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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 323-326, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187940

RESUMEN

To conduct outbreak identification and transmission factor analysis of typhoid epidemic occurred in Xinqiao town, Jiangyin city from June to September 2016. A total of 14 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from confirmed cases were collected, and 65 external environment samples and 13 food samples related to the outbreak were taken. Real-time PCR was used to detect specific gene of Salmonella typhi in the samples. Conventional method was used to isolate strains. The strains isolated from both the samples and patients in the epidemic were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PFGE molecular characteristics. Salmonella typhi strain was isolated from one external sample (well water of a deli processing plant). The results of drug susceptibility showed that 15 strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. A total of 15 strains of Salmonella typhi were divided into 2 molecular patterns by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The fingerprints of PFGE from the 13 patients and the environmental isolate were completely consistent, and there was one band difference from the other patient isolate. Combined with the epidemiological investigation and laboratory test results, it was determined that the outbreak was caused by genetic clone of the same Salmonella typhi. Food processing plant should be one of the key links.


Asunto(s)
ADN Bacteriano/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Epidemias , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella typhi/genética , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , China/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Electroforesis en Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Salmonella enterica/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella typhi/clasificación , Salmonella typhi/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella typhi/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Tifoidea/diagnóstico , Fiebre Tifoidea/tratamiento farmacológico , Fiebre Tifoidea/microbiología
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 241, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189082

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to assess and monitor the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial metabolites from marine sponge-associated bacteria collected from the southeast coast of India against multidrug-resistant clinical bacterial isolates. Five sponge samples were collected and the metabolite-producing bacteria were screened from the Gulf of Mannar, India, and their antibacterial potential was studied against drug-resistant clinical bacterial isolates obtained from the hospitals. The two metabolite-producing bacteria (IS1 and IS2) were characterized by standard microbiology protocols and 16S rRNA sequencing. The antibacterial metabolites were characterized by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis. The study suggested that marine sponges such as Spheciospongia spp., Haliclona spp., Mycale spp., Tedania spp., and SS-01 were associated with 30 ± 2, 26 ± 2, 23 ± 3, 21 ± 2, and 20 ± 2% of antibacterial metabolite-producing bacteria, respectively. The LCMS analysis of metabolites extracted from IS1 (4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinamine; 4,5-dimethyl-2-propylsilyl-1H-imidazole) and IS2 (caproyl amide, 2-imidazoline) associated with Spheciospongia spp. exhibited significant antibacterial properties against drug-resistant bacteria. IS1 showed antimicrobial potential against the clinical isolates of Proteus spp., and IS2 showed antibacterial potential against isolates of both Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhi. IS1 and IS2 were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and designated as Klebsiella spp. DSCE-bt01 and Pseudomonas spp. DSCE-bt02, respectively. The current study concluded that the assessment and monitoring of novel isolates from sponge-associated bacteria from marine coastal areas probably offer latest breakthrough in curtailing the global antimicrobial resistance and the study of such ecosystems adds value addition to the searching of novel bioactive compounds from terrestrial ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Poríferos , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Animales , Antibacterianos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , India , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Filogenia , Poríferos/microbiología
3.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(3): 234-241, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164095

