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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1087-1105, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994974

RESUMEN

Discorre-se sobre o desenvolvimento brasileiro da psicologia do trabalho e das organizações, com o foco na sua formação pós-graduada e produção científica. Inicia-se pela demarcação conceitual. Na seção subsequente, argumenta-se a favor da relação entre o crescimento e a diversificação da subárea e também a expansão da pós-graduação no Brasil. Segue um panorama das revisões de literatura nacionais, visando ressaltar a diversidade na prática de pesquisa. Finaliza-se com considerações sobre os desafios para alcançar níveis mais elevados de amadurecimento científico.(AU)


This article aims to describe the Brazilian development of work and organizational psychology, with a focus on its graduate training and scientific production. It begins by defining concepts. The following section argues in favor of the relationship between growth and diversification of the subarea and the expansion of graduate programs in Brazil. An overview of the national scientific reviews follows, in order to mark the diversity in research practices. Finally, the chapter discusses challenges to achieve higher levels of scientific maturity.(AU)


Se aborda el desarrollo brasileño de la psicología del trabajo y de las organizaciones, con el foco en su formación en el posgrado y producción científica. Se inicia por la demarcación conceptual. En la sección posterior, se argumenta a favor de la relación entre el crecimiento y la diversificación del sub-área y también la expansión del posgrado en el Brasil. Se propone un panorama de las revisiones de literatura nacionales, con vistas a resaltar la diversidad en la práctica de investigación. Se concluye con consideraciones sobre los desafíos para alcanzar niveles más elevados de madurez científica.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Psicología , Educación de Postgrado , Psicología Aplicada , Investigación , Investigación Científica y Desarrollo Tecnológico , Métodos
2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1137-1154, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994979

RESUMEN

Apresenta-se um panorama da Neuropsicologia brasileira, enfocando sua inserção no país, caracterizando o momento atual e desafios à sua consolidação. Aborda-se a trajetória da Neuropsicologia, traçando-se cinco períodos que a caracterizam, bem como sua trajetória nacional. A Neuropsicologia brasileira assiste à sofisticação da neuroimagem e ao avanço da pesquisa e interesse na área, à criação de entidades representativas, ao crescente número de publicações, grupos de pesquisa e de cursos de pós-graduação, ao desenvolvimento de instrumentos brasileiros e à ampliação da normatização e validação de instrumentos estrangeiros. Apesar desses avanços, ressalta-se a necessidade de constituir uma Neuropsicologia brasileira, sintonizada com os desafios de um país diverso, que contribua com políticas públicas, produza conhecimentos que atinjam diferentes populações e contribua para a diminuição das desigualdades sociais.(AU)


This paper aims to present an overview of Brazilian neuropsychology, focusing on the way the discipline was brought to Brazil, the present panorama of the discipline, and the challenges related to its consolidation. This article addresses the historical course of Neuropsychology, mapping the five distinct periods that characterized its history, as well as its national course. Brazilian neuropsychology is currently aided by the sophistication of neuroimaging techniques, the advancement in research and the interest in the area, as well as the creation of representative professional associations, the growing number of publications, research groups and graduate courses, the development of Brazilian instruments and the increase in standardization and validation of foreign instruments. Despite these advances, it is necessary to emphasize the need to make a Brazilian Neuropsychology, in tune with the challenges that come from a diverse country, one which contributes with public policies, produces knowledge that reaches different peoples and contributes towards reducing social inequalities.(AU)


