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1.
Prog Brain Res ; 243: 139-180, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514522

RESUMEN

The modernist writer Gertrude Stein is well known for her innovative approach to literary prose. Far less known is the fact that Stein's career started in the emergent field of the brain sciences, first at Radcliffe College, then at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. In this contribution, I trace Stein's scientific trajectory and examine the reasons that compelled her to abandon a career in science, turning to literature instead. Stein's career as a scientist was initially very promising, and began to decline only in her last two years at Johns Hopkins. With her degree in jeopardy, she was offered one last chance: she would be allowed to graduate if she completed a last piece of assessment, consisting of a model of a young human brain. Alas, Stein's model was a disaster-and possibly a deliberate one. In the Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written over thirty years after the sour end of her scientific career, Stein attributed her failure to "being frankly openly bored" by medicine. In reconstructing the circumstances that culminated in Stein undermining her own performance by reimagining a "modernist" model of the brain, I show that Stein's rebranding of her failure as "boredom" was itself part of a broader act of disobedience toward the authority of neuroanatomy, whose status was far more uncertain than how its practitioners-Stein's own teachers-viewed it.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Psicología Experimental/historia , Psicología/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Ilustración Médica/historia , Neuroanatomía/historia
2.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 54(4): 272-292, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350367

RESUMEN

In the wake of the critical reorientation in the historiography of psychology, a number of scholars challenged the one-sided structuralist and positivist interpretation of Wilhelm Wundt's work. This paper aims at contributing to these recent efforts, by providing an analysis of the way in which Wundt's apperceptionism conditioned his account of the relation between thought and speech, and by extrapolation, of disorganized thought and speech. While Wundt's pivotal role in the development of the psychology of language is relatively well-known, discussions on this part of his theorizing tend to focus exclusively on his gestural or motor account of language. This obliterates the complex theoretical background of Wundt's theory of language and speech, as well as its systematic place within his psychological system. Highlighting this neglected dimension of Wundt's theorizing, however, could open up a new horizon of pressing research questions in the historiography of psychology.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Habla , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Psicología Experimental/historia
3.
Conscious Cogn ; 63: 228-238, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880413

RESUMEN

Early research on memory was dominated by two researchers forging different paths: Hermann Ebbinghaus, interested in principles of learning and recall, and Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first formal laboratory of experimental psychology, who was interested in empirical evidence to interpret conscious experience. Whereas the work of Ebbinghaus is a much-heralded precursor of modern research on long-term memory, the work of Wundt appears to be a mostly-forgotten precursor to research on working memory. We show how his scientific perspective is germane to more recent investigations, with emphasis on the embedded-processes approaches of Nelson Cowan and Klaus Oberauer, and how it is in contrast with most other recent theoretical approaches. This investigation is important because the embedded-process theorists, apparently like most modern researchers, have recognized few of Wundt's specific contributions. We explore commonalities between the approaches and suggest that an appreciation of these commonalities might enrich the field going forward.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Estado de Conciencia , Memoria , Psicología Experimental/historia , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
4.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 363-356, 16 mayo, 2018. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-173462

RESUMEN

La escuela neuropsicológica argentina nace de la mano de la escuela europea y forma parte del inicio de la psicología experimental. En 1896, Horacio Pinero crea la primera cátedra de psicología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, y en 1898 se anexa el primer laboratorio de psicología experimental. José Ingenieros, psiquiatra, neurólogo, político y, sobre todo, sociólogo publica en Francia su trabajo sobre afasias musicales, el primer estudio neuropsicológico argentino con trascendencia internacional. En él redime a Charcot y no a Knoblauch como el primero en describir la amusia, habla de una inteligencia y no de un lenguaje musical, y propone una clasificación y una metodología de evaluación con una perspectiva integradora neurológica-psiquiátrica. Este artículo dio origen a su libro en francés sobre el lenguaje musical y sus alteraciones histéricas, premiado por la Academia de Medicina de París


The Argentine neuropsychological school is born of the hand of the European school and is part of the beginning of the Experimental Psychology. In 1896 Horacio Pinero creates the first Department of Psychology at the University of Buenos Aires and in 1898 the first laboratory of Experimental Psychology is annexed. José Ingeniero, psychiatrist, neurologist, politician and above all sociologist publishes in France his work about the musical aphasia, the first neuropsychological work with international significance. In the same redeems to Charcot instead of to Knoblauch like the first one to describe the amusias, it speaks of an intelligence instead of a musical language and proposes a new classification and a methodology of assessment with a neurological-psychiatric integrative perspective. This article gave rise to this book in French on the musical language and its hysterical alterations awarded by the Academy of Medicine of Paris


