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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1049-1067, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994958

RESUMEN

Recorrentemente, o psicólogo-historiador se vê diante da questão, endereçada por seus pares ou alunos: por que estudar História da Psicologia? Tal questão é tão recorrente que livros-texto de História da Psicologia reservam um espaço para apresentar respostas, justificativas, a tal provocação. Diante disso, este artigo endereça uma resposta a tal questão, a partir da hipótese de que a História da Psicologia é uma ferramenta para compreensão de rupturas e permanências de fenômenos históricos vinculados aos campos Psi e, esta compreensão, nos auxilia em uma visão mais crítica do presente. Para atingir tal objetivo, são apresentados dois exemplos de questões históricas, mais ainda contemporâneas, na Psicologia brasileira: (a) a definição de campos de atuação e técnicas de atuação do psicólogo e (b) discursos e práticas normatizantes com pessoas homossexuais. Assim, a partir de tais exemplos que nos permitem ver a história na Psicologia e, também, a Psicologia na história, conclui-se que a História da Psicologia pode, sim, contribuir com uma análise mais crítica do momento presente. Para tanto, faz-se necessário a pesquisa em História da Psicologia e o ensino de sua história, para uma formação crítica do psicólogo brasileiro.(AU)


Frequently, the psychologist-historian of Psychology finds himself faced with the question, addressed by his peers or students: why should we study the History of Psychology? Textbooks on the History of Psychology reserve some sections to present such justifications to their readers, indeed. Therefore, we aim to give an answer to that question, based on the hypothesis that the History of Psychology is a tool for understanding ruptures and permanencies of Psychological phenomena in the history, and this understanding helps us to build up a more critical view of the present. In order to achieve that goal, two examples of historical issues in Brazilian Psychology ­ that are still contemporary - are presented: (a) the definition of fields of application and their techniques, and (b) normative discourses and practices with homosexual people. Thus, from such examples that allow us to see history in Psychology and also Psychology in history, we conclude that the History of Psychology would contribute for a more critical analysis of the present. Therefore, it is necessary to research in History of Psychology and to teach its history, for a critical formation of the Brazilian psychologist.(AU)


Frecuentemente, el psicólogo-historiador se ve ante la cuestión, direccionada por sus pares o alumnos: ¿por qué estudiar Historia de la Psicología? Tal cuestión es tan recurrente que libros didácticos de Historia de la Psicología reservan un espacio para presentar respuestas, justificaciones, a tal provocación. Por lo tanto, este artículo brinda una respuesta a tal cuestión, a partir de la hipótesis de que la Historia de la Psicología constituye una herramienta para la comprensión de rupturas y permanencias de fenómenos históricos vinculados a los saberes Psi y que esta comprensión nos auxilia en una visión más crítica del presente. Para alcanzar tal objetivo, se presentan dos ejemplos de cuestiones históricas, más aún contemporáneas, en la Psicología brasileña: (a) la definición de campos de actuación y técnicas de actuación del psicólogo y (b) discursos y prácticas de normativización con personas homosexuales. Así, a partir de tales ejemplos que nos permiten ver la historia en la Psicología y, también, la Psicología en la historia, se concluye que la Historia de la Psicología sí puede contribuir a un análisis más crítico del momento presente. Para ello, se hace necesaria la investigación en Historia de la Psicología y la enseñanza de su historia, para una formación crítica del psicólogo brasileño.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psicología/historia , Psicología/métodos , Enseñanza/psicología , Psicología
2.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1596-1618, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515732

RESUMEN

A worrying number of psychological findings are not replicable. Diagnoses of the causes of this "replication crisis," and recommendations to address it, have nearly exclusively focused on methods of data collection, analysis, and reporting. We argue that a further cause of poor replicability is the often weak logical link between theories and their empirical tests. We propose a distinction between discovery-oriented and theory-testing research. In discovery-oriented research, theories do not strongly imply hypotheses by which they can be tested, but rather define a search space for the discovery of effects that would support them. Failures to find these effects do not question the theory. This endeavor necessarily engenders a high risk of Type I errors-that is, publication of findings that will not replicate. Theory-testing research, by contrast, relies on theories that strongly imply hypotheses, such that disconfirmation of the hypothesis provides evidence against the theory. Theory-testing research engenders a smaller risk of Type I errors. A strong link between theories and hypotheses is best achieved by formalizing theories as computational models. We critically revisit recommendations for addressing the "replication crisis," including the proposal to distinguish exploratory from confirmatory research, and the preregistration of hypotheses and analysis plans.


