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2.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(2): 157-166, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733620

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This systematic review synthesized available research on the psychological implications for children and adolescents who either were directly or indirectly exposed to an infectious outbreak. On this basis, the current paper aims to provide recommendations for future research, practice and policy regarding children during pandemics. METHOD: A total of 2195 records were retrieved from the PsycINFO, SCOPUS and MEDLINE databases, and three from Google Scholar. RESULTS: Including only those papers that focused on children or adolescent's mental health in association with respiratory infectious outbreaks, 11 articles were identified. The majority of research utilized qualitative or retrospective hospital record data. Children and adolescents reported fear and anxiety, as well as disruptions to their day to day routines as a result of outbreaks. However, children were also able to demonstrate resilience during outbreaks with the right support. CONCLUSIONS: Children's psychological response to the outbreak appeared to be largely attributed to how their parents, healthcare providers and the media communicated the event. Recommendations for policy, practitioners and researchers concerning the current COVID-19 outbreak concludes the paper.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Brotes de Enfermedades , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Ansiedad , /psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/psicología , Depresión , Humanos , Lactante , Pandemias , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil
3.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200217, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787726

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the emotional labor in pediatric nursing considering the repercussions of COVID-19 in childhood and adolescence. METHOD: Reflexion based on theoretical aspects and scientific evidence of emotional labor in pediatric nursing. RESULTS: Given the repercussions of COVID-19 on children and adolescents, it is up to the nurse to recognize them and nurture a non-traumatic and affectionate care. However, measures to control the disease affect the care provided. In this context, emotional labor process become essential, as they guide the management of the child's and family's emotions, associated with the suffering caused by the pandemic and the nurse's emotional experience when caring. CONCLUSION: Emotional support and care processes are essential in pediatrics, especially in a stressful time such as a pandemic, which requires the positive transformation of the intense and disturbing experiences of people for them to achieve psychosocial well-being.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Emociones , Familia/psicología , Enfermería Pediátrica , Adolescente , /enfermería , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Rol de la Enfermera , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Personal de Enfermería/psicología , Pandemias , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Investigación Cualitativa
4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 253(3): 203-215, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775993

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is causing disruptions in the global social system. Japanese children and adolescents have had their schools closed, government-mandated activity restrictions imposed, and interactions outside the home reduced. These restrictions can have a considerable psychological impact on children and adolescents. This review aims to describe the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and psychological status of this population. The review was conducted by searching PubMed for information on the impact of COVID-19-related activity restrictions on children and adolescents. The search identified 11 articles, three of which contained data on anxiety and psychological problems due to physical inactivity. Next, a PubMed search was conducted about physical activity and psychological status in children and adolescents under psychological stress. The search identified 368 articles, 28 of which were included in the review. For children, data that revealed a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and sedentary time leading to mood disorders were included. For adolescents, there were nine studies that reported a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and four studies that reported no correlation between physical activity and psychological health. Of the studies that reported a correlation, seven reported that physical activity improves psychological health. The impact of psychologically stressful situations such as COVID-19 on children and adolescents has been experienced worldwide. Physical activity has been correlated with psychological health, and it may improve psychological status; physical activity should be recommended to better support the psychological health of children and adolescents under the influence of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Infantil , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Ejercicio Físico , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , /psicología , Niño , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Trastornos del Humor/etiología , Cuarentena/psicología , Instituciones Académicas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conducta Sedentaria , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Recursos Humanos
5.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 207-215, 2021 03.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687359

