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1.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 251-266, July-Dec. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019284

RESUMEN

Abstract The analyzes carried out by Michel Foucault in the mid-1970s show the emergence of a disciplinary power in the West and the figure of the "mentally weak" in the educational field. This panorama drives the appearance of various theoretical elaborations and intervention modalities called by the author "psi function", which in the case of childhood reaches a remarkable productivity in France at the beginning of the 20th century. This article takes up these issues in order to investigate, in the case of Chile, the deployment of the psychological knowledge and practices that deal with those children who, for various reasons, fail to adapt to the rules imposed by the school system. A historiographic method was used, through the work of archiving and using primary sources with a complement of secondary sources. Among the findings, the crucial contributions of Wilhelm Mann, a German pedagogue and a pioneer figure of psychology in Chile regarding abnormal childhood at the beginning of the 20th century are analyzed. Based on this, a part of his production is explored and analyzed to illuminate the way in which Mann introduces himself into European institutional debates and models and begins to think about an intervention modality on children at the local level.


Resumo As análises realizadas por Michel Foucault até meados da década de 1970 tratam do surgimento de um poder disciplinar no ocidente e da figura do "débil mental" no contexto educativo. Esse panorama impulsiona a aparição de diversas elaborações teóricas e modalidades de intervenção denominadas pelo autor como "função psi", que, no caso da infância, alcança uma notável produtividade na França do início do século XX. O presente artigo retoma essas questões com o objetivo de indagar, no caso do Chile, o desdobramento desses saberes e práticas psicológicas que se ocupam daquelas crianças que, por diferentes motivos, não conseguem se adaptar às normas impostas pelo dispositivo escolar. Utilizou-se um método de tipo historiográfico, por meio do trabalho de arquivo e uso de fontes primárias com um complemento de fontes secundárias. Entre as descobertas, analisam-se as colaborações cruciais de Wilhelm Mann, pedagogo alemão e figura pioneira da psicologia no Chile, com respeito à infância anormal no início do século XX. Com isso, uma parte de sua produção é explorada e analisada para iluminar o modo em que Mann se introduz nos debates e nos modelos institucionais europeus e começa a pensar em uma modalidade de intervenção sobre a infância em um contexto local.


Resumen Los análisis realizados por Michel Foucault hacia mediados de la década de 1970 dan cuenta del surgimiento de un poder disciplinario en occidente y de la figura del "débil mental" en el ámbito educativo. Este panorama impulsa la aparición de diversas elaboraciones teóricas y modalidades de intervención denominadas por el autor como "función psi", que en el caso de la infancia alcanza una notable productividad en la Francia de comienzos del siglo XX. El presente artículo retoma estas cuestiones con el fin de indagar, en el caso de Chile, el despliegue de esos saberes y prácticas psicológicas que se ocupan de aquellos niños que, por motivos diversos, no logran adaptarse a las normas que impone el dispositivo escolar. Se utilizó un método de tipo historiográfico, mediante el trabajo de archivo y uso de fuentes primarias con un complemento de fuentes secundarias. Entre los hallazgos, se analizan los cruciales aportes de Wilhelm Mann, pedagogo alemán y figura pionera de la psicología en Chile, respecto de la infancia anormal a comienzos del siglo XX. Con esto, se explora y analiza una parte de su producción para iluminar el modo en que Mann se introduce en los debates y los modelos institucionales europeos y comienza a pensar una modalidad de intervención sobre la infancia a nivel local.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Psicología Experimental , Enseñanza , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil , Cognición
2.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(4): 1213-1237, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037605