Asunto(s)
Teoría Psicológica , Psicología/métodos , Error Experimental , Simulación por Computador , Recolección de Datos , Humanos , Lógica , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
3.
Psychol Methods ; 24(5): 606-621, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464466

RESUMEN

Most meta-analyses focus on the behavior of meta-analytic means. In many cases, however, this mean is difficult to defend as a construct because the underlying distribution of studies reflects many factors, including how we as researchers choose to design studies. We present an alternative goal for meta-analysis. The analyst may ask about relations that are stable across all the studies. In a typical meta-analysis, there is a hypothesized direction (e.g., that violent video games increase, rather than decrease, aggressive behavior). We ask whether all studies in a meta-analysis have true effects in the hypothesized direction. If so, this is an example of a stable relation across all the studies. We propose 4 models: (a) all studies are truly null; (b) all studies share a single true nonzero effect; (c) studies differ, but all true effects are in the same direction; and (d) some study effects are truly positive, whereas others are truly negative. We develop Bayes factor model comparison for these models and apply them to 4 extant meta-analyses to show their usefulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Modelos Estadísticos , Psicología/métodos , Humanos
4.
Health Psychol ; 38(9): 769-771, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436462

RESUMEN

This special issue highlights the unique potential that health psychology-behavioral medicine has to dramatically contribute to understanding, prevention, and control of the growing prevalence of multimorbidity (i.e., concurrent prevalence of more than 1 chronic health disease or condition in an individual). The 9 articles published here include 8 full, peer-reviewed articles and an invited commentary. Topics include relevance, measurement, mechanisms, and interventions for multimorbidity. Some articles survey relevant empirical literature, detail the representation of multimorbidity in behavioral intervention trials, or present new empirical data, whereas others present guidelines and system-level proposals to improve health care for patients with multiple health conditions. These articles offer proposals, challenges, and future directions for which health psychology-behavioral medicine is admirably suited to contribute to understanding multimorbidity and improving public health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Medicina de la Conducta/métodos , Multimorbilidad/tendencias , Psicología/métodos , Enfermedad Crónica , Humanos
5.
Health Psychol ; 38(9): 772-782, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436463

RESUMEN

The increasing prevalence of multimorbidity in the United States and the rest of the world poses problems for patients and for health care providers, care systems, and policy. After clarifying the difference between comorbidity and multimorbidity, this article describes the challenges that the prevalence of multimorbidity presents for well-being, prevention, and medical treatment. We submit that health psychology and behavioral medicine have an important role to play in meeting these challenges because of the holistic vision of health afforded by the foundational biopsychosocial model. Furthermore, opportunities abound for health psychology/behavioral medicine to study how biological, social and psychological factors influence multimorbidity. This article describes three major areas in which health psychologists can contribute to understanding and treatment of multimorbidity: (a) etiology; (b) prevention and self-management; and (c) clinical care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Medicina de la Conducta/métodos , Multimorbilidad/tendencias , Psicología/métodos , Enfermedad Crónica , Humanos
6.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(8): 892-903, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318245

