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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMEN

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Psicología/historia , Ergonomía , Psicología Comparada , Psicología Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervioso
2.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 141-148, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183644

RESUMEN

En el marco de la Fuerza Internacional de Asistencia para la Seguridad (International Security Assistance Force, ISAF) de la OTAN, España mantuvo desplegado desde 2005 a 2014 en Herat (Afganistán) un Hospital Militar de Campaña (Role 2 Enhanced, en termi-nología OTAN) dotado, entre otras especialidades, de un Servicio de Psicología. Durante casi diez años de misión, los psicólogos mi-litares allí comisionados han ejercido diversas funciones, incluyendo la clínica-asistencial, asesora, preventiva y pericial, cuyo objetivo ha sido mejorar el bienestar y la salud psicológica de nuestro personal desplegado en zona de operaciones. En el presente trabajo se expone, a modo de lecciones aprendidas, una serie de reflexiones y propuestas al objeto de contribuir al mejor funcionamiento del Servicio de Psicología Militar en operaciones internacionales en el exterior y, por ende, a la mejora de la adaptación a las mismas de los contingentes que participan en ellas


Within the framework of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), a NATO-led mission, Spain deployed from 2005 to 2014 in Herat, Afghanistan, a (Role 2 Enhanced) military field hospital endowed with, among other health specialties, a psychology service. During almost ten years of mission, military psychologists commissioned there performed various functions and tasks, including clinical-assistance, support to commanders, preventive and expert duties, whose goal was to improve the well-being and psychological health of our personnel deployed in the area of operations. Lessons learned from this experience are presented in this paper. In this respect, several reflections and proposals are presented, the objective of which is to contribute to a better functioning of the military psychology service in international operations abroad and, therefore, to the improvement of the adaptation of our contingents engaged in these operations


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psicología Militar/métodos , Cooperación Internacional , Salud de la Familia , Adaptación Psicológica , Psicología Militar/instrumentación , Afganistán , Hospitales Militares , Promoción de la Salud
3.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 80-86, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886008

RESUMEN

This paper considers the manifestation and treatment of psychological trauma in the military. The article describes how military psychologists conceptualise psychological trauma within the culture of the Armed Forces (AF), which is reflected in the process of acquiring what has been referred to as cultural competency. Psychologists in this context acquire an understanding of the manner in which the psychological and organisational systems and culture of the military affect the presentation of psychological trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The paper outlines core psychological features of military life, including some of the ways in which the AF functions effectively as an adaptable fighting force. This highlights, for example, the potential for stigma within and between military personnel who experience mental health difficulties. The article proceeds to examine aspects of help-seeking in military mental healthcare, how symptoms can present at different stages in a deployment process, and the consequences that such problems can cause for military conduct and performance. Psychological care in the military is structured within an occupational mental health ethos, in which psychologists fulfil a range of clinical, organisational and leadership roles. These dynamics are explored with examples of care pathways and clarity on evidence-based interventions for trauma and PTSD in those experiencing military-related psychological injuries. Two vignettes are then offered to illustrate how some of these interventions can be used psychotherapeutically in addressing symptoms pertaining to hyperarousal, hypervigilance, guilt and shame.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Cultural , Medicina Militar , Psiquiatría Militar , Psicología Militar , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Humanos , Medicina Militar/organización & administración , Medicina Militar/normas , Personal Militar , Psiquiatría Militar/organización & administración , Psiquiatría Militar/normas , Psicología , Psicología Militar/organización & administración , Psicología Militar/normas
4.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 109-112, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711923