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the use of multiplex PCR amplicon sequencing (mPCR-NGS) technology in detecting gene mutations related to drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, and to explore its clinical value in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods: Fifty clinical MTB strains isolated in the Changping District Tuberculosis Control Institute of Beijing from April 2013 to October 2015 with drug susceptibility test (DST) results of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, ofloxacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and amikacin available were recovered, including 42 drug-resistant strains and 8 drug-sensitive strains. The mPCR-NGS test was established to detect genes related to the 8 anti-tuberculosis drugs according to the previously published studies and databases. Fifty-five paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from drug-resistant tuberculosis patients were collected in the Department of Pathology, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University during November 2017 to September 2018. All the specimens showed no less than one mutation in the gene regions related to drug resistance of any of the 4 drugs (rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol or fluoroquinolones) by probe melting curve assay. The effectiveness of mPCR-NGS test was evaluated on clinical MTB isolates using phenotypic DST as the reference. Clinical evaluation of mPCR-NGS test on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from TB patients was performed using probe melting curve assay as the reference. The sensitivity, specificity and coincidence of mPCR-NGS were analyzed. Results: Using phenotypic DST as the reference, the sensitivities of the mPCR-NGS for detecting drug-resistance of rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin, and ethambutol were 95% (38/40), 93% (27/29), 93% (27/29), and 72% (13/18), respectively; and the specificities were 100% (10/10), 95% (20/21), 100% (21/21), and 94% (30/32), respectively. The sensitivities for capreomycin, kanamycin and amikacin were all 100% (2/2, 3/3, 3/3), and the specificities were 98% (47/48), 100% (33/33) and 100% (47/47), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ofloxacin were 70% (7/10) and 100% (40/40), respectively. The total coincidence rate for the 8vdrugs was 94%, and the Kappa value was 0.87. The 55 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens included in this study were all tested by probe melting curve assays. Among them 28 were resistant to rifampicin, 37 resistant to isoniazid, 13 resistant to ethambutol, and 17 resistant to fluoroquinolones. Using the probe melting curve assay as the reference, the sensitivities of the mPCR-NGS for detecting resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and fluoroquinolones were 100% (28/28), 95% (35/37), 100%, and 100%, respectively; and the specificities were all 100% (42/42, 38/38). The total coincidence rate of the two methods was 99%, and the Kappa value was 0.98. Conclusions: mPCR-NGS showed good sensitivities and specificities in detecting drug-resistant gene mutations both in clinical MTB isolates and paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. mPCR-NGS has the potential to be an accurate and rapid molecular pathological technology for diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mutación , Adhesión en Parafina , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19466, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150105

RESUMEN

Multidrug-resistant bacterial (MDRB) infections have been difficult to treat clinically. Tigecycline (TIG) has several advantages, especially in the treatment of severe infections. Many clinicians have considered increasing the TIG dose to improve the efficacy of this molecule. The safety and efficacy of high-dose TIG in elderly patients with MDRB infections were investigated in this study.We conducted a retrospective analysis of the elderly patients with MDRB infections who were treated at the First Affiliated Hospital. A total of 106 patients received a conventional dose (CD-TIG group: 50 mg every 12 hours) of TIG and 51 received a high dose (HD-TIG group: 100 mg every 12 hours). The data from all patients were collected for examining the clinical features and performing the microbiological analysis. The safety profile and efficacy of the HD regimen were investigated.The clinical efficacy and microbiological eradication in the patients with MDRB infection were higher in the HD-TIG group than the CD-TIG group. The independent predictors of clinical cure were the use of TIG at HD (odd ratio [OR], 5.129; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.890, 13.921]; P = .001) and microbiological eradication (OR, 3.049; 95% CI, [1.251, 7.430]; P = .014). In the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bloodstream infection (BSI) subgroups, the sole independent predictor of clinical cure was the HD of TIG, and no significant adverse events were observed. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection and an MIC value of 1 to 2 g/mL for TIG were independently associated with clinical failure in the VAP subgroup.HDs of TIG was found to associate with better clinical efficacy and microbiological eradication than its CDs in the elderly patients with MDRB infections. In the VAP and BSIs subgroups, administration of HDs of TIG was associated with better outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Acinetobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/tratamiento farmacológico , Tigeciclina/uso terapéutico , APACHE , Acinetobacter baumannii/efectos de los fármacos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tigeciclina/administración & dosificación , Tigeciclina/farmacología , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114974