RESUMEN

Centrality indices are a popular tool to analyze structural aspects of psychological networks. As centrality indices were originally developed in the context of social networks, it is unclear to what extent these indices are suitable in a psychological network context. In this article we critically examine several issues with the use of the most popular centrality indices in psychological networks: degree, betweenness, and closeness centrality. We show that problems with centrality indices discussed in the social network literature also apply to the psychological networks. Assumptions underlying centrality indices, such as presence of a flow and shortest paths, may not correspond with a general theory of how psychological variables relate to one another. Furthermore, the assumptions of node distinctiveness and node exchangeability may not hold in psychological networks. We conclude that, for psychological networks, betweenness and closeness centrality seem especially unsuitable as measures of node importance. We therefore suggest three ways forward: (a) using centrality measures that are tailored to the psychological network context, (b) reconsidering existing measures of importance used in statistical models underlying psychological networks, and (c) discarding the concept of node centrality entirely. Foremost, we argue that one has to make explicit what one means when one states that a node is central, and what assumptions the centrality measure of choice entails, to make sure that there is a match between the process under study and the centrality measure that is used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Modelos Estadísticos , Psicología/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Humanos
7.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 41, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248463

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A theoretical model of mindful parenting has the potential to succinctly summarise its various change processes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate some of the change processes associated with mindful parenting, namely, the affect regulation, somatic and social change processes. A secondary aim was to verify whether clinical insights are consistent with the change processes identified in a systematic review of mindful parenting. METHOD: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse semi-structured interviews with four Australian clinicians delivering Mindful Parenting (MP) programs. The clinicians had extensive personal meditation practice. This qualitative study is part of a mixed methods study, which commenced with a quantitative systematic review. RESULTS: Six higher-order themes identified as change processes included reflective functioning, attachment, cognitive, affective, somatic and social change processes. CONCLUSION: The anchor is a new theoretical model summarising the change processes associated with mindful parenting. The mother portrayed as the extended nervous system for the infant is a neologism that also has not been previously mentioned in the literature. Given the limitations with the small sample and potential bias with interpretation, the anchor is a starting point to developing a theoretical model of mindful parenting. Future research with larger sample sizes and objective measures is needed to confirm whether the anchor is a reasonable summary of the change processes.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Teoría Psicológica , Cambio Social , Adulto , Anciano , Australia , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres/psicología , Psicología/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
Health Psychol ; 38(10): 925-935, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120273

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Previous literature has shown an inconsistent relationship between physical activity and stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity. Use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) may facilitate detecting such a relationship. In this study, the moderating effects of regular physical activity on the magnitude of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) responses to psychosocial stressors experienced in daily life were examined. METHOD: Four hundred seventy-seven healthy working adults (ages 30-54) provided ABP readings and recorded their daily experiences, using electronic diaries (ED), over 4 monitoring days. Measures of momentary Task Strain (high demand, low control) and Social Conflict (rating of recent social interaction quality) were used as indices of stressor exposure, and an accelerometry device was used to create 2 indices of physical activity: weekly average and recent (30 min prior to each ED interview). Multilevel models were used to examine the moderating between- and within-person effects of physical activity on ABP fluctuations corresponding with the momentary psychosocial stressors. RESULTS: Weekly physical activity moderated the effects of ABP responses to Task Strain (systolic blood pressure [SBP]: p = .033; diastolic blood pressure [DBP]: p = .028) and Social Conflict (DBP: p = .020), with significant increases in SBP and DBP shown for less physically active individuals but not for more physically active individuals. Similarly, recent physical activity moderated within-person DBP responses to Task Strain (p = .025), with greater DBP increases following less active periods. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that weekly and recent physical activity may moderate the effects of ABP responses to daily psychosocial stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/métodos , Ejercicio/psicología , Psicología/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
Rehabil Psychol ; 64(2): 105-110, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985180

RESUMEN

Rehabilitation psychology uniquely incorporates a holistic, psychosocial perspective encompassing all aspects of disability, with a particular focus on the connection between disabled people and the social environment. This article introduces a special issue of Rehabilitation Psychology on diversity and social justice in disability research. The 13 articles in this special issue coalesce around the 3 themes of (a) critical disability identity theory, (b) discrimination and prejudice, and (c) health disparities in the context of disability. This article introduces each of these articles and draws upon the work contained in this special issue to highlight important future directions for research on diversity and social justice in disability across the following areas: (a) nondisabled privilege, (b) rehabilitation versus cure versus adjustment, (c) diverse modes of knowing, and (d) a priori diversity and strength-based measures. This special issue helps rehabilitation psychologists consider how they can best fulfill their social justice, human rights, and advocacy missions in order to advance access and inclusion with and for diverse groups of disabled people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Diversidad Cultural , Personas con Discapacidad/rehabilitación , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Prejuicio/prevención & control , Psicología/métodos , Justicia Social/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Humanos
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 151: 106-113, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959148