RESUMEN

Although virtual reality (VR) is a promising tool for the investigation of episodic memory phenomena, to date there has been relatively little examination of how learning mechanisms operate in VR and how these processes might compare (or contrast) with learning that occurs in real life. Moreover, the existing literature on this topic is spread across several disciplines and uses various distinct apparatuses, thus obscuring whether the differences that exist between studies might be due to genuine theoretical discrepancies or may be more simply explained by accounting for methodological variations. The current review is designed to address and elucidate several issues relevant to psychological researchers interested in understanding and/or using this technological approach to study episodic memory phenomena. The principle objectives of the review are as follows: (a) defining and discussing the various VR systems currently used for research purposes, (b) compiling research of episodic memory effects in VR as they have been studied across several disciplines, and (c) surveying major topics in this body of literature (e.g., how virtual immersion has an impact on memory; transfer effects from VR to the real world). The content of this review is designed to serve as a resource for psychologists interested in learning more about the current state of research in this field and is intended to highlight the capabilities (and constraints) associated with using this technological approach in episodic memory research.


Asunto(s)
Memoria Episódica , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Realidad Virtual , Humanos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
3.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(4): 601-618, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973259

RESUMEN

All experimenters know that human and animal subjects do not respond uniformly to experimental treatments. Yet theories and findings in experimental psychology either ignore this causal effect heterogeneity or treat it as uninteresting error. This is the case even when data are available to examine effect heterogeneity directly, in within-subjects designs where experimental effects can be examined subject by subject. Using data from four repeated-measures experiments, we show that effect heterogeneity can be modeled readily, that its discovery presents exciting opportunities for theory and methods, and that allowing for it in study designs is good research practice. This evidence suggests that experimenters should work from the assumption that causal effects are heterogeneous. Such a working assumption will be of particular benefit, given the increasing diversity of subject populations in psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicología Experimental , Humanos
4.
Pap. psicol ; 40(1): 74-80, ene.-abr. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-182001

RESUMEN

A comparative analysis of the physiological and psychological approaches to the study of inter-analyzer interaction has been carried out in the given article. Their general view on the biological meaning of inter-sensory relationships is underlined, as well as the difference between their indicators to assess the state of intermodal relationships. It is emphasized that the importance of the interaction of analyzer systems is usually stressed in psychological work, yet, the concept of inter-analyzer interaction is not usually operationalized. The authors propose a working definition of the inter-analyzer interaction and justify the adequacy of using Uznadze's methodology for forming a fixed set as a tool for assessing the state of inter-sensory links


Un análisis comparativo de los enfoques fisiológicos y psicológicos para el estudio de la interacción Inter-analizador se ha llevado a cabo en el artículo. Se destaca su visión general sobre el significado biológico de las relaciones intersensoriales, así como la diferencia entre sus indicadores para evaluar el estado de las relaciones intermodales. Se hace hincapié en que la importancia de la interacción de los sistemas de análisis se suele destacar en el trabajo psicológico, sin embargo, el concepto de interacción Inter-analizador no suele ser operativo. Los autores proponen una definición de trabajo del interacción Inter-analizador y justifican la conveniencia de utilizar la metodología de Uznadze para formar un conjunto fijo como herramienta para evaluar el estado de los enlaces Intersensoriales


Asunto(s)
Analizadores Neurales/fisiología , Psicología Experimental , Neuropsicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Federación de Rusia , Neurofisiología
5.
Psych J ; 8(1): 82-89, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912627

RESUMEN

Phenomenologists have provided a detailed description of the disorders of the subjective experience associated with minimal-self disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Those patients report a range of distortions of their conscious experiences, including a sense of inner void, confusion between self and others, and, sometimes, a disruption of the sense of time. These reports have been interpreted as distortion of the first-person perspective and a lack of immersion in the world, associated with a breakdown of the temporal structure of consciousness, and especially a disruption of the sense of time continuity. Further, it has been proposed that these disruptions are based on a difficulty to retain past information and to predict future information, that is, the mechanisms that help to relate events with one another and to reach a sense of time continuity. Experimental psychology results seem to converge to similar conclusions, inasmuch as some results in patients with schizophrenia suggest a deficient ability to predict sequences of events at the millisecond level. Several studies have underlined this convergence. Here we reflect on the limits of both the phenomenological and experimental psychology approaches, and of the convergence of their hypotheses. We think that this reflection is necessary to avoid premature conclusions on the mechanisms underlying the impairments in patients, but also to enrich our understanding of schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Ego , Filosofía , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Percepción del Tiempo/fisiología , Humanos
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(spe): 147-158, jan./ Mar.2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1016743