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The recent lockdown, resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, has had a strong social and psychological impact on the most fragile individuals and family structures. In the present work we investigated the experience of families without specific elements of social or health vulnerability during the quarantine period that occurred in the spring of 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May and July 2020, 22 primary care pediatricians belonging to AUSL Romagna administered to a number of families a questionnaire to detect changes that occurred, during the lockdown, in family environment, school attendance and personal attitudes. RESULTS: A total of 721 questionnaires were collected, analyzing the associations between variables relating to home environment, daily rhythms, school and warning signs in relation to the age of children. As a result of the lockdown, family habits changed in 31% of cases, with a greater presence of the reference figure in 68% of these. Three out of four families reported they had sufficient domestic spaces, and nine out of ten had access to an outdoor, private or condominium space. Daily rhythms were preserved in 56.7% of cases; mood disorders appeared in 30% of adolescent children, followed by sleep, appetite and psychosomatic disorders. One in three children has made progress in terms of evolution and behavior, and one in 5 children has seen their relationships improve. The overall resilience of families during the lockdown period was considered good in 66.3%, sufficient in 31.3% and not satisfactory in only 2.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that, in the interviewed families, the simultaneous presence of adults and children at home has generally intensified. Families refer, on the whole, a positive and resilient behavior in the lockdown period, even if initial emotional problems are reported in one out of three children-adolescents. The ability to maintain a family organized structure seems to be partially compromised. Forced cohabitation leads to competition for the same resources of time and space and affects the entire family unit. The school institution emerges as a protective factor for children, young people and also for the well-being of families themselves.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Medicina Comunitaria , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Pandemias , Pediatras , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud , Niño , Preescolar , Aglomeración/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/etiología , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Vivienda , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Trastornos del Humor/etiología , Padres/psicología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/etiología , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología
6.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 204, 2021 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639887

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With increasing cancer incidence and decreasing cancer mortality, there is a growing need for a valid and culturally adapted tool to measure health-related quality of life in children with cancer. This study validated the DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module (DCGM-37) in Chinese children and adolescents with cancer. METHODS: The DCGM-37 was translated and adapted for use in China following the guidelines from its copyright holders. In total, 140 children and adolescents with cancer and their guardians were included in this cross-sectional study. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Convergent validity was examined using Pearson correlation between the DCGM-37 and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale. Dimensionality was clarified using exploratory factor analysis. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing DCGM-37 scores by sex, age, family income, and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.91) and test-retest reliability were good (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.94). Strong correlations between the DCGM-37 and the PedsQL 4.0 (r = 0.83) suggest good convergent validity. Six factors explained 51.94% of the total variance. Children with leukemia scored higher than those with sarcoma in all subscales (effect size ranged from 0.39 to 0.83), especially the "social exclusion" subscales (effect size 0.83). Small to moderate differences (effect size ranged from 0.38 to 0.58) were observed by sex, age, and family income. Neither floor nor ceiling effects were observed. CONCLUSION: The DCGM-37 is reliable and valid for measuring health-related quality of life in Chinese children and adolescents with cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/psicología , Pacientes/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Niño , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/enfermería , Padres/psicología , Apoderado , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoinforme , Conducta Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(2): 179-188, 2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609037

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This article guides researchers through the process of specifying, troubleshooting, evaluating, and interpreting latent growth mixture models. METHODS: Latent growth mixture models are conducted with small example dataset of N = 117 pediatric patients using Mplus software. RESULTS: The example and data show how to select a solution, here a 3-class solution. We also present information on two methods for incorporating covariates into these models. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies in pediatric psychology seek to understand how an outcome changes over time. Mixed models or latent growth models estimate a single average trajectory estimate and an overall estimate of the individual variability, but this may mask other patterns of change shared by some participants. Unexplored variation in longitudinal data means that researchers can miss critical information about the trajectories of subgroups of individuals that could have important clinical implications about how one assess, treats, and manages subsets of individuals. Latent growth mixture modeling is a method for uncovering subgroups (or "classes") of individuals with shared trajectories that differ from the average trajectory.


Asunto(s)
Psicología Infantil , Proyectos de Investigación , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales
8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e456-e468, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631132