RESUMEN

AIMS: Psychosocial variables influence chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. While there is evidence for a negative impact of depression, much less is known about stable, personality oriented factors. Aim of the study was to assess the impact of depression and personality functioning on glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Seventy-five adult individuals with a first diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were consecutively recruited in an outpatient medical practice. Plasma glucose (HbA1c) was measured at initial contact, and after three and six months of a standardized disease management program. Depression was assessed by self-report (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-D), levels of personality functioning with the screening version of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis structure questionnaire (OPD-SQS). RESULTS: Using mixed regression models, OPD-SQS scores were associated with lower baseline levels of HbA1c, but a less steep decline over time. PHQ-D scores were neither associated with intercept nor with slopes of HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: In type 2 diabetes, levels of personality functioning but not depression predicted decline in plasma glucose during the first six months of a standardized disease management program. Personality functioning may be especially important in chronic diseases that demand a high level of compliance and lifestyle change.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicología , Personalidad/fisiología , Psicología/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Psychol Methods ; 24(5): 637-657, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998041

RESUMEN

Inferring reciprocal effects or causality between variables is a central aim of behavioral and psychological research. To address reciprocal effects, a variety of longitudinal models that include cross-lagged relations have been proposed in different contexts and disciplines. However, the relations between these cross-lagged models have not been systematically discussed in the literature. This lack of insight makes it difficult for researchers to select an appropriate model when analyzing longitudinal data, and some researchers do not even think about alternative cross-lagged models. The present research provides a unified framework that clarifies the conceptual and mathematical similarities and differences between these models. The unified framework shows that existing longitudinal models can be effectively classified based on whether the model posits unique factors and/or dynamic residuals and what types of common factors are used to model changes. The latter is essential to understand how cross-lagged parameters are interpreted. We also present an example using empirical data to demonstrate that there is great risk of drawing different conclusions depending on the cross-lagged models used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Desarrollo Humano , Individualidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Modelos Estadísticos , Psicología/métodos , Humanos
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 126: 95-108, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010507

RESUMEN

How a social episode is perceived by a person and how the experience affects her/his subsequent behaviors will inevitably and sometimes accidentally vary in each case on the developmental trajectory from the birth of consciousness to death. Both the preceding developmental conditions and the social impact of the episode become a starting point for the following states of human complex conditions, creating the extraordinary diversity that characterizes our complex society. In this evolutionarily carved landscape, genetic factors including stochastic epistasis, environmental modification, and gene-environment interactions are all active. In these processes, interactions between developmental social vulnerability and environmental influences can lead to the emergence and persistence of some derivative states with social maladaptation. In our model, every psychiatric condition including aberrant paranoid-hallucinatory states is classified as a derivative state. The probability distribution curve for these derivative states has a non-linear relationship with the liability in the population, and there is none with probability 1.0 or zero. Individuals with trivial social vulnerability or high resilience may develop the derivative states in tremendously stressful circumstances, and individuals with huge social vulnerability may not necessarily develop the derivative states in the presence of adequate social supports. Social skillfulness/unskillfulness and behavioral flexibility/inflexibility form the core of the vulnerability-related dimensions. The clinical picture of a derivative manifestation is profiled depending on the individual trait levels in the derivative-related dimensions. Each derivative state has a requisite lineup of dimensions and each dimension can contribute to multiple psychiatric conditions. For example, aberrant paranoid-hallucinatory states and bipolar condition may share some developmental conditions as the derivative-related dimensions. Therefore, multiple derivative states can co-occur or be sequentially comorbid. Although the 'learned strategies' can ostensibly mask the clinical manifestation of developmental deviations, the change of the true dimensional position to the socially skillful direction is efficiently obtained through social experiences in a supportive environment. The liability-probability model makes it impossible to discriminate individuals with psychiatric diagnosis from individuals without the diagnosis and allows all of us to reside in the same human complex diversity.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/fisiopatología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/fisiopatología , Trastornos Mentales/fisiopatología , Psiquiatría/normas , Psicología/normas , Trastornos Psicóticos/fisiopatología , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Conducta Social , Adulto , Trastorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Conducta , Niño , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/fisiopatología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/diagnóstico , Epistasis Genética , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiopatología , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Paranoides/diagnóstico , Trastornos Paranoides/fisiopatología , Fenotipo , Trastornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Fóbicos/fisiopatología , Probabilidad , Psiquiatría/métodos , Psicología/métodos , Psicopatología , Trastornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Cambio Social , Procesos Estocásticos , Estrés Psicológico , Intento de Suicidio
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1766): 20180140, 2019 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966925