RESUMEN

The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2018, there were 9,006 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. This was the highest annual total of isolates tested since the inception of the AGSP. The current treatment recommendation for gonorrhoea, for the majority of Australia, remains dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ≥0.06 mg/L) was found nationally in 1.73% of isolates. The highest proportions were reported from Tasmania and non-remote Western Australia (7.3% and 2.1% respectively). In 2018 two extensively drug-resistant isolates were reported from Queensland patients. These two isolates, with ceftriaxone MIC values of 0.50 mg/L, high-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L), and resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin were identified and reported to the World Health Organization as isolates of international significance. Resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥1.0 mg/L) was found nationally in 6.2% of isolates, lower than the 9.3% reported in 2017, but more than double the proportion reported in 2015 (2.6%). The highest proportions were reported from the Australian Capital Territory (8.7%), Victoria (8.3%), and New South Wales (6.5%). High-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was reported in nine isolates nationally in 2018: four from New South Wales, three from Victoria, and two from Queensland. The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin in non-remote Australia ranged from 8.8% in non-remote Northern Territory to 44.1% in South Australia. In remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.9%), and higher in remote Western Australia (6.5%). The proportion of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin in non-remote Australia ranged from 10.3% in non-remote Northern Territory to 48.3% in South Australia. Ciprofloxacin resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote Northern Territory (1.9%) and remote Western Australia (4.6%).


Asunto(s)
Gonorrea/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Australia/epidemiología , Territorio de la Capital Australiana , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapéutico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Northern Territory/epidemiología , Resistencia a las Penicilinas , Penicilinas/uso terapéutico , Queensland/epidemiología , Australia del Sur/epidemiología , Tasmania/epidemiología , Victoria/epidemiología , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
6.
J Water Health ; 18(1): 67-76, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129188

RESUMEN

Urban river pollution by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria constitutes an important public health concern. Epidemiologically important strains of MDR Escherichia coli transmissible at the human-animal-environment interfaces are especially worrying. Quantifying and characterizing MDR E. coli at a molecular level is thus imperative for understanding its epidemiology in natural environments and its role in the spread of resistance in precise geographical areas. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli was characterized along the watercourse of the major urban river in Quito. Our results showed high quantities of cefotaxime-resistant E. coli (2.7 × 103-5.4 × 105 CFU/100 mL). The antimicrobial resistance index (ARI) revealed the exposure of the river to antibiotic contamination, and the multiple antibiotic resistance index indicated a high risk of contamination. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was the most prevalent in our samples. Isolates also had class 1 integrons carrying aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and folate pathway inhibitors. The isolates belonged to phylogroups A, B1 and D. Clonal complex 10 was found to be the most prevalent (ST10, ST44 and ST 167), followed by ST162, ST394 and ST46. Our study provides a warning about the high potential of the major urban river in Quito for spreading the epidemiologically important MDR E. coli.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Escherichia coli , Ríos/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos , Ecuador , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Microbiología del Agua
7.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(3): 59-63, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138486

RESUMEN

Introduction: Doxycycline acts against a broad range of gram-positive, gramnegative and 'atypical' bacteria as well as some protozoan pathogens such as malaria. In this era of increasing multidrug-resistance, recycling of old antimicrobials should be considered and need more focus in this domain of research. We, therefore, aimed to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of commonly isolated pathogens against doxycycline, azithromycin, cefuroxime, and amoxicillin from common clinical specimens by using laboratory-based diagnostic data from western India. Materials and Methods: The non-interventional retrospective study was conducted on secondary data extracted from multi-center diagnostic laboratory based in Mumbai, India. Susceptibility data of bacteria isolated from blood, urine, pus, and sputum were used in the study and culture positive samples were segregated. Antimicrobial susceptibility status of doxycycline was checked and compared with azithromycin, cefuroxime, and amoxicillin. Chi-square tests of significance were carried out to assess significant differences in susceptibility patterns. Association between variables was considered statistically significant if the p-value was <0.05. Results: Percentage susceptibility of collective bacterial isolates was found to be highest for doxycycline in all four specimens (93.1%). Individual percentage susceptibility was observed to be highest for sputum isolates (97.5%) followed by blood (93.8%), pus (92.7%) and urine (70.0%). The activity of doxycycline was found to be 93.5% for the samples resistant to azithromycin. Doxycycline also showed good susceptibility for the isolates resistant to amoxicillin and cefuroxime which was 75.9% and 64.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Several bacterial isolates from all four sources were found to be susceptible to Doxycycline. It has an important role in the form of a better alternative of major antimicrobial agents like azithromycin, cefuroxime, and amoxicillin against gram-positive cocci. Doxycycline appeared to show better activity against isolates which were resistant to other three antimicrobials.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Amoxicilina/farmacología , Azitromicina/farmacología , Cefuroxima/farmacología , Doxiciclina/farmacología , India , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(2): 18-20, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122094