RESUMEN

The Department of Communication and Applied Behavioural Science is one of the three departments in the academic faculty at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. The aim of the Department is to equip officer cadets with the skills, knowledge and personal qualities in order for them to develop their own potential, as both individuals and leaders in the British Army. The members of the Department have a range of backgrounds, with most having served in various capacities across UK Defence, both in uniformed and/or civilian crown servant contexts. Several members of the faculty are qualified psychologists, while others have related academic and professional backgrounds. The academic and applied discipline of psychology is the fundamental thread that runs through the various courses and projects delivered by the Department. This paper provides a brief overview of the activities undertaken by the Department, with a specific focus on the psychology components of the academic and applied activities. Although mainly serving in academic teaching roles, this paper illustrates the work of the psychologists outside the classroom, such as via field exercises and deployments overseas. It also touches on the importance of the outreach undertaken by the psychologists in the Department, which supports their ongoing research.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar , Psicología Militar , Humanos , Psicología , Psicología Militar/educación , Psicología Militar/organización & administración , Reino Unido
5.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 94-97, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679182

RESUMEN

Military personnel can experience psychosexual difficulties for a variety of reasons. Problems can arise because of psychological trauma, physical injury, consequences arising from pharmacological and surgical complications and social or emotional concerns relating to intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship dynamics. Such individuals might seek to minimise or avoid resolving their pertinent difficulties, while others can experience cultural, personal or organisational barriers to accessing professional help. This paper offers an overview of the development of a national specialist psychosexual therapy service (PST), commenting specifically on the service delivery for male military personnel. It will also consider factors which may support progress in treatment and reflect upon the importance of considering psychosexual functioning in relationships as part of the broader service-life context, which is especially relevant to military personnel.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Militar , Psicología Militar , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/terapia , Genitales Masculinos/lesiones , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Militar/métodos , Medicina Militar/organización & administración , Personal Militar , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Psicología Militar/métodos , Psicología Militar/organización & administración , Reino Unido
7.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 133-135, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341168

RESUMEN

The tri-Service Armed Forces Continuous Attitude Survey, commonly known as AFCAS, was introduced in 2007 to coherently assess and monitor the attitudes of Regular Service personnel in key policy and management areas and is used by groups internal and external to the Ministry of Defence. It is a statistically valid and robust survey which is annually distributed to almost 28 000 regular serving personnel. AFCAS data have been used to inform the development and evaluation of a wide range of personnel policies, including remuneration, accommodation, flexible working, career management and training. AFCAS allows for the tracking of attitudes over time, as well as the analysis of differences between respondent cohorts. AFCAS is well regarded as it is a one-stop shop survey for strategic personnel issues. This article describes the purpose, content, conduct and use of the survey to inform Armed Forces personnel policy.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar , Psicología Militar/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Actitud , Humanos , Personal Militar/psicología , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido
9.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 113-115, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429290

RESUMEN

The following article provides an overview of the research psychology capabilities within MOD's Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl). An explanation is provided of the role of Dstl psychologists and the way they work to deliver impacting applied scientific research to address 'real world' defence and security challenges. Three short case studies are provided to illustrate the range of work they delivered.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar/psicología , Psicología Militar , Investigación , Medidas de Seguridad , Humanos , Terrorismo/prevención & control , Reino Unido
10.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 124-127, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446506

RESUMEN

Psychologists first became prominent within the Armed Forces largely as a result of their contributions to military systems, operations and personnel during the First and Second World Wars. In the early years of the 20th century, as psychology was becoming a profession in its own right, its association with the military arose within the emerging concept of 'shell shock' during World War I and supporting selection activities in World War II. There are approximately 25 occupational psychologists currently employed within the Ministry of Defence (MoD), operating across all branches of the MoD, within the department of the Chief of Defence Personnel, the UK Defence Academy and a small number at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The aim of this paper is to discuss the history and current application of occupational psychology within the UK MoD.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Psicología Militar , Humanos , Medicina Militar/organización & administración , Personal Militar , Reino Unido
11.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 128-132, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530791

