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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130831, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403999

RESUMEN

This research aimed to apply nanotechnology for nanoformulation of Laurus nobilis essential oil (EO) by ultrasonic emulsification method and characterization of nano-form: particle size, viscosity, polydispersity index, thermodynamic stability, and surface tension. The antimicrobial activity of laurel EO nanoemulsion (LEON) and laurel EO was also investigated against a panel of ten food-borne pathogens and fish spoilage bacteria. The GC-MS analysis of EO revealed that 1,8-Cineole was the main volatile compound. According to disc-diffusion results, LEON was more effective against Gram-positive pathogen bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis than EO. Laurel oil demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect against fish spoilage bacteria (6.19 to 18.5 mm). The MICs values of LEON and laurel EO ranged from 6.25 to >25 mg/mL and from 1.56 to >25 mg/mL, respectively. Nanoemulsion and oil exhibited the best bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas luteola. Therefore, LEON can be developed as a natural antimicrobial agent in food industry.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Aceites Volátiles , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Pseudomonas , Sesquiterpenos
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 36-46, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374347

RESUMEN

Background: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem. Recently, the occurrence of CPE has increased globally, but epidemiological patterns vary across region. We report the trends in the genotypic distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of CPE isolated from rectal and clinical samples during a four-year period. Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2019, 1,254 nonduplicated CPE isolates were obtained from four university hospitals in Korea. Carbapenemase genotypes were determined by multiplex real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was profiled using the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO, USA) or MicroScan Walkaway-96 system (Siemens West Sacramento, CA, USA). The proportions of carbapenemase genotypes and nonsusceptibility were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Among the 1,254 CPE isolates, 486 (38.8%), 371 (29.6%), 357 (28.5%), 8 (0.6%), 8 (0.6%), and 24 (1.9%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), oxacillinase (OXA)-48-like, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase (VIM), and multiple producers, respectively. The predominant species was K. pneumoniae (72.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (6.5%). More than 90% of the isolates harboring KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems. Conclusions: The impact of CPE is primarily due to KPC-, NDM-, and OXA-48-like-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Isolates carrying these carbapenemase are mostly multidrug-resistant. Control strategies based on these genotypic distributions and antimicrobial susceptibilities of CPE isolates are required.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Enterobacteriaceae Resistentes a los Carbapenémicos , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiología , Genotipo , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , República de Corea , beta-Lactamasas/genética
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130608, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454799

RESUMEN

Hydrochar of waste walnut shells (WSH) was synthesized in the eco-friendly subcritical water medium (SWM) and its potential to fight against Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) was investigated. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the WSH were 3.01 g/mL, 2.06 g/mL, 1.95 g/mL, and 3.12 g/mL for K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, respectively. Survival of the pathogens was investigated by 3 min surface disinfection test exposure to WSH. While the highest inhibition was seen for C. parapsilosis (96.67%) on paper surface with 0.3 g/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the lowest inhibition was determined for C. albicans (6.44%) on the plastic glass surface with 3 g/mL of BSA. An increase in protein, DNA, and potassium ion (K+) leakage was observed after microorganisms were incubated with WSH. This study provided an experimental basis for the practical application of WSH as a natural sanitizer agent.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Juglans , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Candida albicans , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109473, 2022 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768041

RESUMEN

The epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork have been widely studied in China, but the results remain inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from pork, including its prevalence, serovar distribution, and antibiotic resistance rate. We systematically reviewed published studies on Salmonella spp. isolated from pork in China between 2000 and 2020 in two Chinese and three English databases and quantitatively summarized its prevalence, serovar distribution, and antibiotic resistance using meta-analysis methods. Furthermore, we conducted subgroup analysis and meta-regression to explore the source of the heterogeneity from historical changes and regional difference perspectives. Ninety-one eligible studies published between 2000 and 2020 were included. The meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of Salmonella isolated from pork was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.20), with a detected growing trend over time. For the proportions of serovars, Derby (0.32, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.38), Typhimurium (0.10, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.15) and London (0.05, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.08) were dominant in these studies. The antibiotic resistance rates were high for tetracycline (0.68, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.77), sulfisoxazole (0.65, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.83), ampicillin (0.43, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.53), streptomycin (0.42, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.56), and sulfamethoxazole (0.42, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60). The results of this study revealed a high prevalence, the regional characteristics of serovar distribution, and the severe challenges of antibiotic resistance of Salmonella originating from pork in China, suggesting the potential increasing risk and disease burden. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the prevention and control strategies of Salmonella in pork.