Este artículo presenta un panorama de la Neuropsicología en Brasil, enfocándose en su inserción en el país, caracterizando el momento actual y los desafíos a su consolidación. Aborda la historia de la Neuropsicología, trazando los cinco períodos que la caracterizan y su trayectoria nacional. La Neuropsicología brasileña presencia la sofisticación de las técnicas de neuroimagen y el avance de la investigación y el interés de los estudiantes y profesionales, así como la creación de órganos representativos, el creciente número de grupos de investigación, cursos postgrado y publicaciones, el desarrollo de instrumentos brasileños de evaluación neuropsicológica y la estandarización de los procesos y validación de instrumentos extranjeros. A pesar de esos avances, se destaca la necesidad de establecer una Neuropsicología brasileña, en sintonía con desafíos y urgencias de un país diverso, que contribuya con políticas públicas, produzca y ponga en práctica conocimientos que alcancen diferentes poblaciones y contribuya con la reducción de las desigualdades sociales.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psicología Aplicada , Neuropsicología , Investigación , Brasil , Neuroimagen/psicología , Historia
3.
J Appl Psychol ; 104(6): 727-754, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640492

RESUMEN

The attention paid to intraindividual phenomena in applied psychology has rapidly increased during the last two decades. However, the design characteristics of studies using daily experience sampling methods and the proportion of within-person variance in the measures employed in these studies vary substantially. This raises a critical question yet to be addressed: are differences in the proportion of variance attributable to within- versus between-person factors dependent on construct-, measure-, design-, and/or sample-related characteristics? A multilevel analysis based on 1,051,808 within-person observations reported in 222 intraindividual empirical studies indicated that decisions about what to study (construct type), how to study it (measurement and design characteristics), and from whom to obtain the data (sample characteristics) predicted the proportion of variance attributable to within-person factors. We conclude with implications and recommendations for those conducting and reviewing applied intraindividual research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Investigación Conductal/normas , Variación Biológica Individual , Psicología Aplicada/normas , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Humanos , Análisis Multinivel
4.
J Appl Psychol ; 104(4): 593-602, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321030

RESUMEN

Dominance analysis (DA) has been established as a useful tool for practitioners and researchers to identify the relative importance of predictors in a linear regression. This article examines the joint impact of two common and pervasive artifacts-sampling error variance and measurement unreliability-on the accuracy of DA. We present Monte Carlo simulations that detail the decrease in the accuracy of DA in the presence of these artifacts, highlighting the practical extent of the inferential mistakes that can be made. Then, we detail and provide a user-friendly program in R (R Core Team, 2017) for estimating the effects of sampling error variance and unreliability on DA. Finally, by way of a detailed example, we provide specific recommendations for how researchers and practitioners should more appropriately interpret and report results of DA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Investigación Conductal/métodos , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Modelos Estadísticos , Método de Montecarlo , Psicología Aplicada/métodos , Adulto , Investigación Conductal/normas , Humanos , Psicología Aplicada/normas , Sesgo de Selección
5.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 36: e180139, 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039868

RESUMEN

Close to two million people currently work in Brazil's road transport sector, the country's leading logistical area. Most are self-employed individuals. The objective of this research project was to garner an understanding of the perceptions that Brazilian truck drivers hold regarding themselves. Eight experienced drivers were interviewed, starting from the question â"What is it like being a truck driver in Brazil?", and their responses were analyzed in accordance with social discourse studies. Five main categories - with specific subdivisions - were identified, relating to motivations to work in this area, contextual elements, and positive, group, and negative self-image. It is concluded that self-stereotypes play an important role in maintaining the situation of disadvantage and precarious working conditions that affect truck drivers.


Atualmente cerca de dois milhões de trabalhadores estão envolvidos com o transporte rodoviário, a principal modalidade logística do Brasil, sendo a maioria deles, autônomos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo compreender a percepção que os caminhoneiros brasileiros têm de si próprios. Oito condutores experientes foram entrevistados a partir da questão "como é ser caminhoneiro no Brasil?" e seus depoimentos foram analisados de acordo com a investigação social de discurso. Cinco categorias principais foram encontradas, com subdivisões específicas, relacionadas com motivações para o trabalho, elementos contextuais, autoimagem positiva, grupal e negativa. Conclui-se que os autoestereótipos exercem importante papel na manutenção da situação de desvantagem e de precárias condições laborais deles.