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) policy and strategy recommend the use of a 'Defence MODified' version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool to help managers identify risks of work-related stress among Defence personnel. The Defence MODified Tool ('Stress Indicator Survey') asks personnel to rate their perceptions of eight working conditions known to be significantly associated with work-related stress. MOD psychologists are developing a Defence norm group against which future survey scores can be compared. This article describes the use of the Stress Indicator Survey in MOD and gives an overview of findings from 2016 to 2018. METHOD: MOD psychologists conducted 27 Stress Indicator Surveys in 2016-2018. Data were collated from 6227 personnel for the Defence norm group and comparisons were conducted between Service personnel and MOD civil servants, and between Services (Royal Navy/Royal Marines (RN/RM), Army and Royal Air Force (RAF)). RESULTS: Service personnel had significantly more favourable perceptions than MOD civil servants of most working conditions. The RN/RM had significantly more favourable perceptions than either the Army or the RAF of all working conditions. These findings indicate differential risks of work-related stress in different groups of personnel. DISCUSSION: Possible explanations for the observed differences in risk of work-related stress are discussed, including the nature of military life and planned changes to Defence civilian headcount. Examples of managerial actions to improve working conditions based on individual survey findings are given.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar/psicología , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Laboral , Psicología Militar , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Reino Unido
14.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 106-108, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580281

RESUMEN

This paper will explain the concept behind mental resilience training (MRT) and how the training package was developed and implemented within the British ArmyInfantry Training Centre (ITC) Catterick between 2014 and 2016. MRT is a mindfulness-based psychological skills training package that integrates cognitive behavioural and mindfulness based principles and techniques, which have been proven to improve stress regulation, emotional and cognitive control and self-confidence in military personnel. MRT is based on an extensive evidence base that has demonstrated that psychological skills training delivers tangible improvements in performance in elite sport and in healthcare, business and military contexts. The initial trials at the ITC Catterick have delivered tangible improvements in infantry recruits' use of psychological skills within real-life training contexts.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Personal Militar , Psicología Militar , Humanos , Medicina Militar , Atención Plena , Reino Unido
15.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(2): 90-96, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563846

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a military resilience intervention which aimed to help UK military recruits to manage their personal health and well-being more effectively. METHODS: Trainers within six pre-existing training teams were randomly allocated by team to deliver a resilience-based intervention (SPEAR) or usual training (control) during recruit training. 23 trainers delivered SPEAR; 18 delivered the control training. 707 recruits participated (n=358 SPEAR and n=349 controls). Outcome measures were obtained before and after recruit training and 3 months later. Measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms, alcohol use, homesickness and mental health stigmatisation were obtained at baseline. Repeat baseline scales plus measures of help-seeking, cohesion, leadership and training impact were obtained at the two follow-up points. RESULTS: Response rates were 91.7% (baseline), 98.1% (post) and 73.6% (follow-up). Following adjustment for potential confounders, levels of PTSD, CMD symptoms, alcohol misuse, help-seeking and homesickness were not significantly different between groups at any measurement point. Stigmatisation was significantly lower among SPEAR recipients at baseline but was not significantly different at the two follow-up points. Following adjustment for mental health confounders, there were no significant between-group differences in perceptions of leadership and cohesion and in ratings of six training outcomes at the two follow-up points. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that resilience-based training had any specific benefit to the health and well-being of UK military recruits.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Personal Militar/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Salud Mental , Psicología Militar , Reino Unido
16.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 102-105, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573699

RESUMEN

Mindfulness approaches to promoting resilience and mental fitness within the UK Armed Forces have very recently emerged against a backdrop of studies from abroad, leading to a plethora of initiatives. These studies have used biological and cognitive markers of sustained attention and the human stress response, before and after training, in the period prior to deployment and made assertions of effectiveness on this basis. Progress has similarly been made in applying versions of mindfulness meditation to veteran patient groups with several difficult-to-treat conditions, to combat high dropout from services when little patient choice is offered. In short, a case has been made for offering mindfulness interventions as a further treatment option in combination with other approaches to maximise engagement with mental health services. Meanwhile, within the mindfulness literature more and more focus has been placed on ways to improve treatment fidelity and enhance teacher competency, and investment in teacher training is seen as essential for successful outcomes in any controlled trial.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Medicina Militar , Personal Militar , Atención Plena , Psicología Militar , Humanos , Salud Mental , Resiliencia Psicológica , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Reino Unido
17.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 68-70, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415213