Asunto(s)
Carne de Cerdo , Carne Roja , Animales , China/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Prevalencia , Salmonella , Serogrupo , Porcinos
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 1-5, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580009

RESUMEN

The Urogenital Sub-committee and the Surveillance Committee of the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology conducted the second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis. In this second surveillance study, clinical urethral discharge specimens were collected from patients with urethritis in 26 hospitals and clinics from May 2016 to July 2017. Based on serial cultures, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) could be determined for 41 isolates; the MICs (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sitafloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and solithromycin were 2 µg/ml (2 µg/ml), 1 µg/ml (0.5 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.25 µg/ml), 0.125 µg/ml (0.063 µg/ml), 0.125 µg/ml (0.125 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.25 µg/ml), 0.031 µg/ml (0.031 µg/ml), 0.25 µg/ml (0.125 µg/ml), and 0.016 µg/ml (0.008 µg/ml), respectively. In summary, this surveillance project did not identify any strains resistant to fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, or macrolide agents in Japan. In addition, the MIC of solithromycin was favorable and lower than that of other antimicrobial agents. However, the MIC of azithromycin had a slightly higher value than that reported in the first surveillance report, though this might be within the acceptable margin of error. Therefore, the susceptibility of azithromycin, especially, should be monitored henceforth.


Asunto(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis , Uretritis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Azitromicina/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Uretritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Uretritis/epidemiología
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 29-34, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674944

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: As a newly emerging pathogen, Candida auris has spread rapidly and caused a serious invasive infection. Candida auris often appeared high resistance to classical antifungal drugs. Drug combination therapy is emerging as an effective and well-established strategy to relieve drug resistance problems. The objective of present work was to examine the activity of fluconazole in combination with chlorhexidine acetate against Candida auris isolates. METHODS: Antiplanktonic activity was studied using the EUCAST methodology and growth curve assay. Antibiofilm effectiveness was determined by the crystal violet method, checkerboard microdilution assay, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The results indicated that the 80% minimal inhibitory concentrations for fluconazole alone against Candida auris were 2-32 mg/L and for chlorhexidine acetate were 2-8 mg/L. The combination of fluconazole with chlorhexidine acetate exhibited synergism with the growth curve assay. In addition, the checkerboard microdilution assay presented that fluconazole was strongly synergistic with chlorhexidine acetate (sFICI <0.1875) in inhibiting the growth of Candida auris biofilms. The scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy further exhibited the alteration of morphology of the cells and architecture of the biofilms. CONCLUSION: The combination therapy of fluconazole and chlorhexidine acetate provides a new potential strategy for the treatment of clinical Candida auris infection.


Asunto(s)
Candida , Fluconazol , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Biopelículas , Candidiasis Invasiva , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Fluconazol/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Suspensiones
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150000, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517324

RESUMEN

Klebsiella spp. are ubiquitous bacteria capable of colonizing humans and animals, and sometimes leading to severe infections in both. Due to their high adaptability against environmental/synthetic conditions as well as their potential in aquiring antimicrobial/metal/biocide resistance determinants, Klebsiella spp. are recognized as an emerging threat to public health, worldwide. Currently, scarce information on the impact of livestock for the spread of pathogenic Klebsiella spp. is available. Thus, the phenotypic and genotypic properties of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing, and colistin-resistant Klebsiella strains (n = 185) from process- and wastewater of two poultry and pig slaughterhouses as well as their receiving municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs) were studied to determine the diversity of isolates that might be introduced into the food-production chain or that are released into the environment by surviving the wastewater treatment. Selectively-isolated Klebsiella spp. from slaughterhouses including effluents and receiving waterbodies of mWWTPs were assigned to various lineages, including high-risk clones involved in human outbreaks, and exhibited highly heterogeneous antibiotic-resistance patterns. While isolates originating from poultry slaughterhouses showed the highest rate of colistin resistance (32.4%, 23/71), carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. were only detected in mWWTP samples (n = 76). The highest diversity of resistance genes (n = 77) was detected in Klebsiella spp. from mWWTPs, followed by isolates from pig (n = 56) and poultry slaughterhouses (n = 52). Interestingly, no carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected and mobile colistin resistance genes were only obeserved in isolates from poultry and pig slaughterhouses. Our study provides in-depth information into the clonality of livestock-associated Klebsiella spp. and their determinants involved in antimicrobial resistance and virulence development. On the basis of their pathogenic potential and clinical importance there is a potential risk of colonization and/or infection of wildlife, livestock and humans exposed to contaminated food and/or surface waters.