Asunto(s)
Historia del Siglo XIX , Neuropsicología/educación , Neuropsicología/historia , Psicología Experimental/historia , Afasia/clasificación , Argentina , Psicología Experimental/métodos , Neurología/educación , Neurología/historia
5.
Psychol Res ; 82(2): 245-254, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27999952

RESUMEN

The manifestation of psychology as an academic discipline more than a 100 years ago was accompanied by a paradigm shift in our understanding of psychological phenomena-with both its light and shadow sides. On the one hand, this development allowed for a rigorous and experimentation-based approach to psychological phenomena; on the other, it led to an alienation from the experiential-or qualia-facets as the topics under inquiry were researched increasingly through third-person (e.g., behavioral or physiological) measures. At the turning point of this development stood an eminent but little known European scholar, Franz Brentano, who called for a synthesis of both third-person and first-person research methods in the study of psychological phenomena. On the occasion of his death, a hundred years ago on March 17, 1917 we wish to illustrate the historical background, introduce the reader to Brentano's approach and work and discuss its relevance for experimental psychology today.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Empírica , Psicología Experimental/historia , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Psicología/historia
6.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 85(11): 675-682, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166691

RESUMEN

In Russia, German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is regarded as an influential and famous personality in the history of the field. This study discusses whether it was his period in the Russian Empire in the years 1886 to 1891 when he worked at Dorpat University (today Tartu, Estonia) that raised his popularity in Russia. Our research shows that all of his writings which had been translated into Russian language derive from a period much later than Dorpat. Moreover, none of his students has ever reached a scientific position which would have enabled him to become a proponent of Kraepelin's ideas in Russia. Despite his stay at Dorpat was important for Kraepelin's scientific development, it had no major impact on Russian psychiatry.The later perception of Kraepelin in Russia and in the Soviet Union is quite inconsistent. At some point of time, his works on experimental psychology were appreciated, which was probably connected with the rise of reflexology in Russian and, especially, Soviet psychiatry. On the other hand, it was Kraepelin's merits in the classification of psychiatric diseases that have mainly been acknowledged.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Psicología Experimental/historia , Federación de Rusia , U.R.S.S.
7.
Am Psychol ; 72(7): 707-708, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016178

RESUMEN

Presents an obituary for Jerome S. Bruner, who died in 2016. His long, and productive, life spanned much of the first century of experimental psychology and coincided with the launching of cognitive psychology, a field in which he played an indispensable and pioneering role. His innovative and provocative work constantly challenged the current "mainstream." His impact on education has been equated with that of John Dewey. He was driven throughout his life to pursue the nature of the "human" in both his conceptual and empirical work. The model of an active organizing mind, "going beyond the information given," informed Jerry's work on cognition and led to the influential 1956 book A Study of Thinking, with Jacqueline Goodnow and George Austin. In 1960, Bruner and George Miller established the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard, which became a crucible for dynamic innovation across several disciplines and research approaches (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Ciencia Cognitiva/historia , Psicología Experimental/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
8.
Am Psychol ; 72(7): 709, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016179

RESUMEN

Presents an obituary for George Mandler, who died in London on May 6, 2016 at the age of 91. Mandler was one of the pioneers of the cognitive revolution in psychology. He was instrumental in moving the study of human learning from notions based largely on associations to a view of memory as an organized, nested hierarchical structure. Mandler was also a major proponent of the dual-process theory of recognition memory, in which general feelings of familiarity are distinguished from the context-rich experience of recollection. He brought the study of emotion into prominence, suggesting how emotion and cognition are related. Finally, he repatriated the concept of consciousness from its intellectual exile under behaviorism, stating boldly in 1975 that the construct was respectable, useful, and probably necessary. Mandler edited the Psychological Review from 1970 to 1976, chaired the Governing Board of the Psychonomic Society, and was president of APA Divisions 1 (General Psychology) and 3 (Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Science). (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Ciencia Cognitiva/historia , Psicología Experimental/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
9.
Am Psychol ; 72(7): 710, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016180

RESUMEN

Presents an obituary for Albert Pepitone, who died on March 17, 2016, in Philadelphia at the age of 91. Pepitone was a renowned social psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania. His expertise in social psychology opened up areas that significantly broadened its scope, in particular calling attention to cultural issues. wrote extensively, including many scholarly articles and contributions to published volumes. Pepitone's research was largely experimental, testing hypotheses in cognitive, motivational, interpersonal, and group processes. He was active in several psychological organizations and was a fellow of both the American Psychological Association and the Society of Experimental Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Psicología Experimental/historia , Psicología Social/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
10.
Am Psychol ; 72(4): 403, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481593