RESUMEN

O artigo aborda práticas do serviço Rede de Atenção à Pessoa Indígena ­ vinculado ao Departamento de Psicologia Experimental do Instituto de Psicologia da Universidade de São Paulo ­, no período de 2015 a 2017, visando discutir os impactos de mudanças nos procedimentos de visitas às comunidades para a formação do psicólogo. A exposição do corpo do psicólogo em formação a contextos ritualizados segundo padrões distintos de sua cultura de origem faz emergir inquietações e angústias que caracterizam o modo de relação com a alteridade. Como ferramentas para elaboração desse modo de relação, os Guarani das comunidades visitadas nos propõem diálogos em que a prioridade é o estabelecimento de uma sintonia adequada com a sintonia do outro, preliminar à discussão e encaminhamento de projetos que abordam temas difíceis relativos a situações de vulnerabilidade psicossociais que as comunidades enfrentam....(AU)


The article deals with the practices of the Amerindian Support Network ­ linked to the Department of Experimental Psychology of the Institute of Psychology of the University of São Paulo ­ in the period from 2015 to 2017, aiming at discussing the impacts of changes in procedures for visiting the communities for training psychology students. The exposure of the body of the psychologist in training to ritualized contexts from different cultural patterns, in contrast to the students' original culture, gives rise to unease and disquieting feelings that characterize the relationship with alterity. As tools for the elaboration of this mode of relation, the Guarani from the communities we visited proposed to us dialogues in which the priority was to establish an adequate attunement to the attunement of the other. This attunement is apreliminary condition to discuss and forward projects that deals with challenging issues related to situations of psychosocial vulnerabilities the focused communities face....(AU)


El artículo aborda prácticas del servicio Red de Atención a la Persona Indígena ­ vinculado al Departamento de Psicología Experimental del Instituto de Psicología de la Universidad de São Paulo ­ en el período de 2015 a 2017, con el objetivo de discutir los impactos de cambios en los procedimientos de visitas a las comunidades para la formación del psicólogo. La exposición del cuerpo del psicólogo en formación a contextos ritualizados según patrones distintos de su cultura de origen hace emerger inquietudes y angustias que caracterizan el modo de relación con la alteridad. Como guías de elaboración de este modo de relación, los guaraníes de las comunidades visitadas nos proponen diálogos en los que la prioridad es el establecimiento de una sintonía adecuada con la sintonía del otro, preliminar a la discusión y encaminamiento de proyectos que abordan temas difíciles relativos a situaciones de vulnerabilidad psicosociales que las comunidades enfrentan....(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicología , Psicología Experimental , Grupos de Población
7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(4): 677-692, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767609

RESUMEN

Skilled reading reflects an accumulation of experience with written language. Written language is typically viewed as an expression of spoken language, and this perspective has motivated approaches to understanding reading and reading acquisition. However, in this article, I develop the proposal that written language has diverged from spoken language in important ways that maximise the transmission of meaningful information, and that this divergence has been central to the development of rapid, skilled reading. I use English as an example to show that weaknesses in the relationship between spelling and sound can give rise to strong regularities between spelling and meaning that are critical for the rapid analysis of printed words. I conclude by arguing that the nature of the reading system is a reflection of the writing system and that a deep understanding of reading can be obtained only through a deep understanding of written language.