RESUMEN

Hospital antibiograms, because they are typically derived from samples obtained from hospitalized patients, may overestimate the prevalence of methicillin resistance in S. aureus in individuals presenting to the hospital for surgery. Because hospital antibiograms are commonly used to justify empiric perioperative prophylactic antibiotic selection prior to surgery, this may lead to unnecessary treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics such as vancomycin. In a single-institution study, we observed that in our hospital antibiogram the proportion of S. aureus that are methicillin-resistant (MRSA) was significantly higher (45%) than isolates in preoperative nasal cultures obtained at the same hospital in outpatients prior to their lower extremity joint replacement surgery (13%): mean difference 0.32, [95% CI 0.25, 0.39], p <0.0001. These data suggest that hospital antibiograms may overstate the true prevalence of MRSA in those at risk for MRSA surgical site infections who present from the outpatient setting.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Portador Sano/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Cavidad Nasal/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistencia a la Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Periodo Preoperatorio , Prevalencia , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus/clasificación , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos
9.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(2): 24-27, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122096

RESUMEN

C. difficile is a complication of antibiotic therapy. Certain antibiotics are associated with a higher rate of developing C. difficile. The charts of 54 patients with nosocomial C. difficile were reviewed and very few had received a high-risk antibiotic. Seven (13%) of 54 patients had not received any antibiotics in the hospital prior to the positive stool test for C. difficile. Moreover, 6 of the 7 had no documentation of receiving an antibiotic in the 56 days prior to admission suggesting that they might be colonized with C. difficile.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Clostridium/tratamiento farmacológico , Clostridium difficile/efectos de los fármacos , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Prescripción Inadecuada/efectos adversos , Pacientes Internos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Clostridium/epidemiología , Clostridium difficile/aislamiento & purificación , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Incidencia , Pacientes Internos/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rhode Island/epidemiología
10.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(3): 50, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157464

RESUMEN

Despite the deep knowledge of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) gut microbiome, information on the microbial communities of other hive components is still scarce. Propolis originates from a natural resinous mixture that honeybees collect from different plants sources and modify; it is used mainly to ensure the hygiene of the hive. By virtue of its antimicrobial properties, propolis has been considered relatively aseptic, yet its ability to harbor microorganisms has not been previously investigated. In this study we report the first description of the diversity of the microbial community of propolis by both targeted-metagenomics analysis and cultivation. We demonstrated that propolis hosts a variety of microbial strains belonging to taxa already described in other hive components. Some of them are cultivable in standard laboratory conditions, and show metabolic characteristics compatible with their persistence in different physiological states inside propolis. Isolated bacteria produce antimicrobials against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and entomopathogenic fungi, with different spectra of inhibition. Metagenomics analysis shows the presence of bacteria and fungi with great potential to outcompete potentially harmful microorganisms. These findings suggest that the characterized microbiota could contribute to the overall antimicrobial properties of propolis and to its ecological role as "disinfectant" within the hive.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/clasificación , Hongos/clasificación , Microbiota , Própolis/farmacología , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Abejas , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Filogenia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19494, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176090