Asunto(s)
Psicología Aplicada , Trabajo , Salud Mental , Carga de Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo
6.
Am Psychol ; 73(9): 1260-1262, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525817

RESUMEN

The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. The 2018 recipient is Gary W. Harper, "for his exceptional scholarship and leadership in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community-based HIV prevention interventions for youth broadly, and youth of color and LGBT youth specifically, whose psychosocial needs are often marginalized or approached from a narrowly focused perspective." Her award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Psicología Aplicada/historia , Infecciones por VIH/historia , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Sociedades Científicas , Estados Unidos
7.
Pap. psicol ; 39(3): 191-199, sept.-dic. 2018.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-180294

RESUMEN

Uno de los campos aplicados a los que más ha contribuido la ciencia psicológica es, sin lugar a dudas, el de la aviación. El análisis y estudio de los factores humanos constituye actualmente uno de los puntos fuertes en el sector aeronáutico de cara a la reducción de los accidentes aéreos. Desde su aparición en 1979, los programas de Gestión de Recursos de la Tripulación (CRM) han sido una de las herramientas que con mayor éxito han gestionado el denominado "error humano". El presente artículo realiza un breve recorrido por la historia de estos programas globales de entrenamiento que suponen uno de los grandes logros de la Psicología Aplicada


One of the applied fields to which psychological science has most contributed is, without doubt, aviation. The analysis and study of human factors is currently one of the strong points in the aeronautical sector in order to reduce accidents in aviation. Since its appearance in 1979, the Crew Resource Management (CRM) programs have been one of the most successful tools that have managed the so-called "human error". This paper makes a brief tour through the history of these global training programs that represent one of the great achievements of Applied Psychology


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Aviación/organización & administración , Accidentes de Aviación/psicología , Gestión de Recursos de Personal en Salud/métodos , Capacitación en Servicio , Psicología Aplicada/métodos , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Relaciones Interprofesionales
8.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(3): 873-890, set.-dez. 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-986485

RESUMEN

Este trabalho debruça-se sobre uma experiência clínica em psicologia a partir do estágio e acompanhamento de um caso clínico no Serviço de Psicologia Aplicada em uma universidade pública do Rio de Janeiro. Nosso principal objetivo é o mapeamento das redes de cuidado que suportam esse atendimento, utilizando para tal a Teoria Ator-Rede, tendo como fio condutor a Lógica do Cuidado proposta por Mol (2008). O caso descrito é narrado através de experiências vivenciadas pela cliente, que retratam diferentes redes onde essa cliente atuou. Compreendendo que o cuidado na psicoterapia individual não acontece exclusivamente na relação terapeuta-cliente, mas pode transbordar por outros espaços, buscamos realizar uma reflexão acerca das práticas de cuidado como um processo que acontece articulado a uma rede, incluindo humanos e não humanos. Nessa escrita, tangenciamos a formação em psicologia e alguns pressupostos da Gestalt-terapia, abordagem que orientou o referido atendimento clínico.(AU)


This work is about a clinical experience in psychology looking over the student's clinical practice and the follow-up of a clinical case at the Applied Psychology Service at a public university in Rio de Janeiro. Our main objective is the mapping of the care networks that supports this service, using for it the Actor-Network Theory, and having as a guiding thread the Logic of Care proposed by Mol (2008). The case described is narrated through the experiences lived by the client, which portrays different networks where this client acted. Understanding that care in individual psychotherapy does not happen exclusively in the therapist-client relationship, but may overflow through other spaces, we aim to do some reflections about the care practices as a process that happens linked to a network, including humans and not humans. In this writing, we touched the students training in psychology and some assumptions of Gestalt-therapy, a psychological approach that guided the aforementioned clinical case.(AU)