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence is a leading global public health problem, and interventions in early childhood are important in the primary prevention of violence. We tested whether the Irie Classroom Toolbox, a violence-prevention teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and reduced class-wide child aggression in Jamaican preschools (catering to children aged 3-6 years). METHODS: We did a single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 76 preschools in Kingston and St Andrew, randomly selected, using simple randomisation, from 120 eligible preschools. Inclusion criteria were two to four classes of children; at least ten children per class; and located in an urban area. We randomly assigned preschools (1:1) to either the Irie Classroom Toolbox intervention or waiting-list control that received no intervention, using a computer-generated randomisation sequence by an independent statistician masked to school identity. The Toolbox involved training teachers in classroom behaviour management and promoting child social-emotional competence. All assessors were masked to group assignment. All teachers and classrooms in the selected schools participated in the study. Within each school, we used simple randomisation to randomly select up to 12 children aged 4 years for evaluation of child outcomes. The Toolbox intervention was implemented from August to April the following year. Teacher and classroom measures were done at baseline (the summer school term; ie, May to June), post-intervention (after 8 months of intervention; ie, May to June of the following year), and 1-year follow-up (ie, May to June 2 years later). The primary outcomes were observations of violence against children (including physical violence and psychological aggression) by teachers occurring across one full school day, and class-wide child aggression occurring over five 20-min intervals on another school day, all measured at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN11968472. FINDINGS: Between June 22, 2015, and April 29, 2016, (after baseline measurements were completed), we assigned 38 preschools (with 119 teachers) to the Toolbox intervention and 38 preschools (with 110 teachers) to control. 441 children in the intervention schools and 424 in the control schools were included in the evaluation. All schools were included in the post-intervention and follow-up analyses. There were fewer counts of violence against children by teachers in the intervention schools compared with control schools at post-intervention (median counts 3 [IQR 0-11] vs 15 [3-35]; effect size -67·12%, 95% CI -80·71 to -53·52, p<0·0001) and 1-year follow-up (median counts 3 [IQR 0-9] vs 6 [1-16]; effect size -53·86, 95% CI -71·08 to -36·65, p<0·0001). No differences between groups were found for class-wide child aggression at post-intervention (effect size 0·07, 95% CI -0·16 to 0·29, p=0·72) or 1-year follow-up (-0·14, -0·42 to 0·16, p=0·72). INTERPRETATION: In Jamaican preschools, the Irie Classroom Toolbox effectively reduced violence against children by teachers. The Toolbox was designed for use with undertrained teachers working in low-resource settings and should be effective with early childhood practitioners in other LMICs. Additional research is needed to further develop the Toolbox to reduce class-wide child aggression. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Aid, and the National Institute of Health Research.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Maestros/psicología , Formación del Profesorado/métodos , Violencia/prevención & control , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Método Simple Ciego , Formación del Profesorado/organización & administración
9.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 35-45, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197951

RESUMEN

Parental promotion of an adequate environment during early childhood results in healthy child development. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of the positive parenting programme, 'Gaining health and wellbeing from birth to three' (GH&W), as a universal prevention strategy. Participants were 87 parents with children < 36 months old attending 20 primary care centres. Centres were randomly assigned to three GH&W intervention levels: online course (level 1), online course plus group workshops (level 2), and online course plus group workshops plus individual support at medical check-ups (level 3), delivered by healthcare professionals. As for feasibility, participants in levels 2 and 3 reported higher utility and satisfaction with the online course than participants in level 1. Pretest-posttest comparisons and cluster analysis showed that participants in level 3 achieved the best results and were associated with a consolidated cluster characterised by improvements in health promotion activities, parental self-regulation, and satisfaction with the service, whereas participants in levels 1 and 2 showed fewer improvements and were associated with initial and transitional clusters. The GH&W programme improves the universal reach of web-based courses and efficiently activates the contribution of the primary care system to the support network for healthy child development and wellbeing


La promoción de entornos saludables en el contexto familiar durante la primera infancia es clave para el desarrollo infantil. Este estudio evaluó la viabilidad y la eficacia del programa de parentalidad positiva "Ganar salud y bienestar de 0 a 3 años" (GSB) como estrategia de prevención universal. Participaron 87 figuras parentales con hijos o hijas de menos de 36 meses usuarios de 20 centros de salud. Los centros fueron asignados aleatoriamente a tres niveles de intervención del GSB: curso online (nivel 1), curso online más talleres grupales (nivel 2) y curso online, más talleres grupales, más apoyo individual en revisiones médicas (nivel 3) implementado por los equipos de pediatría. Respecto a la viabilidad, los participantes de los niveles 2 y 3 consideraron más útil y satisfactorio el curso online que los participantes del nivel 1. En las comparaciones pretest-postest y el análisis de clúster el nivel 3 logró los mejores resultados y se asoció al clúster consolidado caracterizado por mejoras en rutinas saludables, autorregulación parental y satisfacción con el servicio, mientras que los niveles 1 y 2 mostraron menos mejoras y se asociaron al clúster inicial y de transición. El programa GSB amplía el alcance universal del curso online e implica eficazmente al sistema sanitario en la red de apoyo al desarrollo saludable y del bienestar infantil