RESUMEN

As detection rates of non-albicans Candida species are increasing, determining their pathogen profiles and antifungal susceptibilities is important for antifungal treatment selection. We identified the antifungal susceptibility patterns and predictive factors for mortality in candidemia.A multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with at least 1 blood culture positive for Candida species was conducted. Candida species were classified into 3 groups (group A, Candia albicans; group B, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parasilosis; group C, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei ) to analyze the susceptibility patterns, first-line antifungal administered, and mortality. Univariate and multivariate comparisons between outcomes were performed to identify mortality risk factors.In total, 317 patients were identified, and 136 (42.9%) had recorded mortality. Echinocandin susceptibility was higher for group A than group B (111/111 [100%] vs 77/94 [81.9%], P < .001). Moreover, group A demonstrated higher fluconazole susceptibility (144/149 [96.6%] vs 39/55 [70.9%], P < .001) and lower mortality (68 [45.3%] vs 34 [61.8%], P = .036) than those of group C. In the multivariate analysis, the sequential organ failure assessment score (odds ratio OR 1.351, 95% confidence interval 1.067-1.711, p = 0.013) and positive blood culture on day 7 of hospitalization (odds ratio 5.506, 95% confidence interval, 1.697-17.860, P = .004) were associated with a higher risk of mortality.Patients with higher sequential organ failure assessment scores and sustained positive blood cultures have an increased risk of mortality.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Candida/efectos de los fármacos , Candidemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Farmacorresistencia Fúngica , Fluconazol/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Candidemia/mortalidad , Femenino , Fluconazol/farmacología , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , República de Corea , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178604

RESUMEN

From 1 January to 31 December 2018, thirty-six institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2018 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant isolates. A total of 2,673 S. aureus bacteraemia episodes were reported, of which 78.9% were community-onset. A total of 17.4% of S. aureus isolates were methicillin resistant. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 17.1% which was not significantly higher than the 13.6% mortality associated with methicillin-susceptible SAB (p = 0.1). With the exception of the ß-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus was rare. However in addition to the ß-lactams approximately 42% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin, 36% to ciprofloxacin and approximately 13% resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. When applying the EUCAST breakpoints teicoplanin resistance was detected in two S. aureus isolates. Resistance was not detected for vancomycin and linezolid. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials was largely attributable to two healthcare-associated MRSA clones: ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). The ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) clone is the predominant healthcare-associated clone in Australia. Seventy-eight percent of methicillin-resistant SAB episodes in 2018 were due to community-associated clones. Although polyclonal, approximately 76.3% of community-associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA), ST5-IV [2B], ST45-VT [5C2&5], ST1-IV [2B], ST30-IV [2B], ST78-IV [2B] and ST97-IV [2B]. Community-associated MRSA, in particular the ST45-VT [5C2&5] clone, has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. The ST45-VT [5C2&5] clone accounted for 11.7% of CA-MRSA. As CA-MRSA is well established in the Australian community, it is important that antimicrobial resistance patterns in community- and healthcare-associated SAB are monitored, as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Sepsis , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Australia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Resistencia a la Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Epidemiología Molecular , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/etiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/complicaciones , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos
13.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190214, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049200

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors in Candida albicans isolates from patients with onychomycosis and determine the correlation between these factors and the antifungal resistance profile. METHODS: Seventy species of C. albicans were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HWP1 gene. According to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, the susceptibility profile of four antifungal agents was investigated, and the production of aspartyl protease, phospholipase, haemolysin, and biofilm was determined. The correlation between these profiles was also investigated. RESULTS: The isolates indicated different levels of resistance and production of virulence factors. Significant correlations were observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole/itraconazole and biofilm production, between phospholipase production and fluconazole/itraconazole MIC, and between fluconazole MIC and hemolytic activity in C. albicans isolates. The results also showed significant correlations between phospholipase activity and biofilm production. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. albicans and characterize the relationship between virulence factors and antifungal resistance, which may suggest new therapeutic strategies considering the possible involvement of the virulence mechanism in the effectiveness of treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/farmacología , Candida albicans/patogenicidad , Uñas/microbiología , Onicomicosis/microbiología , Factores de Virulencia , Proteasas de Ácido Aspártico/biosíntesis , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Candida albicans/ultraestructura , Farmacorresistencia Fúngica , Hemólisis , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Fosfolipasas/biosíntesis , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190429, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049204