Asunto(s)
Colistina , Klebsiella , Mataderos , Animales , Antibacterianos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Porcinos , Aguas Residuales , beta-Lactamasas
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 87-90, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535403

RESUMEN

We describe a case of a 48 years old male with left sided endocarditis and septic emboli secondary to a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain that developed resistance to other ß-lactam antibiotics during therapy resulting in prolonged bacteremia. Blood cultures sterilized within 1 day of initiating ceftolozane/tazobactam 3 g every 8 hours in combination with ciprofloxacin. Steady state free ceftolozane plasma Cmax and Cmin concentrations were calculated to be 122.2µg/mL and 24.3µg/mL, respectively. The multidrug-resistant strain harbored chromosomal ß-lactamases OXA-486 and PDC-3, mutations in ampD and dacB predicted to lead to ampC over-expression, and mutations in OprD predicted to decrease outer membrane permeability. Following completion of a 42 day course and aortic valve replacement, the patient was deemed clinically cured without recurrence of infection at follow up 2 years later. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case to measure ceftolozane concentrations during the treatment of endocarditis which supports dose optimization approaches of severe endovascular disease due to multidrug resistant pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Endocarditis , Infecciones por Pseudomonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapéutico , Endocarditis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ácido Penicilánico , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Tazobactam/uso terapéutico
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 844, 2021 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802420

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is one of the deadliest disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its treatment still becomes a burden for many countries including Indonesia. Drug resistance is one of the problems in TB treatment. However, a development in the molecular field through Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can be used as a solution in detecting mutations associated with TB- drugs. This investigation intended to implement this data for supporting the scientific community in deeply understanding any TB epidemiology and evolution in Papua along with detecting any mutations in genes associated with TB-Drugs. RESULT: A whole-genome sequencing was performed on the random samples from TB Referral Laboratory in Papua utilizing MiSeq 600 cycle Reagent Kit (V3). Furthermore, TBProfiler was used for genome analysis, RAST Server was employed for annotation, while Gview server was applied for BLAST genome mapping and a Microscope server was implemented for Regions of Genomic Plasticity (RGP). The largest genome of M. tuberculosis obtained was at the size of 4,396,040 bp with subsystems number at 309 and the number of coding sequences at 4326. One sample (TB751) contained one RGP. The drug resistance analysis revealed that several mutations associated with TB-drug resistance existed. In details, mutations of rpoB gene which were identified as S450L, D435Y, H445Y, L430P, and Q432K had caused the reduced effectiveness of rifampicin; while the mutases in katG (S315T), kasA (312S), inhA (I21V), and Rv1482c-fabG1 (C-15 T) genes had contributed to the resistance in isoniazid. In streptomycin, the resistance was triggered by the mutations in rpsL (K43R) and rrs (A514C, A514T) genes, and, in Amikacin, its resistance was led by mutations in rrs (A514C) gene. Additionally, in Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide, their reduced effectiveness was provoked by embB gene mutases (M306L, M306V, D1024N) and pncA (W119R). CONCLUSIONS: The results from whole-genome sequencing of TB clinical sample in Papua, Indonesia could contribute to the surveillance of TB-drug resistance. In the drug resistance profile, there were 15 Multi Drugs Resistance (MDR) samples. However, Extensively Drug-resistant (XDR) samples have not been found, but samples were resistant to only Amikacin, a second-line drug.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Indonesia , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mutación , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/genética
10.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(6): 664-e174, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796563