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Lenguaje , Lectura , Sociedades Científicas/organización & administración , Escritura , Humanos , Psicología Experimental/organización & administración
8.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(7): 2123-2138, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617768

RESUMEN

The science of mental life and behavior has paid scant attention to the means by which mental life is translated into physical behavior. Why this is so was the topic of a 2005 American Psychologist article whose main title was "The Cinderella of Psychology." In the present article, we briefly review some of the reasons why motor control was relegated to the sidelines of psychology. Then we point to work showing that experimental psychologists have much to contribute to research on action generation. We focus on studies showing that actions are generated in a way that, at least by default, minimize changes between successive actions. The method is computationally as well as physically economical but also requires consideration of costs, including costs of different kinds. How such costs are compared is discussed in the next section. The final section offers comments about the future of psychologically focused action research. Two additional themes of the review concern methods for studying action generation. First, much can be learned through naturalistic observation. Second, subsequent experiments, designed to check naturalistic observations, can use very simple equipment and procedures. This can make the study of action generation easy to pursue in the psychology laboratory.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Humanos
9.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 27(1): 38-44, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346191

RESUMEN

Low levels of distress tolerance have been identified as an important vulnerability factor for negative cannabis outcomes. The current study is the first known experimental manipulation of state distress to test whether distress tolerance interacts with state distress to predict the urge to use cannabis. Current cannabis users (N = 126; 88.9% with cannabis use disorder; 54.0% non-Hispanic Caucasian) were randomly assigned to a distress task condition or neutral (reading) task condition. Participants in the 2 conditions did not differ on distress tolerance, negative affect (NA), or craving at baseline. The distress tolerance × condition interaction significantly predicted task NA, such that low (but not high) distress tolerance was related to greater state NA throughout the task. The distress tolerance × condition interaction significantly predicted cannabis craving during the task, such that the distress condition was related to greater cannabis craving at lower (but not higher) levels of distress tolerance. In the distress condition, those who endorsed coping motives during the task reported lower distress tolerance. Together these findings suggest that individuals with lower distress tolerance experienced greater NA during a laboratory-induced distress and reported greater cannabis craving when NA was greatest during the task. This experimental study adds to a growing, but limited, literature implicating lower levels of distress tolerance to the maintenance and relapse of cannabis use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica/efectos de los fármacos , Control de la Conducta , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Ansia , Abuso de Marihuana , Fumar Marihuana/psicología , Adulto , Control de la Conducta/métodos , Control de la Conducta/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/psicología , Abuso de Marihuana/terapia , Motivación , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Adulto Joven
10.
Behav Res Methods ; 51(4): 1693-1705, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022456

RESUMEN

This paper investigates the historical (1850s-2000s) evolution of semantics in the English language using contemporaneous, decade-specific computational estimates of word concreteness. Study 1 describes the computational method of generating time-locked estimates of concreteness based on the Corpus of Historic American English, and makes available the computed scores for 25,000 English words over 15 decades. We also report several tests of reliability and validity, demonstrating that our historical concreteness scores have high levels of both. Study 2 uses concreteness scores to revisit findings of studies that use a static set of contemporary human concreteness norms to examine historical trends of semantic change. Specifically, we observed (contra Hills & Adelman, (Cognition, 143, 87-92 2015)) that distinct word types of the English language become increasingly more concrete over time and (in line with Hills & Adelman, (Cognition, 143, 87-92 2015) & Hills, Adelman & Noguchi, (The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(8), 1603-1619 2016)) that relatively concrete words tend to be used more often than abstract ones. We discuss both contrastive and corroborative claims in light of recent work on semantic evolution and argue for the use of time-locked computed estimates over static human norms when examining diachronic linguistic phenomena.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Adulto , Cognición , Disentimientos y Disputas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicología Experimental , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
11.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 45(8): 1441-1454, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070563