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most encountered infections in the world. METHODS: This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility, phylogeny, and virulence genes of 153 Escherichia coli strains isolated from UTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to different classes of antimicrobials was determined by the VITEK-2 automated system. Presence of virulence genes and phylogenetic groups were investigated by PCR. RESULTS: Regarding susceptibility to antimicrobials, ampicillin resistance was most abundant (67.3%), followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50.9%); least abundant was resistance to amikacin (1.3%) and nitrofurantoin (1.3%). Multi drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 34.6% of the isolates, and all isolates were found to be susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and fosfomycine. The majority of the isolates belonged to the phylogenetic group B23 (35.9%), followed by A1 (20.9%), D1 (18.9%), D2 (12.4%), A0 (%5.9), B1 (3.9%) and B2 (1.9%). Among E. coli strains examined, 49% had iucD, 32.7% papE-F, 26.1% papC, 15% cnf2, 11.1% sfa, 7.8% cnf1, 1.3% afaE, 1.3% afaD, 1.3% hlyA, 0.7% f17a-A, 0.7% clpG and 0.7% eaeA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our research demonstrated that virulence factors were distributed among different phylogroup/subgroups, which play a role in UTIs pathogenesis in humans. For this reason, complex and detailed studies are required to determine the relationship between virulence factors and specific E. coli strains that cause UTIs in humans.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecciones Urinarias/microbiología , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Genotipo , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , ARN Ribosómico 16S
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e18570, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049777

RESUMEN

Acute conjunctivitis is inflammation of conjunctiva of less than 3 to 4 weeks duration, characterized by cellular infiltration and exudation. It may also result into corneal, lid or orbital involvement which may lead to various complications.A hospital based prospective study was conducted in Assam Medical College and Hospital with 110 culture proven acute bacterial conjunctivitis cases. Primary objective was to evaluate the bacteriological pattern and secondary objectives were to evaluate seasonal variation, association of different organisms with various complications and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates.Maximum frequency of bacterial conjunctivitis observed from May to September. SA was the predominant organism isolated throughout the year (32.1%). Commonest single organism isolates were SE (26.1%) and SA (21.6%). True membrane formation was significantly associated with CD (P < .05), whereas pseudo-membrane formation was associated with SA and STBH isolation (P < .05). Isolation of SE, SA, and PA was associated with corneal involvement (P < .05). Lid involvement was seen with SA and Diphtheroid, whereas SP isolation was associated with concomitant dacryocystitis (P < .05). All the major organisms were (SE, SA, D, STBH, SP) highly sensitive to amino-glycosides, cephalosporins, chloromphenicol, vancomycin and linezolid, whereas high level of resistance was seen towards fluroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin).All acute bacterial conjunctivitis cases don't require antibiotic therapy. In case if required, periodical culture and sensitivity may guide initial pre-emptive antibiotic therapy. Further choice of antibiotic should be govern by culture and sensitivity status.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Conjuntivitis Bacteriana/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Niño , Preescolar , Conjuntivitis Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Transversales , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 320-331, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037975

RESUMEN

Background: Multidrug-resistant bacteria, especially those with high virulence, are an emerging problem in clinical settings.Methods: We conducted a multicentre epidemiological and comparative genomic analysis on the evolution, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in patients with bacterial liver abscesses from 2012 to 2016.Results: A total of 477 bacterial isolates were collected. Enterobacteriaceae were the main pathogen (89.3%) with K. pneumoniae (52.4%) predominating followed by Escherichia coli (26.8%). All CRKps (3.2%) were of sequence type (ST) 11 and serotypes K47 or K64, and simultaneously possessed acquired blaKPC-2/blaKPC-5 and blaCTX-M-65 together with the multidrug transporter EmrE. Seven Hv-CRKps (five ST11-K47, two ST11-K64) were confirmed by bacteriological test, neutrophil killing assay and Galleria mellonella infection model. Genomic analysis indicated that the emergence of one ST11-K64 Hv-CRKp strain was related to the acquisition of rmpA/rmpA2 genes and siderophore gene clusters, while ST11-K47 Hv-CRKp lacked these traditional virulence genes. Further complete genome analysis of one ST11-K47 Hv-CRKp strain, R16, showed that it acquired a rare plasmid (pR16-Hv-CRKp1) carrying blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-65, rmtB and a predicted virulence gene R16_5486 simultaneously.Conclusion: The emergence of the ST11-K47/K64 Hv-CRKps, which are simultaneously multidrug-resistant and hypervirulent, requires urgent control measures to be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Enterobacteriaceae Resistentes a los Carbapenémicos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Klebsiella/microbiología , Klebsiella pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Absceso Hepático/microbiología , Anciano , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae Resistentes a los Carbapenémicos/clasificación , China , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Femenino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/clasificación , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Plásmidos/genética , Serogrupo , Virulencia
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2418-2425, 2020 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011876