RESUMEN

This article memorializes John A. Swets (1928 -2016). Swets's scientific work included empirical experimentation, theory development, and practical applications. It attracted much attention, not only in psychology, but in other fields as well, especially medicine, education, and engineering. His work on the application of the theory of signal detection-which he began while still a graduate student- is very well known and has been influential in essentially every context in which people have to deal with noisy data. Among his many other notable achievements, Swets (along with colleagues) has been credited with building the first computer-based laboratory for experiments in perception and learning. It was built around a Programmed Data Processor-1 computer, which was first produced in 1959. If it was not the first, it was certainly among the first few, and it served as a prototype for many computer-based labs that were later developed around the Programmed Data Processor-8, which was introduced in 1965 and quickly became nearly ubiquitous in psychological laboratories. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Psicología Experimental/historia , Psicología/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Am J Psychol ; 130(2): 149-162, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461713

RESUMEN

Although he is best known for his classic textbook, A History of Experimental Psychology, Edwin Garrigues Boring published dozens of articles in The American Journal of Psychology and used its various formats to guide the discipline in the early 20th century. This report reviews a small sample of his publications, including obituaries, notes, and experimental articles, and presents them in historical and biographical context. A central objective is to show how Boring shared the values of his structuralist training with the emerging American schools and how time allowed him to reconsider his approach to history and the legacy of his iconic mentor, Edward Bradford Titchener.


Asunto(s)
Psicología/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Psicología Experimental/historia , Libros de Texto como Asunto/historia , Estados Unidos
12.
J Hist Neurosci ; 26(1): 1-14, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566190

RESUMEN

In 1893, Théodore Flournoy published a landmark book on synesthesia - Des phénomènes de synopsie [Of Synoptic Phenomena]. The book presented a pioneering chapter on synesthetic personification, including numerous striking case examples, and it is frequently cited by twenty-first-century researchers as providing some of the earliest examples of the phenomenon. Flournoy employed a broad definition of personification - the representation of stimuli as concrete and specific individuals or inanimate objects. This definition encompassed a more extensive set of phenomena than the definition used by researchers today and was illustrated by cases that would fall outside of contemporary subtypes of synesthetic personification. Yet, Flournoy's seminal work remains unavailable in English, and the extent of the phenomenon that he described has not been discussed in the contemporary literature. We provide an unabridged translation of Flournoy's chapter "Des personnifications" ["Of Personifications"].


Asunto(s)
Percepción de Color , Trastornos de la Percepción/historia , Psicología Experimental/historia , Estado de Conciencia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Sensación , Suiza
13.
Dev Psychol ; 52(11): 1679-1689, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786525

RESUMEN

This essay traces the history of an activity designed to promote the intellectual and social development of elementary-age schoolchildren during the afterschool hours. Following in the footsteps of Urie Bronfenbrenner, I highlight his argument that just as all human development occurs in contexts of varying levels of inclusiveness and mutual interchange, human development occurs at intersecting scales of time that themselves vary in character and duration. The task of exploring Bronfenbrenner's idea confronts scholars interested in person-context coconstitutive processes with a difficult methodological requirement; they must study simultaneously the history of persons (at the microgenetic and ontogenetic time scales) as well the history of "the contexts of development" in which the persons participate. A project implementing such a study focused on the life course of the system of activity is described, followed by a discussion of the lessons to be learned from a temporally extensive study of persons developing in contexts that are themselves changing. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Humano , Inteligencia/fisiología , Psicología Experimental/historia , Cambio Social , Niño , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Rev. abordagem gestál. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 2-11, jun. 2016. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: psi-68347

RESUMEN

O artigo descreve a relação entre fenomenologia e experimentação em psicologia a partir do percurso de pesquisa de dois destacados psicólogos experimentais do século XX. Embora a expressão fenomenologia experimental já fosse veiculada em meados do século XIX, antes mesmo dos primeiros escritos de Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), é no século XX que a prática de experimentação com fenomenologia se consolida. Inicialmente esta prática se consolidou pelas mãos de psicólogos experimentais na Alemanha entre as décadas de 1900 e 1920, e que no presente texto serão representados por David Katz (1884-1953). Posteriormente, na metade do século XX, pela miscigenação entre a psicologia norte-americana e os psicólogos alemães que emigraram para os EUA, nascem movimentos fundamentados em teoria de campo para o estudo dos processos básicos. Desse movimento destaca-se o psicólogo James J. Gibson (1904-1979), também proponente de uma forma de fenomenologia experimental. O artigo conclui que práticas de fenomenologia experimental organizam-se pela pragmática descritiva e concomitante suspensão de modelos hipotéticos funcionais. Não obstante, constata-se importante distanciamento deste projeto de fenomenologia experimental em relação a uma fenomenologia pura fundacional.(AU)