Este trabajo se centra en una experiencia clínica en psicología a partir del entrenamiento profesional de los alumnos y el seguimiento de un caso clínico en el Servicio de Psicología Aplicada en una universidad pública de Río de Janeiro. Nuestro principal objetivo consiste en el mapeo de las redes de cuidado que soportan esa atención, utilizando para ello la Teoría Actor-Red, teniendo como hilo conductor a la Lógica del Cuidado propuesta por Mol (2008). El caso descripto es narrado a través de experiencias vividas por la cliente, que retratan diferentes redes donde esa cliente actuó. Comprendiendo que el cuidado en la psicoterapia individual no ocurre exclusivamente en la relación terapeuta-cliente, sino que puede alcanzar otros espacios, buscamos realizar una reflexión acerca de las prácticas de cuidado como un proceso que ocurre articulado a una red, incluyendo humanos y no humanos. En esa escritura, rozamos la formación en psicología y algunos presupuestos de la terapia Gestalt, enfoque que orientó la referida atención clínica.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Psicología Social , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Terapia Gestalt , Psicología Aplicada , Informes de Casos , Empatía
9.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 70(3): 148-165, set./dez. 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-986269

RESUMEN

Este artigo problematiza o cargo de Psicólogo Policial, pioneiro na polícia civil do estado de Santa Catarina, dando ênfase a uma abordagem da Psicologia Social Jurídica neste campo. Esta perspectiva coloca ênfase nos direitos humanos, na comunidade, em aspectos de cidadania, prevenção e redução da judicialização das relações sociais. Neste contexto, devido a uma parceria da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) com a Secretaria de Segurança Pública do Estado de Santa Catarina, houve a inserção de estagiários de Psicologia nas Delegacias de Proteção à Criança, ao Adolescente, à Mulher e ao Idoso da região metropolitana da Grande Florianópolis. A partir das experiências destes estudantes, busca-se elucidar de que forma as práticas em uma organização como a delegacia especializada podem dialogar com a proposta de uma Psicologia Social Jurídica, utilizando gênero e violência como categorias de análise


This article problematizes the position of Police Psychologist, pioneer in the civil police of the province of Santa Catarina, focusing on the approach of a Legal Social Psychology in this field of action. This perspective places emphasis on human rights, on the community, on aspects of citizenship, prevention and reduction of the judicialization of social relations. As a result of an agreement between the University and the Secretary of Public Security of the State of Santa Catarina, interns from the bachelor in Psychology were placed in the commissariats for the Protection of children, adolescents, women and elderly of the metropolitan region of Florianópolis. From the experiences of these students, it is sought to clarify how the practices in an organization such as the specialized commissioner can dialogue with the proposal of a Legal Social Psychology, using gender and violence as categories of analysis


Este artículo problematiza el cargo de Psicólogo Policial, pionero en la policía civil de la provincia de Santa Catarina, centrándose en el abordaje de una Psicología Social Jurídica en este campo. Esta perspectiva coloca énfasis en los derechos humanos, en la comunidad, en aspectos de ciudadanía, prevención y reducción de la judicialización de las relaciones sociales. Resultante de un acuerdo entre la Universidad y la Secretaria de Seguridad Pública de la provincia de Santa Catarina, ha ocurrido la inserción de estudiantes de prácticas en Psicología en las comisarías de Protección al niño(a), al adolecente, a la mujer y al anciano(a) de la región metropolitana de Florianópolis. Este artículo problematiza el cargo de Psicólogo Policial, pionero en la policía civil del estado de Santa Catarina, dando énfasis a un abordaje de la Psicología Social Jurídica en este campo. Esta perspectiva pone énfasis en los derechos humanos, en la comunidad, en aspectos de ciudadanía, prevención y reducción de la judicialización de las relaciones sociales. En este contexto, debido a una asociación de la Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC con la Secretaría de Seguridad Pública del Estado de Santa Catarina, hubo la inserción de pasantes de Psicología en las Comisarías de Protección al Niño, al Adolescente, a la Mujer y al Anciano de la Mujer región metropolitana de la Gran Florianópolis. A partir de las experiencias de estos estudiantes, se busca dilucidar de qué forma las prácticas en una organización como la comisaría especializada pueden dialogar con la propuesta de una Psicología Social Jurídica, utilizando género y violencia como categorías de análisis