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Topical treatments can be beneficial for managing canine superficial pyoderma. A novel antiseptic agent, olanexidine gluconate, has become available recently for use in humans, and its efficacy for canine pyoderma as topical therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial effect of olanexidine was evaluated using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) towards Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Furthermore, its clinical efficacy in canine superficial pyoderma was assessed in a randomized, single-blinded study. ANIMALS: Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The MIC of olanexidine was determined for S. pseudintermedius isolates (n=73) by serial dilution of 96-well broth microdilution method. Regarding the clinical trial, all recruited dogs were randomized into two groups; one treated with 1.5% olanexidine spray once daily and the other with a 3% chlorhexidine shampoo once a week for 2 times, respectively. Clinical assessment was performed at days 0 and 14 according to the guidelines of the Japanese Society of Antimicrobials for Animals. RESULTS: The MIC values for methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and methicillin-sensitive S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) were 0.23 µg/ml and 0.24 µg/ml (P =0.9), respectively. In clinical trial, olanexidine and chlorhexidine showed substantial improvement in clinical presentation compared to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Olanexidine showed comparable efficacy to chlorhexidine (P=0.73). Moreover, the MIC against S. pseudintermedius indicated high bactericidal activity, which was supported by the topical effectiveness of olanexidine.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Piodermia , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Biguanidas , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Glucuronatos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Piodermia/tratamiento farmacológico , Piodermia/veterinaria , Staphylococcus
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1129, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724923

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We describe the serotype distribution of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) carriage isolates from women in labor and among GBS isolates causing invasive infections during the same period to see if the distribution of carriage serotypes reflects the GBS serotypes causing invasive diseases including early-onset disease (EOGBS). METHODS: Data on invasive isolates from 2019 including serotype, erythromycin and clindamycin susceptibility was retrieved from the Danish national reference laboratory, Statens Serum Institut. Carriage isolates were collected from women with risk factors for EOGBS enrolled at delivery at the maternity ward at a Danish University Hospital, first half of 2019. RESULTS: Among carriage isolates, the dominant serotype was IX (21 %) followed by serotype III (19 %). The resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 21 and 26 %, respectively. Among invasive GBS isolates, no case of EOGBS with serotype IX was detected but the distribution of serotypes were otherwise similar to the GBS carrier strains. The corresponding resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 23 and 15 %, respectively. Penicillin resistance was not detected among carriage nor invasive isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of serotypes among carriage and invasive GBS reflects the assumption that EOGBS occur following transmission of GBS from mother to newborn, with the exception of serotype IX.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Factores de Riesgo , Serogrupo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología
12.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3539-3546, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739805

RESUMEN

We have developed a simple, robust environment-friendly and efficient method for ZnO nanoparticles biosynthesis using Dalbergia sissoo fresh leaf extract. Before using these nanoparticles for antimicrobial assay, a detailed characterization was performed using techniques like Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Particle size analysis (PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM),Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) etc. The average size of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles was around 30 nm and they were pure and crystalline by nature. The effectiveness of these biosynthesized nanoparticles were checked against both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes. A total of eight bacterial strains-Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus entericus, Bacillus cereus, Pantoea cypripedii and three fungal strains-Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger and Aspergilus flavus were studied to have a clear view of the spectrum of ZnO nanoparticles anti-microbial activity. The effectiveness of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles against the microbes was found to be better than the standard reference antibiotics used (streptomycin, chloramphenicol and rifampicin). The results seem to be very promising and can be used for some practical applications of ZnO nanoparticles in nearfuture.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Nanopartículas del Metal , Óxido de Zinc , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Aspergillus/efectos de los fármacos , Bacillus/efectos de los fármacos , Candida/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Pantoea/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Streptococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Difracción de Rayos X , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología
13.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3580-3587, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739810