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Preescolar , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Desarrollo de Programa , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Bienestar del Niño/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Intervención Médica Temprana , Psicología Infantil , Relaciones Padre-Hijo
11.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190121, 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1133863

RESUMEN

The diagnosis of childhood cancer, the treatment itself and its sequelae can be considered as stressful events in the child's life, requiring the use of coping strategies. The aim of this study was to describe the coping behaviors used by children and adolescents with cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment, separated by sex, age and type of cancer. A total of 15 children and adolescents, from 6 to 12 years old, of both sexes, answered the Hospitalization Coping Strategies instrument regarding coping behaviors. Participants referred to behaviors with greater chances of an adaptive outcome: watching TV, talking, and taking their medicines. There were differences in the coping behaviors regarding sex, age, and types of cancer. These differences highlight the need for personalized interventions that include specific characteristics to facilitate the child's adaptation to the treatment.


O diagnóstico de câncer infantil, o próprio tratamento e suas sequelas podem ser considerados eventos estressores na vida de uma criança, demandando o uso de estratégias de enfretamento ou coping. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever os comportamentos de coping utilizados por crianças e adolescentes com câncer frente ao tratamento quimioterápico, diferenciadas quanto ao sexo, a idade e ao tipo de câncer que enfrentam. Quinze crianças e adolescentes, de seis a doze anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, responderam o instrumento de Avaliação das Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Hospitalização sobre os comportamentos de enfrentamento. Os participantes referiram recorrer a comportamentos com maiores chances de um desfecho adaptativo: assistir televisão, conversar e tomar remédio. Com relação aos comportamentos de enfrentamento relatados, foram encontradas diferenças quanto ao sexo, idade e tipos de câncer enfrentado, que sinalizam a necessidade de intervenções personalizadas que contemplem características específicas para facilitar a adaptação da criança ao tratamento.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Psicología Infantil , Quimioterapia , Neoplasias
12.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(10): 745-751, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361669

RESUMEN

Objectives Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common childhood disease with an increasing prevalence, affecting the quality of life of afflicted children. The onset of AD at an early age may disrupt normal sleep patterns, behavior, and relationships. Increased behavioral and discipline problems associated with AD have been documented. However, there are insufficient studies on AD at early ages, especially in Japan. This study aimed to examine the association between AD and the mental and behavioral health of children of preschool age.Methods This study was a part of a prospective cohort study (n=20,926), and children born after April 2008 (n=7,386) were the target population of this study. Those who answered the Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) at 4 years of age (n=4,228) and answered the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 5 years of age were included in this study (n=3,862). The subscale scores of SDQ, namely, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer relationship problems, and hyperactivity/inattention, along with the sum of these 4 subscale scores, (total difficulties score (TDS), were investigated in relation to the prevalence of AD. SDQ scores were treated as continuous values for linear regression analysis and as dichotomized values for logistic regression analysis. The parental history of AD was adjusted in the final models.Results The prevalence of AD at 4 years of age was 20.7% (n=799). The mean scores of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and TDS were significantly higher among children with AD than among those without AD. Linear regression analysis revealed increased scores for emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and TDS in association with AD. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significantly increased risk for conduct problems in children with AD.Conclusion This study found associations between AD at 4 years of age and emotional symptoms, conduct problems and TDS at 5 years of age. Further studies to assess the severity of AD and children's mental and behavioral problems at older ages are essential.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Dermatitis Atópica/psicología , Emociones , Salud Mental , Psicología Infantil , Factores de Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Dermatitis Atópica/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Análisis de Regresión , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Apoyo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239613, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002053