RESUMEN

Observers represent everyday actions in event models along multiple dimensions such as space, time, or goals. Whenever new information along those dimensions is perceived, the event model is updated accordingly. In 3 experiments, we investigated event model updating associated with goal changes during ongoing actions that involved both an agent performing the action and a patient receiving the action. We presented short action clips showing goal-directed actions-such as handing over a book-as self-paced slideshows. Those action sequences contained either no goal change or a goal change caused by either the agent or the patient of the action. We measured viewing times (Experiments 1-3) and verbal action descriptions (Experiment 3). The action descriptions revealed that patients causing a goal change turned into agents in the event model. Despite the updating of the additional dimension (protagonist) for goal changes caused by patients, goal changes caused by agents and patients were associated with a similar updating effort as indicated by the viewing times and a similar increase in the complexity of the represented event structure as indicated by the number of clauses used in the action descriptions. Thus, updating was global rather than incremental in our experiments. We conclude that goal changes cause a global updating of event models independent of the source of the goal change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Atención , Aprendizaje Discriminativo , Objetivos , Modelos Psicológicos , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos , Adolescente , Adulto , Formación de Concepto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicología Experimental , Tiempo de Reacción , Adulto Joven
12.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(1): 157-168, 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-181052

RESUMEN

The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of motor imagery training on tennis service performance among tennis athletes. Participants were twenty-eight young male tennis players, randomly divided into two groups: imagery training (ITG, n = 14) and control group (CG, n = 14). It was a controlled and randomized experimental investigation, lasting eight weeks. the CG watched videos about the history of the Olympics, while ITG did motor imagery training. the tennis service performance was obtained by the product between accuracy and stroke velocity [accuracy x mean velocity of all strokes (km/h)]. the effect of group vs time interaction (p <.01) was identified for all performance indicators [accuracy, running speed and performance (precision x speed)], with improvement only in ITG (p = 01). It concluded that motor imagery training would be considered an effective strategy to enhance the tennis service performance among male tennis players


El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el efecto del entrenamiento de imágenes en el rendimiento del tenis de servicio entre los atletas de tenis. Los participantes fueron 28 tenistas jóvenes, divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos: formación en imágenes (ITG, n = 14) y grupo de control (CG, n = 14). Es una investigación experimental controlada y aleatorizada, que dura ocho semanas. El CG miró videos sobre la historia de los Juegos Olímpicos, mientras que ITG hizo entrenamiento de imágenes. El rendimiento del tenis de servicio se obtuvo por el producto entre precisión y velocidad de carrera [precisión x velocidad media de todos los golpes (km/h)]. Se identificó el efecto de interacción grupo contra tiempo (p < .01) para todos los indicadores de rendimiento [precisión, velocidad de carrera y rendimiento (precisión x velocidad)], con mejoría solo en ITG (p = .01). Se concluyó que el entrenamiento con imágenes se puede considerar una estrategia efectiva para mejorar el rendimiento del tenis entre los tenistas


O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o efeito do treinamento imaginário sobre o desempenho do saque em atletas de tênis. Participaram vinte e oito jovens atletas de tênis, randomicamente divididos em dois grupos: treinamento imaginário (TI, n =14) e grupo controle (GC, n = 14). Trata-se de investigação experimental randomizada e controlada, com duração de oito semanas. O GC assistiu vídeos sobre a história das Olimpíadas, ao passo que o TI realizou o treinamento imaginário. O desempenho do saque foi mensurado pelo produto entre acurácea e velocidade da bola [acurácea x velocidade média da bola (km/h]. Foi revelado efeito de interação grupo vs. tempo (p < .01) para todos os indicadores de desempenho [acurácea, velocidade da bola e desempenho (precisão vs. velocidade)], com melhora somente para o TI (p = .01). Concluiu-se que o treinamento imaginário pode ser considerado uma estratégia efetiva para potencializar o desempenho do saque em atletas de tênis do sexo masculino


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Tenis/psicología , Tenis/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Tenis/educación , Psicología Experimental , Análisis de Datos , Atletas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Prog Brain Res ; 243: 139-180, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514522