RESUMEN

Risk preference is one of the most important building blocks of choice theories in the behavioural sciences. In economics, it is often conceptualized as preferences concerning the variance of monetary payoffs, whereas in psychology, risk preference is often thought to capture the propensity to engage in behaviour with the potential for loss or harm. Both concepts are associated with distinct measurement traditions: economics has traditionally relied on behavioural measures, while psychology has often relied on self-reports. We review three important gaps that have emerged from work stemming from these two measurement traditions: first, a description-experience gap which suggests that behavioural measures do not speak with one voice and can give very different views on an individual's appetite for risk; second, a behaviour-self-report gap which suggests that different self-report measures, but not behavioural measures, show a high degree of convergent validity; and, third, a temporal stability gap which suggests that self-reports, but not behavioural measures, show considerable temporal stability across periods of years. Risk preference, when measured through self-reports-but not behavioural tests-appears as a moderately stable psychological trait with both general and domain-specific components. We argue that future work needs to address the gaps that have emerged from the two measurement traditions and test their differential predictive validity for important economic, health and well-being outcomes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Risk taking and impulsive behaviour: fundamental discoveries, theoretical perspectives and clinical implications'.


Asunto(s)
Psicología/métodos , Asunción de Riesgos , Autoinforme , Humanos , Psicología/instrumentación
14.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2 (Supl)): 211-213, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1009998

RESUMEN

Trata-se de um artigo de reflexão que visa contextualizar, a partir da literatura e da prática, a atuação do psicólogo nos cuidados paliativos, especificamente em cardiologia. A abordagem dos cuidados paliativos em cardiologia está ainda sendo desenvolvida; teve origem com pacientes terminais de câncer. O psicólogo paliativista que atua junto à equipe multidisciplinar abrange várias áreas, como a biológica, psicológica, religiosa, espiritual, social e familiar. A atuação visa o atendimento aos pacientes, familiares e equipe, oferecendo suporte para a melhor qualidade de vida naquele momento. O psicólogo participa das conferências familiares, abre espaços para a discussão de casos, promove encontros multidisciplinares, cuida do burnout da equipe, lida com os conflitos e implementa as habilidades de comunicação. O instrumento fundamental para o trabalho é a melhora constante da comunicação, que visa agregar e harmonizar a equipe, diminuir os conflitos e impactos nas relações com o paciente, a família e os membros, esclarecendo, orientando e diminuindo a dor como um todo. Desse modo, cria uma rede de continência e um projeto terapêutico para as necessidades de cada paciente e família