RESUMEN

Theoretical and empirical considerations suggest that individual differences in infant visual attention correlate with variations in cognitive skills later in childhood. Here we tested this hypothesis in infants from rural Malawi (n = 198-377, depending on analysis), who were assessed with eye tracking tests of visual orienting, anticipatory looks, and attention to faces at 9 months, and more conventional tests of cognitive control (A-not-B), motor, language, and socioemotional development at 18 months. The results showed no associations between measures of infant attention at 9 months and cognitive skills at 18 months, either in analyses linking infant visual orienting with broad cognitive outcomes or analyses linking specific constructs between the two time points (i.e., switching of anticipatory looks and manual reaching responses), as correlations varied between -0.08 and 0.14. Measures of physical growth, and family socioeconomic characteristics were also not correlated with cognitive outcomes at 18 months in the current sample (correlations between -0.10 and 0.19). The results do not support the use of the current tests of infant visual attention as a predictive tool for 18-month-old infants' cognitive skills in the Malawian setting. The results are discussed in light of the potential limitations of the employed infant tests as well as potentially unique characteristics of early cognitive development in low-resource settings.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Conducta del Lactante , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción Visual , Desarrollo Infantil , Cognición , Medidas del Movimiento Ocular , Movimientos Oculares , Femenino , Fijación Ocular , Humanos , Individualidad , Lactante , Conducta del Lactante/fisiología , Conducta del Lactante/psicología , Malaui , Masculino , Psicología Infantil , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 353-359, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030452

RESUMEN

Divorce is a life event with a high level of stress for the entire family. Research shows that the number of divorces is on a steady rise. Family is very important for development of the children and changes within the family, after the divorce, could make consequences on them. Children are dependent on parents and disadvantaged during divorce because it is out of their control. They cannot predict how long will it take and what will be the outcome of divorce which includes separation from close family members, school change, change of home, change of life style and so on. Children often lack information and skills to overcome the challenges that the divorce carries. Conflicting relationships between parents make up the biggest obstacle that makes it difficult for a child to successfully deal with changes in the family. Even though parents deal with heavy feelings, it is desirable to put them the child and his interests in the first place. In order to stabilize the family system it is needed 2 up to 4 years. Children differ from one another in the reactions to the divorce, but there are some emotional reactions that are characteristic for most children of divorced parents, and the most often children reactions are of depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger, lower self-esteem and so on. The emotional reactions of children during the divorce can vary relative to the gender and age of the child. However, the divorce of a parent does not necessarily have to be so negative for children, especially if parents behave in an adequate way and they endeavor to act in such a way to make this process as painless as possible for children.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Autoimagen , Adolescente , Trastornos de Ansiedad/prevención & control , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/prevención & control , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres/psicología
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 364-366, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030454

RESUMEN

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a spectrum disorder whose symptoms show psychological, neurobiological dysregulation and poorer functionality of a person on the social plane. PTSD characteristics are symptoms from four clusters: symptoms of intrusiveness, avoidance, negative changes in cognition and mood and changes in excitability and reactivity. Traumatic experiences of war veterans can have an impact on the development of psychopathology in their children's lives. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder of war veterans is negatively manifested in a broader sense through secondary traumatization and is manifested differently in relation to the period of childhood and adolescence. The period of childhood and adolescence represents a delicate and dynamic period that requires adaptation and functionality in adulthood. The epidemiological studies so far indicate the link between the post-traumatic stress disorder of war veterans with the mental problems of their children.


Asunto(s)
Hijo de Padres Discapacitados/psicología , Desgaste por Empatía/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Veteranos/psicología , Adolescente , Bosnia y Herzegovina , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 107, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076981