RESUMEN

The modernist writer Gertrude Stein is well known for her innovative approach to literary prose. Far less known is the fact that Stein's career started in the emergent field of the brain sciences, first at Radcliffe College, then at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. In this contribution, I trace Stein's scientific trajectory and examine the reasons that compelled her to abandon a career in science, turning to literature instead. Stein's career as a scientist was initially very promising, and began to decline only in her last two years at Johns Hopkins. With her degree in jeopardy, she was offered one last chance: she would be allowed to graduate if she completed a last piece of assessment, consisting of a model of a young human brain. Alas, Stein's model was a disaster-and possibly a deliberate one. In the Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written over thirty years after the sour end of her scientific career, Stein attributed her failure to "being frankly openly bored" by medicine. In reconstructing the circumstances that culminated in Stein undermining her own performance by reimagining a "modernist" model of the brain, I show that Stein's rebranding of her failure as "boredom" was itself part of a broader act of disobedience toward the authority of neuroanatomy, whose status was far more uncertain than how its practitioners-Stein's own teachers-viewed it.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Psicología Experimental/historia , Psicología/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Ilustración Médica/historia , Neuroanatomía/historia
14.
Pap. psicol ; 39(3): 161-173, sept.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-180291

RESUMEN

A pesar de su boyante expansión, la psicología sigue boyante también en el sentido de flotante sin un referente claro de ciencia de qué. La fragmentación sigue siendo el paisaje más llamativo de la psicología. Su concepción más socorrida como ciencia de la mente y la conducta aboca a más problemas que resuelve, entre ellos el dualismo que se creía superar. Por su parte, la neurociencia cognitiva, lejos de suponer una salida, parece ella misma una fábrica de explicaciones dualistas con su personificación del cerebro atribuyéndole las funciones psicológicas. Como alternativa, se presentan cinco concepciones no dualistas ni cerebrocéntricas de la psicología actual, como muestra de que el dualismo y el cerbrocentrismo no son inevitables. Frente a la pluralidad de enfoques, se propone una concepción transteórica de la psicología como ciencia del sujeto y el comportamiento, más allá de la mente y el cerebro


Despite its buoyant expansion, psychology is still also buoyant in the sense that it is floating without a clear definition regarding the science of what it is exactly. Fragmentation remains the most striking landscape of psychology. Its most cherished conception as a science of mind and behavior leads to more problems than it solves, among them the dualism that it was thought to overcome. On the other hand, cognitive neuroscience, far from being a solution, seems itself to be a factory of dualistic explanations with its personification of the brain attributing the psychological functions to it. As an alternative, we present five conceptions of current psychology that are neither dualistic nor brain-centric, as proof that dualism and brain-centrism are not inevitable. Faced with the plurality of approaches, a trans-theoretical conception of psychology is proposed as the science of the subject and behavior, beyond the mind and the brain


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Psicofisiología , Cerebro/fisiología , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Cultura , Existencialismo , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Investigación Conductal
15.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 54(4): 272-292, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350367

RESUMEN

In the wake of the critical reorientation in the historiography of psychology, a number of scholars challenged the one-sided structuralist and positivist interpretation of Wilhelm Wundt's work. This paper aims at contributing to these recent efforts, by providing an analysis of the way in which Wundt's apperceptionism conditioned his account of the relation between thought and speech, and by extrapolation, of disorganized thought and speech. While Wundt's pivotal role in the development of the psychology of language is relatively well-known, discussions on this part of his theorizing tend to focus exclusively on his gestural or motor account of language. This obliterates the complex theoretical background of Wundt's theory of language and speech, as well as its systematic place within his psychological system. Highlighting this neglected dimension of Wundt's theorizing, however, could open up a new horizon of pressing research questions in the historiography of psychology.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Habla , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Psicología Experimental/historia
16.
An. psicol ; 34(3): 430-437, oct. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-177941