RESUMEN

The study focused on the medicinal properties of citrus fruits and their ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. As the resistance against the modern antibiotic agents is on increase, finding new and effective natural antibiotic agents is the need of the modern era. Similarly, bio-synthesis of nanoparticles is also being encouraged for eco-friendly reasons. Due to remarkable medicinal and industrial applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), citrus fruit juice is used to reduce silver ions for the green synthesis of AgNPs. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various constituents which impart antibacterial property to citrus fruits, analyzed against four pathogenic bacteria. Also, citrus fruit juice exhibits radical scavenging activity because of these constituents. Further, the AgNPs synthesized using citrus fruits were characterized using Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to study the shape and size of the AgNPs. Anticancer activity of AgNPs was also evaluated against Colo-205 cell lines and found to inhibit 37.9% growth of cell lines at the concentration of 10 µg/ml. Hence, synthesized AgNPs can be used effectively against cancer cell lines in combination with other anti-cancer agents.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Citrus , Nanopartículas del Metal , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Frutas , Tecnología Química Verde , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plata/farmacología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
14.
New Microbiol ; 44(3): 187-190, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783352

RESUMEN

The aim of the study is to characterize 28 Escherichia coli carbapenem-resistant strains isolated from multi-resistant screening. All the strains were tested through CARBA NP test and PCR analysis for molecular characterization of carbapenemase. Plasmid characterization and phylogenetic study was performed. The molecular characterization revealed that 24 of 28 strains harbour carbapenemases. The most involved plasmids are FIA, FIB, FIIS and FrepB replicons that belong to the IncF group. The phylo-typing analysis revealed a greater presence of the B2 group. Carbapenem resistance in E. coli, should be constantly monitored to avoid the onset of new epidemic episodes.


Asunto(s)
Carbapenémicos , Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Carbapenémicos/farmacología , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Filogenia , Plásmidos , beta-Lactamasas/genética
15.
Nanoscale ; 13(44): 18632-18646, 2021 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734624

RESUMEN

We report a one-pot facile synthesis of highly photoresponsive bovine serum albumin (BSA) templated bismuth-copper sulfide nanocomposites (BSA-BiZ/CuxS NCs, where BiZ represents in situ formed Bi2S3 and bismuth oxysulfides (BOS)). As-formed surface vacancies and BiZ/CuxS heterojunctions impart superior catalytic, photodynamic and photothermal properties. Upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, the BSA-BiZ/CuxS NCs exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, not only against standard multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains but also against clinically isolated MDR bacteria and their associated biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BSA-BiZ/CuxS NCs is 14-fold lower than that of BSA-CuxS NCs because their multiple heterojunctions and vacancies facilitated an amplified phototherapeutic response. As-prepared BSA-BiZ/CuxS NCs exhibited substantial biofilm inhibition (90%) and eradication (>75%) efficiency under NIR irradiation. Furthermore, MRSA-infected diabetic mice were immensely treated with BSA-BiZ/CuxS NCs coupled with NIR irradiation by destroying the mature biofilm on the wound site, which accelerated the wound healing process via collagen synthesis and epithelialization. We demonstrate that BSA-BiZ/CuxS NCs with superior antimicrobial activity and high biocompatibility hold great potential as an effective photosensitive agent for the treatment of biofilm-associated infections.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Biopelículas , Catálisis , Ratones , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
16.
Indian J Med Res ; 154(1): 85-89, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782533

RESUMEN

Background & objectives: Linezolid (LZD) is increasingly being used in tuberculosis (TB) treatment. However, LZD resistance has already been reported, which is highly alarming, given its critical therapeutic role. This study was aimed to phenotypically and genotypically assess LZD resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates at a laboratory in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai, India. Methods: A sample of 32 consecutive LZD-resistant MTB isolates identified by liquid culture susceptibility testing was subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on the Illumina NextSeq platform. Sequences were analyzed using BioNumerics software to predict resistance for 12 antibiotics within 15 min. Results: Sixty eight of the 2179 isolates tested for LZD resistance by MGIT-based susceptibility testing (June 2015 to June 2016) were LZD-resistant. Thirty two consecutive LZD-resistant isolates were analyzed by WGS to screen for known mutations conferring LZD resistance. WGS of 32 phenotypically LZD-resistant isolates showed that C154R in the rplC gene and G2814T in the rrl gene were the major resistance determinants. Interpretation & conclusions: LZD resistance poses an important risk to the success of treatment regimens, especially those designed for resistant isolates; such regimens are extensively used in India. As LZD-containing regimens increase in prominence, it is important to support clinical decision-making with an improved understanding of the common mutations conferring LZD resistance and their frequency in different settings.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Linezolid/farmacología , Linezolid/uso terapéutico , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mutación , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/genética
17.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(6): 718-727, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751185