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Professional support to enhance the early parent-infant relationship in the first months after birth is recommended, but little is known about the effect of universal interventions. The objective was to investigate the effect of health visitors' use of the Newborn Behavioral Observations system in new families. METHODS: A cluster-randomised study was conducted in four Danish municipalities. Health visitors' geographical districts constituted the units for randomisation (n = 17). In the intervention group, 1332 families received NBO from 3 weeks after birth; in the comparison group, 1234 received usual care. Self-administered questionnaires were collected at baseline one to two weeks after birth, and at follow-up three and nine months postpartum. The outcomes were change over time measured by The Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS), The Major Depression Inventory (MDI), The Ages and Stages Questionnaire: social-emotional (ASQ:SE) and The Mother and Baby Interaction Scale (MABIC). Data were analysed with mixed-effects linear regression using the intention-to-treat approach. RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences between the two groups were seen regarding maternal and infant factors. At follow-up three and nine months after birth, the change in maternal confidence and mood, infant's socio-emotional behaviour, and early parent-infant relationship moved in a slightly more positive direction in the intervention group than in the comparison group, though not statistically significant. The only significant effect was that the intervention mothers reported higher level of knowledge about infant's communication skills, response to cues, and how to sooth and establish a relation with the infant, compared to the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: We found no effect of the NBO system delivered in a universal context to all families in a community setting. The only significant difference between groups was a higher maternal degree of knowledge regarding early parenting in the intervention group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03070652 . Registrated February 22, 2017.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Observación Conductual , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología
18.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 501-507, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073755

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A pandemic disaster has specific effects on mental health, however, little is known about those specific effects in children and adolescents. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a sample of children and adolescents and to compare the results with previous national data and other studies to determine variations. METHOD: A total of 459 children and adolescents in residential care, foster families, kinship families, or family strengthening programs under SOS Children's Villages Spain were evaluated using the SDQ to measure internalizing and externalizing problems and using KIDSCREEN-10 index to measure heath related quality of life. An independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA and the chi-square test were used. RESULTS: The children and adolescents in this study had worse psychological wellbeing than those in the 2017 Spanish reference, that is, before the COVID-19 outbreak. Quality of life remained the same. No differences between care modalities were found. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to monitor the mental health status of children and adolescents to prevent possible problems. Additionally, it is necessary to use well-known assessment instruments because it is essential to have a reference to other situations and populations.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Niño Adoptado/psicología , Niño Acogido/psicología , Niño Institucionalizado/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Adolescente , Niño , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Instituciones Residenciales , España , Poblaciones Vulnerables
19.
Fam Syst Health ; 38(3): 287-288, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955285

RESUMEN

Comments on article by Gormley et al. (2020). The current author discusses the original article's relevance to their professional experience as a clinician at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Discussed topics in the article include time and money, which are two of the three most anticipated barriers of programs interested in integration (space being the third). This study demonstrates the importance of sustained measurement over time; however, regularly conducting direct observations is a large use of resources and not feasible for most clinicians. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Psicología Infantil , Niño , Humanos
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900876

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: State mandates have required insurance companies to provide coverage for autism-related child health care services; however, it has not been determined if insurance mandates have improved the supply of child health care providers. We investigate the effect of state insurance mandates on the supply of child psychiatrists, pediatricians, and board-certified behavioral analysts (BCBAs). METHODS: We used data from the National Conference of State Legislatures and Health Resources and Services Administration's Area Health Resource Files to examine child psychiatrists, pediatricians, and BCBAs in all 50 states from 2003 to 2017. Fixed-effects regression models compared change in workforce density before versus one year after mandate implementation and the effect of mandate generosity across 44 US states implementing mandates between 2003 and 2017. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2017, child psychiatrists increased from 7.40 to 10.03 per 100 000 children, pediatricians from 62.35 to 68.86, and BCBAs from 1.34 to 29.88. Mandate introduction was associated with an additional increase of 0.77 BCBAs per 100 000 children (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18 to 1.42) one year after mandate enactment. Mandate introduction was also associated with a more modest increase among child psychiatrists (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.91) and was not associated with the prevalence of pediatricians (95% CI: -0.76 to 1.13). We also found evidence that more generous mandate benefits were associated with larger effects on workforce supply. CONCLUSIONS: State insurance mandates were associated with an ∼16% increase in BCBAs from 2003 to 2017, but the association with child psychiatrists was smaller and nonsignificant among pediatricians. In these findings, it is suggested that policies are needed that specifically address workforce constraints in the provision of services for children with autism spectrum disorder.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Psiquiatría Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura del Seguro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pediatras/provisión & distribución , Psicología Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Intervalos de Confianza , Estudios Transversales , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Análisis de Regresión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos/estadística & datos numéricos
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