RESUMEN

By using computer program we created a virtual environment to study the possible impacts of sense of agency and sense of ownership on anxiety. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether our setup could achieve the similar effect as traditional rubber hand illusion had, and how sense of self (mainly sense of agency and sense of ownership) affects participants' anxiety. Study 1 the sample consisted of 24 first grade student(12 female, 12 male) aged 18-21 (M=19.98, SD=0.82), who moved a 3D virtual hand in a synchronous or asynchronous situation. Study 2 included 48 first or second grade students (24 female , 24 male) aged 18-22 (M=20.67, SD=1.05), who passed the SCL-90 rating-scale and completed the SCL-90 rating-scale again after they performed a catching/avoiding task. In study 1, all the results only provided evidence for a VHI but no other effect. Study 2 showed that asynchronous conditions had higher anxiety scores than synchronous one in terms of modality and sex, different virtual images would lead to participants' different anxious feelings. Sex itself was not a differentiating factor, however, mean and women reacted differently in different situations. Results indicated that, in general, sense of agency has more impacts on anxiety level compared with sense of ownership. However, sense of agency seemed to affect male more than female while sense of ownership placed more influence on female than on male. This finding may because the different contribution styles and empathy abilities between men and women


Usando un programa de ordenador, creamos un entorno virtual para estudiar los posibles impactos del sentido de agencia y sentido de pertenencia sobre la ansiedad. El objetivo del presente estudio es investigar si nuestra configuración podría lograr el efecto similar al que tenía la ilusión de goma tradicional, y cómo el sentido del yo (principalmente sentido de agencia y sentido de pertenencia) afecta la ansiedad de los participantes. Estudio 1, la muestra consistió en 24 estudiantes de primer grado (12 mujeres, 12 hombres) que movieron una mano virtual en 3D en una situación sincrónica o asincrónica. El estudio 2 incluyó 48 estudiantes de primer o segundo grado (24 mujeres, 24 hombres) que pasaron la escala de calificación SCL-90 y completaron la escala de calificación SCL-90 nuevamente después de realizar una tarea de captura / evitación. En el estudio 1, todos los resultados solo proporcionaron evidencia de una ilusión de mano virtual pero ningún otro efecto. El estudio 2 mostró que las condiciones asincrónicas tenían puntuaciones de ansiedad más altas que las sincrónicas en términos de modalidad y sexo, diferentes imágenes virtuales conducirían a los diferentes sentimientos de ansiedad de los participantes. El sexo en sí mismo no era un factor diferenciador, sin embargo, los hombres y las mujeres reaccionaron de manera diferente en diferentes situaciones. Los resultados indicaron que, en general, el sentido de agencia tiene más impactos en el nivel de ansiedad en comparación con el sentido de pertenencia. Sin embargo, el sentimiento de agencia pareció afectar más a los hombres que a las mujeres, mientras que el sentido de pertenencia ejerció más influencia sobre las mujeres que sobre los hombres. Este hallazgo puede deberse a los diferentes estilos de contribución y habilidades de empatía entre hombres y mujeres


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Ilusiones Ópticas , Empatía , Terapia de Exposición Mediante Realidad Virtual/métodos , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Estudiantes/psicología , Ansiedad , Análisis de Varianza , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
An. psicol ; 34(3): 571-579, oct. 2018. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-177958

RESUMEN

Although many studies of cognitive switching have been conducted, little is known about whether and how cognitive switching affects individuals’ use of arithmetic strategies. We used estimation and numerical comparison tasks within the operand recognition paradigm and the choice/no-choice paradigm to explore the effects of cognitive switching on the process of arithmetic strategy selection. Results showed that individuals’ performance in the baseline task was superior to that in the switching task. Presentation mode and cognitive switching clearly influenced eye-gaze patterns during strategy selection, with longer fixation duration in the number presentation mode than in the clock presentation mode. Furthermore, the number of fixation was greater in the switching task than it was in the the baseline task. These results indicate that the effects of cognitive switching on arithmetic strategy selection are clearly constrained by the manner in which numbers are presented