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused multiple challenges to ICUs, including an increased rate of secondary infections, mostly caused by Gram-negative micro-organisms. Worrying trends of resistance acquisition complicate this picture. We provide a review of the latest evidence to guide management of patients with septic shock because of Gram-negative bacteria. RECENT FINDINGS: New laboratory techniques to detect pathogens and specific resistance patterns from the initial culture are available. Those may assist decreasing the time to adequate antimicrobial therapy and avoid unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse. New antimicrobials, including ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations, such as ceftolozane-tazobactam, imipenem-relebactam or meropenem-vaborbactam and cephalosporins, such as cefiderocol targeted to specific pathogens and resistance patterns are available for use in the clinical setting. Optimization of antibiotic dosing and delivery should follow pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles and wherever available therapeutic drug monitoring. Management of sepsis has brought capillary refill time back to the spotlight along with more reasoned fluid resuscitation and a moderate approach to timing of dialysis initiation. SUMMARY: Novel rapid diagnostic tests and antimicrobials specifically targeted to Gram-negative pathogens are available and should be used within the principles of antimicrobial stewardship including de-escalation and short duration of antimicrobial therapy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Choque Séptico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Cefalosporinas , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Bacterias Gramnegativas , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque Séptico/tratamiento farmacológico
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1156, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major cause of bacterial meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia in children. Inappropriate choice of antibiotic can have important adverse consequences for both the individual and the community. Here, we focused on penicillin/cefotaxime non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae and evaluated appropriateness of targeted antibiotic therapy for children with IPD (invasive pneumococcal diseases) in China. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 14 hospitals from 13 provinces in China. Antibiotics prescription, clinical features and resistance patterns of IPD cases from January 2012 to December 2017 were collected. Appropriateness of targeted antibiotics therapy was assessed. RESULTS: 806 IPD cases were collected. The non-susceptibility rates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and cefotaxime were 40.9% and 20.7% respectively in 492 non-meningitis cases, whereas those were 73.2% and 43.0% respectively in 314 meningitis cases. Carbapenems were used in 21.3% of non-meningitis cases and 42.0% of meningitis cases for targeted therapy. For 390 non-meningitis cases with isolates susceptible to cefotaxime, vancomycin and linezolid were used in 17.9% and 8.7% of cases respectively for targeted therapy. For 179 meningitis cases with isolates susceptible to cefotaxime, vancomycin and linezolid were prescribed in 55.3% and 15.6% of cases respectively. Overall, inappropriate targeted therapies were identified in 361 (44.8%) of 806 IPD cases, including 232 (28.8%) cases with inappropriate use of carbapenems, 169 (21.0%) cases with inappropriate use of vancomycin and 62 (7.7%) cases with inappropriate use of linezolid. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic regimens for IPD definite therapy were often excessive with extensive prescription of carbapenems, vancomycin or linezolid in China. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should be implemented to improve antimicrobial use.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Infecciones Neumocócicas , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Niño , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Neumocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Prescripciones , Estudios Retrospectivos
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 413, 2021 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776013

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine at two distinct time points the prevalence of resistance to ofloxacin (OFX), the representative class drug of fluoroquinolones (FQs), in M. tuberculosis isolates susceptible to first-line drugs. RESULTS: There were 279 M. tuberculosis isolates from the two cohorts (2004-2005: 238 isolates; 2017: 41 isolates) that underwent OFX drug-susceptibility testing (critical concentration: 2 µg/ml). Of 238 isolates in Cohort 1, no resistance to OFX was detected (95% CI 0-0.016); likewise, in Cohort 2, no resistance to OFX was detected in 41 isolates (95% CI 0-0.086). Our findings suggest that FQ use remains a viable option for the treatment of first-line drug-susceptible TB in Peru.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Tuberculosis , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Humanos , Levofloxacino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Moxifloxacino , Perú/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología
20.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755820

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES: To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS: Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS: Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cryptococcus neoformans , Malaria , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2
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