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psicología Aplicada , Derechos de la Mujer , Derechos de los Ancianos , Defensa del Niño , Protección Personal/políticas
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 74: 68-78, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630988

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present investigation was to systematically review randomized controlled trials examining the effects of psychological interventions on inflammatory biomarkers in adult populations and to quantitatively analyze those effects by meta-analysis. Two researchers independently searched key electronic databases, selected eligible publications, extracted data, and evaluated methodological quality. Nineteen randomized controlled trials examining a total of 1510 participants were included. The overall combined effect size from pre to post psychological intervention on pro-inflammatory biomarker levels was statistically significant, showing an attenuating effect, although of a small magnitude (s' g = 0.15, p = .008, CI [0.04-0.26]). However, this effect was not maintained into the follow-up period (g < -0.01, p = .964, CI [-0.19-0.18]). Looking at the individual biomarkers assessed across studies, only C-reactive protein (CRP) was found to significantly decrease following psychological intervention. A number of moderation analyses were conducted, none of which reached statistical significance. However, the numerically largest - and significant - within-group effect size was obtained for the group of studies that had preselected participants based on elevated psychological distress (g = 0.29, p = .047). In conclusion, psychological interventions appear efficacious in reducing pro-inflammatory biomarker levels. Future studies are recommended to carefully select individuals based on inflammatory (e.g., the presence of low-grade inflammation) and/or psychological (e.g., psychological distress) criteria.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/inmunología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Psicología Aplicada/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Citocinas/análisis , Humanos , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Inflamación/psicología , Salud Mental , Psicoterapia/métodos
11.
J Appl Psychol ; 103(4): 359-361, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658731

RESUMEN

The purpose of this editorial is to provide an update on recent, ongoing, and new practices the Journal of Applied Psychology has implemented to further support and enhance scientific rigor. In line with the previous editorial, the practices discussed in the following text broadly seek to enhance scientific rigor and transparency in the empirical research published by providing the reader sufficient information needed to verify the accuracy and validity of study findings and inferences and enable the accumulation of knowledge through replications and extensions of primary research as well as meta-analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/normas , Psicología Aplicada/normas , Investigación/normas , Humanos
12.
Pap. psicol ; 39(1): 22-30, ene.-abr. 2018.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-170720

RESUMEN

Parecería que el avance de la Psicología nos debería aumentar la confianza respecto a nuestras prácticas, sin embargo la proliferación de técnicas, protocolos, enfoques,… nos genera, más bien, una sensación de confusión; la duda sobre si quizás estamos en la opción correcta o nos estamos equivocando de paradigma terapéutico. Los metanálisis y revisiones sistemáticas procuran poner orden intentando averiguar qué terapias psicológicas son más efectivas. Sin embargo, los resultados no son concluyentes y más bien parecen indicar que ningún enfoque psicológico predomina sobre otro. Ante esta situación la pregunta que emerge es: ¿qué factores comparten las distintas técnicas que las convierte en eficaces? Son muchas las categorizaciones sobre factores comunes. En este artículo desvelaremos los 7 secretos mágicos (factores comunes) que consideramos clave para explicar la efectividad terapéutica. Esta clasificación no tiene ninguna pretensión más que provocar la reflexión (AU)