Aunque se han realizado muchos estudios sobre el cambio cognitivo, se sabe poco acerca de si el cambio cognitivo afecta el uso de las estrategias aritméticas por parte de las personas y cómo lo hace. Utilizamos las tareas de estimación y comparación numérica dentro del paradigma de reconocimiento de operandos y el paradigma de elección / no elección para explorar los efectos del cambio cognitivo en el proceso de selección de estrategia aritmética. Los resultados mostraron que el rendimiento de los individuos en la tarea de referencia fue superior al de la tarea de cambio. El modo de presentación y la conmutación cognitiva influyeron claramente en los patrones de la mirada durante la selección de estrategia, con duraciones de fijación más largas en el modo de presentación numérica que en el modo de presentación de reloj. Además, el número de fijaciones fue mayor en la tarea de conmutación que en la tarea de línea de base. Estos resultados indican que los efectos del cambio cognitivo en la selección de la estrategia aritmética están claramente limitados por la forma en que se presentan los números


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Estrategias , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Psicología Experimental , Análisis de Varianza
18.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 110(3): 522-544, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230551

RESUMEN

The capacity of 3D cameras to measure many different aspects of behavior (e.g., velocity, pattern, and posture) could contribute to the understanding of behavior. The present article describes a system for the real-time tracking of operant behavior, which is applicable to other domains of behavioral science as well. Methods for real-time 3D tracking of animal behavior are described, along with sample C++ programs. A demonstration using one zebrafish as a subject indicated that the present system successfully tracked the 3D motion of the fish. Moreover, the acquisition of a target response (i.e., approach to a corner of the aquarium) was demonstrated with the arrangement of a reinforcement contingency at the corner in the absence of a traditional, salient operandum. The system offers the capacity to characterize more completely ongoing behavior in learning tasks across a range of species than simply performance of discrete operant responses. The system also is capable of tracking multiple individuals simultaneously so it is possible both to study social interactions and arrange contingencies for engaging in social behavior. Other possible applications of 3D cameras are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Condicionamiento Operante , Psicología Experimental/instrumentación , Grabación en Video/instrumentación , Animales , Conducta Animal , Extinción Psicológica , Femenino , Imagenología Tridimensional , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Esquema de Refuerzo , Grabación en Video/métodos , Pez Cebra
19.
Conscious Cogn ; 63: 228-238, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880413

RESUMEN

Early research on memory was dominated by two researchers forging different paths: Hermann Ebbinghaus, interested in principles of learning and recall, and Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first formal laboratory of experimental psychology, who was interested in empirical evidence to interpret conscious experience. Whereas the work of Ebbinghaus is a much-heralded precursor of modern research on long-term memory, the work of Wundt appears to be a mostly-forgotten precursor to research on working memory. We show how his scientific perspective is germane to more recent investigations, with emphasis on the embedded-processes approaches of Nelson Cowan and Klaus Oberauer, and how it is in contrast with most other recent theoretical approaches. This investigation is important because the embedded-process theorists, apparently like most modern researchers, have recognized few of Wundt's specific contributions. We explore commonalities between the approaches and suggest that an appreciation of these commonalities might enrich the field going forward.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Estado de Conciencia , Memoria , Psicología Experimental/historia , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
20.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 44(10): 1435-1448, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739295

RESUMEN

Psychologists often test hypotheses by constructing vignettes depicting people engaging in behavior and displaying characteristics designed to operationalize specific variables. People described in these vignettes are typically given names, but names have a variety of connotations that could lead to unwanted variance between conditions of an experiment and in other ways have implications for the results of a study. An up-to-date source of information to help guide the selection of names would be useful for researchers. Participants from four different regions of the United States rated a large sample of names in terms of perceived age, warmth, and competence. The full set of names is presented, along with some simple demonstration studies concretely illustrating the implications of name choice.


Asunto(s)
Nombres , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Percepción Social , Femenino , Humanos , Inteligencia , Masculino , Habilidades Sociales
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