This is a reflection article that aims to contextualize, based on the literature and practice, the work of the psychologist in palliative care, specifically in cardiology. The palliative care approach in cardiology is still being developed; it originated with terminal cancer patients. The palliative psychologist who works alongside the multidisciplinary team covers various areas such as biological, psychological, religious, spiritual, social and family-related. Their work aims to provide care to patients, families and staff, offering support for the best quality of life at that time. The psychologist participates in family meetings, opens spaces for discussion of cases, promotes multidisciplinary meetings, takes care of team burnout, deals with conflicts, and implements communication skills. The essential tool for the work is the constant improvement of communication, which aims to bring together and fine-tune the team, reduce conflicts and impacts in the relations with the patient, the family and the members, clarifying, guiding and reducing the overall pain. Thus, the psychologist creates a network of moderation and a therapeutic project for the needs of each patient and family


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Cuidados Paliativos/historia , Psicología/métodos , Cardiología , Calidad de Vida , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Medicina Paliativa/métodos , Relaciones Interprofesionales
15.
Psychol Methods ; 24(3): 291-308, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816727

RESUMEN

Response surface analysis (RSA) is a statistical approach that enables researchers to test congruence hypotheses; the proposition that the degree of congruence between people's values in 2 psychological constructs should be positively or negatively related to their value in an outcome variable. This is done by estimating a polynomial regression model and using the graph of the model and several parameters as a guide to interpret the resulting regression coefficients in terms of the congruence hypothesis. One problem with using RSA in applied research is that the model and the interpretation of the model's parameters in terms of congruence effects have only been thoroughly developed for single-level data. Here, we present an extension of RSA to multilevel data. Among other things we show how the standard errors can be computed and how researchers can decide whether the occurrence of a congruence effect depends on a Level 2 covariate. We illustrate the suggested extension with 2 examples that guide readers through the test of congruence effects in the case of multilevel data. We also provide R scripts that researchers can adopt to conduct multilevel RSA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Bioestadística/métodos , Modelos Estadísticos , Análisis Multinivel , Psicología/métodos , Análisis de Regresión , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción Personal
16.
Psychol Methods ; 24(5): 590-605, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816728

RESUMEN

Power analysis serves as the gold standard for evaluating study feasibility and justifying sample size. However, mainstream power analysis is often oversimplified, poorly reflecting complex reality during data analysis. This article highlights the complexities inherent in power analysis, especially when uncertainties present in data analysis are realistically taken into account. We introduce a Bayesian-classical hybrid approach to power analysis, which formally incorporates three sources of uncertainty into power estimates: (a) epistemic uncertainty regarding the unknown values of the effect size of interest, (b) sampling variability, and (c) uncertainty due to model approximation (i.e., models fit data imperfectly; Box, 1979; MacCallum, 2003). To illustrate the nature of estimated power from the Bayesian-classical hybrid method, we juxtapose its power estimates with those obtained from traditional (i.e., classical or frequentist) and Bayesian approaches. We employ an example in lexical processing (e.g., Yap & Seow, 2014) to illustrate underlying concepts and provide accompanying R and Rcpp code for computing power via the Bayesian-classical hybrid method. In general, power estimates become more realistic and much more varied after uncertainties are incorporated into their computation. As such, sample sizes should be determined by assurance (i.e., the mean of the power distribution) and the extent of variability in power estimates (e.g., interval width between 20th and 80th percentiles of the power distribution). We discuss advantages and challenges of incorporating the three stated sources of uncertainty into power analysis and, more broadly, research design. Finally, we conclude with future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Estadísticos , Psicología/métodos , Incertidumbre , Humanos
17.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 47(5): 559-572, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychological treatments provide many benefits for patients with psychiatric disorders, but research also suggests that negative effects might occur from the interventions involved. The Negative Effects Questionnaire (NEQ) has previously been developed as a way of determining the occurrence and characteristics of such incidents, consisting of 32 items and six factors. However, the NEQ has yet to be examined using modern test theory, which could help to improve the understanding of how well the instrument works psychometrically. AIMS: The current study investigated the reliability and validity of the NEQ from both a person and item perspective, establishing goodness-of-fit, item bias, and scale precision. METHOD: The NEQ was distributed to 564 patients in five clinical trials at post-treatment. Data were analysed using Rasch analysis, i.e. a modern test theory application. RESULTS: (1) the NEQ exhibits fairness in testing across sociodemographics, (2) shows comparable validity for a final and condensed scale of 20 instead of 32 items, (3) uses a rating scale that advances monotonically in steps of 0 to 4, and (4) is suitable for monitoring negative effects on an item-level. CONCLUSIONS: The NEQ is proposed as a useful instrument for investigating negative effects in psychological treatments, and its newer shorter format could facilitate its use in clinical and research settings. However, further research is needed to explore the relationship between negative effects and treatment outcome, as well as to test it in more diverse patient populations.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Psicología/métodos , Psicometría/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultados Negativos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
18.
Death Stud ; 43(2): 79-91, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907718