RESUMEN

Two biosynthetically related new metabolites, eucalyptacid A (1) and eucalactam B (2), along with six known compounds (3-8), eugenitol (3), cytosporone C (4), 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol (5), 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-diol (6), N-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)acetamide (7), and phomopene (8), were isolated from the solid rice cultures of the endophytic fungus Diaporthe eucalyptorum KY-9 that had been isolated from Melia azedarach. Also, two further new derivatives (2a, 2b) were prepared from 2. The structures were elucidated by exhaustive analysis of NMR and ESIMS data and chemical methods such as Marfey's protocol. Compound 1 was identified as a rare polyketide fatty acid, (8E)-3,5,11-trihydroxy-2,10,12-trimethyltetradecenoic acid, and 2 was determined to be the first cyclic depsipeptide containing the same fatty acid unit as 1 and a Gly-Gly-Thr tripeptide chain. Its N-terminal end is N-acylated by an 11-hydroxy fatty acid with a branch alkyl chain of 14:1. The 11-hydroxyl group connects to the carboxylic group of the C-terminal amino acid to form a 22-membered lactone ring. A hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for the new polyketides is proposed. The isolated compounds were assayed for their inhibition against four plant pathogenic fungi, Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani, and Gibberella saubinettii. Compounds 1, 4, 6, and 7 exhibited antifungal activities against Alternaria solani, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 6.25 to 50 µM. Thus, strain KY-9 represents an untapped source for the development of biological control agents to prevent the infection of pathogenic fungus A. solani.


Asunto(s)
Fungicidas Industriales/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriales/farmacología , Melia azedarach/microbiología , Saccharomycetales/química , Alternaria/efectos de los fármacos , Alternaria/crecimiento & desarrollo , Botrytis/efectos de los fármacos , Botrytis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fungicidas Industriales/química , Fungicidas Industriales/aislamiento & purificación , Fusarium/efectos de los fármacos , Fusarium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Saccharomycetales/aislamiento & purificación , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo
20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111806, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044619

RESUMEN

The cotton fabrics are a cosmopolitan in usage due to their extraordinary features. The clothes are a very good medium for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The nanoparticles have diverse benefits in the biomedical field like drug carrier and as antimicrobials. The current investigation was aimed to synthesize the metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the aqueous extract of Curcuma longa leaf and evaluating their antimicrobial and wound healing potential of AgNPs coated cotton fabric. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by HR-TEM and FT-IR examinations. The formulated AgNPs were coated with cotton fabrics to test their efficiency against the pathogenic microorganisms. The existence of AgNPs in the cotton fabrics was confirmed via the SEM along with EDX analysis. The antimicrobial potential of fabricated AgNPs and its coated cotton fabrics was inspected against the human pathogenic strains. The wound healing efficacy was examined in the L929 cells. The HR-TEM analysis proved the existence of spherical shaped AgNPs. In the antimicrobial activity, the CL-AgNPs loaded cotton fabric was exhibited an appreciable decrease in the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The crude extract, as well as formulated AgNPs, also exhibited the noticeable antimicrobial potency against the S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, S.pyogenes, and C.albicans. The AgNPs loaded cotton fabrics was displayed the potent wound healing activity in the fibroblast (L929) cells. Consequently, it was concluded that the formulated AgNPs from C.longa coated cotton fabrics may be utilized for the variety of applications in hospital patients and even medical workers to prevent the microbial infection.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Fibra de Algodón/análisis , Curcuma/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/química , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Curcuma/metabolismo , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Tecnología Química Verde , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Ratones , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
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