It would seem that the advancement of psychology should increase our confidence in our practices, however the proliferation of techniques, protocols, approaches, etc. gives us instead a sense of confusion. We have doubts as to whether we are in the correct therapeutic paradigm or not. Meta-analysis and systematic reviews attempt to create order, trying to determine which psychological therapies are most effective. Unfortunately, the results are inconclusive and seem to indicate that no one psychological approach prevails over the others. The question that emerges is: what factors do the different techniques share that make them effective? There are many categorizations concerning common factors. In this article we unveil the seven magic secrets (common factors) that we consider key in explaining therapeutic effectiveness. This classification has no claim other than to provoke reflection (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Rol Profesional/psicología , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/organización & administración , Evaluación de Eficacia-Efectividad de Intervenciones , Psicología Aplicada/organización & administración , Psicoterapia , Meditación/psicología , Psicoterapia Psicodinámica , Psicoterapia Psicodinámica/organización & administración , Placebos
13.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 109(1): 56-65, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318629

RESUMEN

Here I summarize John A. "Tony" Nevin's evolution as a translational author. All of his publications were classified by title and content as being primarily experimental analysis of behavior or translational. Translational works were subtyped as interpretative, descriptive research, or experimental research. During the first 20 years of his publication career, Tony published exclusively experimental analysis of behavior work. In 1982, he began a series of interpretative translational analyses on topics of significant social importance. These interpretative papers translated behavioral science into logical accounts of issues of war and peace, for example, and performed quantitative analyses of available data to show that social behavior, even at the level of the group or society, conforms to predictions based on established behavioral principles. Tony began experimental translational research in 1990, first to establish whether his analysis of behavioral momentum generalized to humans. Several experimental studies later addressed the persistence of clinically relevant behavior and treatment relapse. The objective descriptions of Tony's publication patterns are punctuated with anecdotes from our 32-year collaboration and friendship.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias de la Conducta/historia , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional/historia , Animales , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Psicología Aplicada/historia
14.
J Clin Psychol ; 74(3): 398-406, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685823

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Training in broad-based objective and projective personality assessments has been a mainstay of applied psychology. Stedman (2007) and Piotrowski (2015) have documented a decline in projective training during internship. This study investigated internship directors' current expectations regarding graduate school training with objective and projective instruments, their ratings of the importance of that training, and current training patterns with objective and projective instruments during internship. METHOD: Participants were 355 psychology internship programs, representing 46.1% of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers. RESULTS: Results indicated the following current internship training patterns: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (68% to 51%), Personality Assessment Inventory (59% to 25%), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (51% to 34%), Rorschach (35 to 26%), story telling (41% to 19%), sentence completion (41% to 18%), and drawings (36% to 9%). Adult program directors reported higher percentages for objective tests; child program directors reported higher percentages for projective tests. CONCLUSION: A decreased valuation of projective techniques is now typical of current internship training programs.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado/estadística & datos numéricos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Inventario de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Técnicas Proyectivas/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicología Aplicada/educación , Psicología Aplicada/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , MMPI/estadística & datos numéricos , Inventario Multiaxial Clínico de Millon/estadística & datos numéricos , Prueba de Rorschach/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Am Psychol ; 72(9): 970-972, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283650

RESUMEN

The Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training acknowledges psychologists who contribute to new teaching methods or solutions to learning problems through research findings or evidence-based practices. The 2017 recipient is James Wilcox Lichtenberg, whose scholarship has had "important impacts on the definition, training, and evaluation of professional practice." His award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Psicología Aplicada/educación , Psicología Aplicada/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Competencia Profesional , Estados Unidos
16.
Am Psychol ; 72(9): 978-980, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283654

RESUMEN

The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. The 2017 recipient is Cameron J. Camp, whose innovative programs have informed psychologists in working with dementia patients to improve their living skills and enhance their independence. Camp's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Psicología Aplicada/historia , Demencia/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Estados Unidos
17.
J Community Psychol ; 45(1): 100-116, 2017 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28839344