RESUMEN

Military psychology is a specialist discipline within applied psychology. It entails the application of psychological science to military operations, systems and personnel. The specialty was formally founded during World War I in the UK and the USA, and it was integral to many early concepts and interventions for psychological and neuropsychological trauma. It also established a fundamental basis for the psychological assessment and selection of military personnel. During and after World War II, military psychology continued to make significant contributions to aviation psychology, cognitive testing, rehabilitation psychology and many models of psychotherapy. Military psychology now consists of several subspecialties, including clinical, research and occupational psychology, with the latter often referred to in the USA as industrial/organisational psychology. This article will provide an overview of the origins, history and current composition of military psychology in the UK, with select international illustrations also being offered.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Militar/historia , Personal Militar , Psiquiatría Militar/historia , Psicología Militar/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Personal Militar/historia , Personal Militar/psicología , Primera Guerra Mundial , Segunda Guerra Mundial
18.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 98-101, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415214

RESUMEN

The consumption of alcohol in the UK Armed Forces (AF) as 'an agent to assist cohesion and informal operational debriefing' is a social and psychological conceptualisation that has some empirical support. Indisputable data exist to suggest that high levels of alcohol misuse and related problems are prevalent among UK AF. Recent research indicates that the overall level of hazardous alcohol consumption remains high in the UK military, with little evidence of reduced consumption over time. Meanwhile, risky drinking in the general population appears to be decreasing. This paper describes work to develop a key aspect of an integrated care pathway for UK military personnel at all levels of alcohol risk. The project focuses on the development of an evidence-based treatment response across primary care and mental health services that will link with preventative initiatives. Specialist (ie, substance misuse) input from the Defence Clinical Psychology Service across and within Departments of Community Mental Health lends an overarching perspective to a major healthcare and organisational concern for the UK AF. Work towards a consistent treatment pathway for alcohol misuse is also benefiting from collaboration between the Ministry of Defence and Public Health England.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/terapia , Personal Militar , Psicología Militar , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Militar , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Reino Unido
19.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 87-89, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415217

RESUMEN

Neuropsychological testing has been used in a wide range of applications across military settings, including the selection of personnel to engage in covert operations, battlefield assessment and rehabilitation following blast exposure, traumatic brain injury, other neurological conditions and assessment of malingering. Over recent decades, military psychologists have helped to shape the advances in assessing and remediating the psychological sequela that is associated with operationally related neurological and other physical injuries. This paper will present an overview of some of the neuropsychological and related services within the UK Armed Forces, which are provided to service personnel with traumatic brain and other physical injuries.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Militar/organización & administración , Neuropsicología/organización & administración , Psicología Clínica/organización & administración , Psicología Militar/organización & administración , Humanos , Psiquiatría Militar/organización & administración , Reino Unido
20.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 120-123, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415220

RESUMEN

During the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, many UK military personnel were killed or injured by improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Insurgents sought to develop new ways of concealing and detonating IEDs, and UK forces invested significantly in finding increasingly effective methods of detecting and avoiding them. Between 2010 and 2014 the UK's Defence Science and Technology Laboratory's Human and Social Sciences Group (HSSG) was asked to investigate the factors that might affect the performance of specialist search teams in the identification of IEDs. They sought to ascertain ways to improve effectiveness and maximise safety through training, human factors advice on equipment design, and recommendations on changes to tactics techniques and procedures. This paper provides a short summary of some of the research conducted that underpinned the advice and recommendations that were provided. The research conducted by HSSG, in collaboration with industry and academia, helped ensure that search teams had the best possible training, advice and equipment.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar/psicología , Psicología Militar , Rendimiento Laboral , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Humanos , Seguridad , Reino Unido , Guerra
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