The paper describes the relationship between phenomenology and experimentation in psychology on the basis of two distinctive experimental psychologists' trajectory throughout the twentieth century. Although experimental phenomenology expression was already conveyed in the mid-nineteenth century, even before the early writings of Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), it is in the twentieth century that the practice of experimentation with phenomenology is consolidated. Initially this trend was performed by experimental psychologists in Germany between the decades of 1900 and 1920, exemplified in this text by David Katz (1884-1953). Later, in the mid-twentieth century, by mixing the North American psychology and German psychologists who had migrated to the USA, movements based on field theory were crafted for the study of psychological basic processes. From this movement stands out psychologist James J. Gibson (1904-1979), who also proposed a form of experimental phenomenology. The paper concludes that experimental phenomenology practices are organized by pragmatic descriptive criteria associated to suspension of functional hypothetical models. Notwithstanding, it notes the important distance from this experimental phenomenology project to pure foundational phenomenology.(AU)


El artículo describe la relación entre la fenomenología y la experimentación en psicología sobre la base de la trayectoria de dos psicólogos experimentales distintivos en transcurrir del siglo XX. Aunque la expresión fenomenología experimental ya fue transmitida en mediados del siglo XIX, incluso antes de los primeros escritos de Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), es en el siglo XX que la práctica de la experimentación con la fenomenología se consolida. Inicialmente esta tendencia fue realizado por los psicólogos experimentales en Alemania entre las décadas de 1900 y 1920, ejemplificados en este texto por David Katz (1884-1953). Más tarde, a mediados del siglo XX, mezclando la psicologia norteamericana con los psicólogos alemanes que habían emigrado a los EE.UU., movimientos basados en la teoría del campo enmarcaron el estudio de los procesos psicológicos básicos. De este movimiento se destaca el psicólogo James J. Gibson (1904 a 1979), quien también propuso una forma de fenomenología experimental. El documento concluye que las prácticas de fenomenología experimental son organizadas por criterios pragmáticos descriptivos asociados a la suspensión de modelos hipotéticos funcionales. No obstante, toma nota la distancia importante de este proyecto de la fenomenología experimental de la fenomenología pura fundacional.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Percepción , Psicología/historia , Psicología Experimental/historia
16.
Rev. abordagem gestál. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 2-11, jun. 2016. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-791878

RESUMEN

O artigo descreve a relação entre fenomenologia e experimentação em psicologia a partir do percurso de pesquisa de dois destacados psicólogos experimentais do século XX. Embora a expressão fenomenologia experimental já fosse veiculada em meados do século XIX, antes mesmo dos primeiros escritos de Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), é no século XX que a prática de experimentação com fenomenologia se consolida. Inicialmente esta prática se consolidou pelas mãos de psicólogos experimentais na Alemanha entre as décadas de 1900 e 1920, e que no presente texto serão representados por David Katz (1884-1953). Posteriormente, na metade do século XX, pela miscigenação entre a psicologia norte-americana e os psicólogos alemães que emigraram para os EUA, nascem movimentos fundamentados em teoria de campo para o estudo dos processos básicos. Desse movimento destaca-se o psicólogo James J. Gibson (1904-1979), também proponente de uma forma de fenomenologia experimental. O artigo conclui que práticas de fenomenologia experimental organizam-se pela pragmática descritiva e concomitante suspensão de modelos hipotéticos funcionais. Não obstante, constata-se importante distanciamento deste projeto de fenomenologia experimental em relação a uma fenomenologia pura fundacional.


The paper describes the relationship between phenomenology and experimentation in psychology on the basis of two distinctive experimental psychologists' trajectory throughout the twentieth century. Although experimental phenomenology expression was already conveyed in the mid-nineteenth century, even before the early writings of Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), it is in the twentieth century that the practice of experimentation with phenomenology is consolidated. Initially this trend was performed by experimental psychologists in Germany between the decades of 1900 and 1920, exemplified in this text by David Katz (1884-1953). Later, in the mid-twentieth century, by mixing the North American psychology and German psychologists who had migrated to the USA, movements based on field theory were crafted for the study of psychological basic processes. From this movement stands out psychologist James J. Gibson (1904-1979), who also proposed a form of experimental phenomenology. The paper concludes that experimental phenomenology practices are organized by pragmatic descriptive criteria associated to suspension of functional hypothetical models. Notwithstanding, it notes the important distance from this experimental phenomenology project to pure foundational phenomenology.