RESUMEN

This article evaluates how a plurality of research methods has served a research program that has functioned in a much-needed area of research: the role of housing and recovery residences in addiction recovery. The review focuses on one mutually supportive recovery residence model, called Oxford House, which represents more than 1,700 democratic, self-governing residences. To date, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the research methods used with Oxford House or any other recovery residence. In this article, research methods, including study designs and data analyses, are summarized for 114 peer-reviewed empirical studies that included data on Oxford Houses or Oxford House residents. This review of a pluralistic research program can inform community researchers about the value of recovery residences, the many ways in which recovery residences may be assessed, and the benefits of using multiple methods. Implications for future recovery residence research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Hogares para Grupos , Psicología Aplicada/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación , Humanos
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 47(8): 2348-2362, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502038

RESUMEN

Three promising investigative interview interventions were assessed in 270 children (age 6-11 years): 71 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 199 who were typically developing (TD). Children received 'Verbal Labels', 'Sketch Reinstatement of Context' or 'Registered Intermediary' interviews designed to improve interview performance without decreasing accuracy. Children with ASD showed no increases in the number of correct details recalled for any of the three interview types (compared to a Best-Practice police interview), whereas TD children showed significant improvements in the Registered Intermediary and Verbal Labels interviews. Findings suggested that children with ASD can perform as well as TD children in certain types of investigative interviews, but some expected benefits (e.g., of Registered Intermediaries) were not apparent in this study.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Recuerdo Mental , Psicología Aplicada/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicología Aplicada/métodos
19.
J Appl Psychol ; 102(7): 1022-1053, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333497

RESUMEN

We offer a four-category taxonomy of individual output distributions (i.e., distributions of cumulative results): (1) pure power law; (2) lognormal; (3) exponential tail (including exponential and power law with an exponential cutoff); and (4) symmetric or potentially symmetric (including normal, Poisson, and Weibull). The four categories are uniquely associated with mutually exclusive generative mechanisms: self-organized criticality, proportionate differentiation, incremental differentiation, and homogenization. We then introduce distribution pitting, a falsification-based method for comparing distributions to assess how well each one fits a given data set. In doing so, we also introduce decision rules to determine the likely dominant shape and generative mechanism among many that may operate concurrently. Next, we implement distribution pitting using 229 samples of individual output for several occupations (e.g., movie directors, writers, musicians, athletes, bank tellers, call center employees, grocery checkers, electrical fixture assemblers, and wirers). Results suggest that for 75% of our samples, exponential tail distributions and their generative mechanism (i.e., incremental differentiation) likely constitute the dominant distribution shape and explanation of nonnormally distributed individual output. This finding challenges past conclusions indicating the pervasiveness of other types of distributions and their generative mechanisms. Our results further contribute to theory by offering premises about the link between past and future individual output. For future research, our taxonomy and methodology can be used to pit distributions of other variables (e.g., organizational citizenship behaviors). Finally, we offer practical insights on how to increase overall individual output and produce more top performers. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicología Aplicada/métodos , Distribuciones Estadísticas , Humanos
20.
J Appl Psychol ; 102(3): 274-290, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150981

RESUMEN

We offer a critical review and synthesis of research methods in the first century of the Journal of Applied Psychology. We divide the chronology into 6 periods. The first emphasizes the first few issues of the journal, which, in many ways, set us on a methodological course that we sail to this day, and then takes us through the mid-1920s. The second is the period through World War II, in which we see the roots of modern methodological concepts and techniques, including a transition from a discovery orientation to a hypotheticodeductive model orientation. The third takes us through roughly 1970, a period in which many of our modern-day practices were formed, such as reliance on null hypothesis significance testing. The fourth, from 1970 through 1989, sees an emphasis on the development of measures of critical constructs. The fifth takes us into the present, which is marked by greater plurality regarding data-analytic approaches. Finally, we offer a glimpse of possible and, from our perspective, desirable futures regarding research methods. Specifically, we highlight the need to conduct replications; study the exceptional and not just the average; improve the quality of the review process, particularly regarding methodological issues; emphasize design and measurement issues; and build and test more specific theories. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Psicología Aplicada/métodos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Psicología Aplicada/historia
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