RESUMEN

The death of a significant person, especially when it comes tragically or prematurely, can shake the foundations of our assumptive and relational world and lead to anguished attempts to find meaning in the loss and in our lives in its aftermath. In this article, I review one program of research focused on this attempt at meaning reconstruction, describe recently developed measures of meaning in mourning, and discuss several therapeutic techniques for helping clients make sense of the death and rework their attachment relationship to the deceased. I conclude by illustrating some of this work in my therapy with a couple grieving the loss of not one but two children to tragic accidents, as they try to adapt to a compound traumatic bereavement.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Aflicción , Psicología/métodos , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Familia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Pruebas Psicológicas , Proyectos de Investigación , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Rehabil Psychol ; 64(2): 146-153, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843718

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Intersectionality has been increasingly prevalent in the rehabilitation literature. It has been warned, however, that there can be a flattening of intersectionality should social scientists exclude the various systemic paradigms which contribute to, and sustain, marginalization. In seeking a remedy to this issue, the article establishes an intersectional ecological framework for use in rehabilitation psychology. Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, the article posits a framework both visually and conceptually, that can be used to discuss the intersection of identities in each system. DESIGN: The current article is a review of literature about intersectionality, disability, and discrimination, for the purpose of establishing a gap in theory that makes the current paper necessary. RESULTS: The establishment of an intersectional ecological framework for use in rehabilitation psychology and its related fields. The newly developed framework is then exemplified using discrimination. IMPLICATIONS: The intersectional ecological framework provides myriad opportunities for researchers, practitioners, and educators. The ability to theoretically discuss intersectionality through the lens of ecological systems theory will allow for thorough work in this area. Specifically, this framework will allow researchers to consider multiple systemic levels in exploration of identity-related issues for individuals with disabilities and provides a way for practitioners to see the complicated intersections individuals are experiencing at any given time. Ultimately, this framework has the potential to improve much of the understanding and treatment of people with disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/rehabilitación , Prejuicio/psicología , Prejuicio/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicología/métodos , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
20.
Psychol Methods ; 24(5): 539-556, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742472

RESUMEN

Learning about hypothesis evaluation using the Bayes factor could enhance psychological research. In contrast to null-hypothesis significance testing it renders the evidence in favor of each of the hypotheses under consideration (it can be used to quantify support for the null-hypothesis) instead of a dichotomous reject/do-not-reject decision; it can straightforwardly be used for the evaluation of multiple hypotheses without having to bother about the proper manner to account for multiple testing; and it allows continuous reevaluation of hypotheses after additional data have been collected (Bayesian updating). This tutorial addresses researchers considering to evaluate their hypotheses by means of the Bayes factor. The focus is completely applied and each topic discussed is illustrated using Bayes factors for the evaluation of hypotheses in the context of an ANOVA model, obtained using the R package bain. Readers can execute all the analyses presented while reading this tutorial if they download bain and the R-codes used. It will be elaborated in a completely nontechnical manner: what the Bayes factor is, how it can be obtained, how Bayes factors should be interpreted, and what can be done with Bayes factors. After reading this tutorial and executing the associated code, researchers will be able to use their own data for the evaluation of hypotheses by means of the Bayes factor, not only in the context of ANOVA models, but also in the context of other statistical models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Modelos Estadísticos , Probabilidad , Psicología/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos
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