El artículo describe la relación entre la fenomenología y la experimentación en psicología sobre la base de la trayectoria de dos psicólogos experimentales distintivos en transcurrir del siglo XX. Aunque la expresión fenomenología experimental ya fue transmitida en mediados del siglo XIX, incluso antes de los primeros escritos de Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), es en el siglo XX que la práctica de la experimentación con la fenomenología se consolida. Inicialmente esta tendencia fue realizado por los psicólogos experimentales en Alemania entre las décadas de 1900 y 1920, ejemplificados en este texto por David Katz (1884-1953). Más tarde, a mediados del siglo XX, mezclando la psicologia norteamericana con los psicólogos alemanes que habían emigrado a los EE.UU., movimientos basados en la teoría del campo enmarcaron el estudio de los procesos psicológicos básicos. De este movimiento se destaca el psicólogo James J. Gibson (1904 a 1979), quien también propuso una forma de fenomenología experimental. El documento concluye que las prácticas de fenomenología experimental son organizadas por criterios pragmáticos descriptivos asociados a la suspensión de modelos hipotéticos funcionales. No obstante, toma nota la distancia importante de este proyecto de la fenomenología experimental de la fenomenología pura fundacional.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Percepción , Psicología Experimental/historia , Psicología/historia
17.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 52(3): 231-57, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159374

RESUMEN

The importance of instrument firms in the development of psychology, and science in general, should not be underestimated since it would not have been possible for various leading psychologists at the turn of the twentieth century to conduct certain experiments without the assistance of instrument makers, as is often the case today. To illustrate the historical perspective introduced here, the example of Alfred Binet is taken, as he is an interesting case of a psychologist working in close collaboration with various French instrument designers of the time. The objective of this article is twofold: (1) to show the considerable activity carried out by early psychologists to finalize new laboratory instruments in order to develop their research projects; (2) to reassess the work of a major figure in French psychology through his activity as a designer of precision instruments. The development of these new instruments would certainly have been difficult without the presence in Paris of numerous precision instrument manufacturers such as Charles Verdin, Otto Lund, Henri Collin, and Lucien Korsten, on whom Binet successively called in order to develop his projects in the field of experimental psychology.


Asunto(s)
Psicología Experimental/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Paris , Psicología Experimental/instrumentación
18.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 69(10): 1890-909, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065048

RESUMEN

In this article, three generations of authors describe the background to the original article; the subsequent emergence of vigorous debates concerning what negative priming actually reflects, where radically different accounts based on memory retrieval were proposed; and a re-casting of the conceptual issues underlying studies of negative priming. What started as a simple observation (slowed reaction times) and mechanism (distractor inhibition) appears now to be best explained by a multiple mechanism account involving both episodic binding and retrieval processes as well as an inhibitory process. Emerging evidence from converging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and especially electroencephalography (EEG), is beginning to identify these different processes. The past 30 years of negative priming experiments has revealed the dynamic and complex cognitive processes that mediate what appear to be apparently simple behavioural effects.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Psicología Experimental/historia , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria Episódica , Tiempo de Reacción
19.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 69(10): 2093-109, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821744

RESUMEN

Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Psicología Experimental , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Psicología Experimental/historia
20.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 69(10): 1910-40, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25588297

RESUMEN

The Treisman Bartlett lecture, reported in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1988, provided a major overview of the feature integration theory of attention. This has continued to be a dominant account of human visual attention to this day. The current paper provides a summary of the work reported in the lecture and an update on critical aspects of the theory as applied to visual object perception. The paper highlights the emergence of findings that pose significant challenges to the theory and which suggest that revisions are required that allow for (a) several rather than a single form of feature integration, (b) some forms of feature integration to operate preattentively, (c) stored knowledge about single objects and interactions between objects to modulate perceptual integration, (d) the application of feature-based inhibition to object files where visual features are specified, which generates feature-based spreading suppression and scene segmentation, and (e) a role for attention in feature confirmation rather than feature integration in visual selection. A feature confirmation account of attention in object perception is outlined.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Psicología Experimental/historia , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
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