z/ by 7 years. In total, then, 22 children (24% of children with speech difficulties) made articulatory errors at one or both assessments. Case data for all children are presented. Theoretical and clinical implications are considered.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación , Desarrollo Infantil , Fonética , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Medición de la Producción del Habla , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino
20.
J Craniofac Surg ; 29(6): 1480-1485, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052607

RESUMEN

The most frequent palate diagnoses in patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are a classic submucous cleft, occult, and velopharyngeal insufficiency without cleft, which generates alterations in speech that require surgery. Surgical protocols are controversial owing to syndrome characteristics that make their handling more complex. Pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty is effective for this type of patient. The objective of this study is to examine the surgical management of velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with chromosome 22 deletion, using a pharyngeal flap as the primary surgery. The clinical records of patients with chromosome 22 deletion and velopharyngeal insufficiency between 2015 and 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Eight patients underwent pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty as a primary surgery, including 1 with velopharyngeal insufficiency without a cleft, 1 with a classic submucous cleft, and 6 with occult submucous cleft. The pre- and postoperative protocol performed by speech therapists and surgeons included clinical evaluation of the oral cavity; perceptual, video recording, and nasometry speech evaluation; and videonasopharyngoscopy. All perceptual parameters and nasometry results significantly changed. Of the cases, 88% achieved a flap with the expected width and height and complete closure of the velopharyngeal sphincter. One patient required flap revision. Four of the 8 patients achieved normal resonance, and 2 of 8 showed mild hypernasality. Using the pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty as a primary technique to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with chromosome 22 deletion provides satisfactory outcomes and decreases the number of surgeries. Preoperative planning must be conducted carefully and needs to be individualized to be successful.


Asunto(s)
Fisura del Paladar , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Faringe/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Insuficiencia Velofaríngea , Adulto , Niño , Cromosomas Humanos Par 22/genética , Fisura del Paladar/diagnóstico , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatología , Síndrome de DiGeorge/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Planificación de Atención al Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Habla , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla/métodos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Insuficiencia Velofaríngea/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Velofaríngea/genética , Insuficiencia Velofaríngea/cirugía , Esfínter Velofaríngeo/fisiopatología , Grabación en Video
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