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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 198-198, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-194909

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism through which basic personality dimensions predict indicators of psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, including subjective well-being and perceived stress. As a personality characteristic highly contextualized in stressful circumstances, resilience was expected to have a mediating role in this relationship. METHOD: A sample of 2,722 Slovene adults, aged from 18 to 82 years filled in the Big Five Inventory, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Mental Health Continuum. A path analysis with the Bootstrap estimation procedure was performed to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience in the relationship between personality and psychological functioning. RESULTS: Resilience fully or partially mediated the relationships between all the Big Five but extraversion with subjective well-being and stress experienced at the beginning of the COVID-19 outburst. Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of less adaptive psychological functioning both directly and through diminished resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Resilience may be a major protective factor required for an adaptive response of an individual in stressful situations such as pandemic and the associated lockdown


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo fue dilucidar el mecanismo subyacente a través del cual las dimensiones básicas de la personalidad predicen indicadores del funcionamiento psicológico durante la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el bienestar subjetivo y el estrés percibido. Como característica de la personalidad altamente contextualizada en circunstancias estresantes, se esperaba que la resiliencia tuviera un papel mediador en esta relación. MÉTODO: Una muestra de 2.722 adultos eslovenos (18-82 años), completó el Big Five Inventory, la Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, la Perceived Stress Scale y el Mental Health Continuum. Se realizó un análisis de ruta con el procedimiento de estimación Bootstrap para evaluar el efecto mediador de la resiliencia en la relación entre la personalidad y el funcionamiento psicológico. RESULTADOS: La resiliencia medió total o parcialmente las relaciones entre los Cinco Grandes, y la extraversión con bienestar subjetivo y el estrés experimentado, al comienzo del estallido de COVID-19. El neuroticismo fue el predictor más fuerte de un funcionamiento psicológico menos adaptativo, tanto directamente como a través de la disminución de la capacidad de resiliencia. CONCLUSIONES: La resiliencia puede ser un factor de protección importante y requerido para una respuesta adaptativa de un individuo en situaciones estresantes como la pandemia y el confinamiento asociado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Resiliencia Psicológica , Personalidad/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pandemias , Inventario de Personalidad/normas , Psicometría/métodos , Neuroticismo/fisiología
2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 7, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413695

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Harms of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening include psychosocial consequences. We have not identified studies using a participant-relevant questionnaire with adequate measurement properties to investigate these harms. However, Brodersen et al. have previously developed a core questionnaire consequences of screening (COS) for use in screening for life-threatening diseases. Therefore, the objectives were: (1) To investigate content validity of COS in a CRC screening setting and in case of gaps in content coverage (2) generate new items and themes and (3) test the possibly extended version of COS for dimensionality and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch Models. METHODS: We performed two-part-focus-groups with CRC screenees. Screenees were recruited by strategic sampling. In the first part 16 screenees with false-positive results (n = 7) and low-risk polyps (n = 9) were interviewed about their CRC screening experiences and in the second part COS was examined for content validity. When new information was developed in the focus groups, new items covering this topic were generated. Subsequently, new items were, together with COS, tested in the subsequent interviews. A random subsample (n = 410) from a longitudinal questionnaire study, not yet published, was used to form the data for this paper. We analysed multidimensionality and uniform DIF with Andersen's conditional likelihood ratio test. We assessed individual item fit to the model. We also analysed Local Dependence (LD) and DIF by partial gamma coefficients using Rasch Models. RESULTS: COS was found relevant in a CRC screening setting. However, new information was discovered in the focus groups, covered by 18 new CRC screening-specific items. The Rasch analyses only revealed minor problems in the COS-scales. The 18 new items were distributed on four new CRC screening-specific dimensions and one single item. CONCLUSION: An extended version of COS specifically for use in a CRC screening setting has been developed. The extended part encompasses four new scales and one new single item. The original COS with the CRC-screening specific extension is called consequences of screening in colorectal cancer (COS-CRC). COS-CRC possessed reliability, unidimensionality and invariant measurement.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Tamizaje Masivo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/psicología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/psicología , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/psicología , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Psicometría , Investigación Cualitativa , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430397

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to determine the anxiety and fear related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their associations with travel, tourism and hospitality, in the Portuguese population. The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) and Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) were validated for the Portuguese population and correlations with issues related to travel, tourism and hospitality were established. CAS and FCV-19S presented a good adjustment model and solid reliability and validity. Correlations between CAS and FCV-19S and the perception of the impact of COVID-19 in travel, tourism and hospitality were found. Participants considered that COVID-19 mainly affected their holidays and leisure time. However, the strongest correlation established was between total FCV-19S and emotional fear FCV-19S and the fear of attending hotel facilities. The Portuguese versions of CAS and FCV-19S are reliable psychological tools to assess anxiety and fear in relation to COVID-19 for the general population. The use of hotel facilities is the most threatening issue related to travel, tourism and hospitality. The results suggest that hotels should invest in hygiene and safety measures that allow users to regain confidence in hotel equipment.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Psicometría , Turismo , Miedo , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388064

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In a context where there is no treatment for the current COVID-19 virus, the combination of self-care behaviours together with confinement, are strategies to decrease the risk of contagion and remain healthy. However, there are no self-care measures to screen self-care activities in general population and which, could be briefly in a lockdown situation. This research aims to build and validate a psychometric tool to screen self-care activities in general population. METHODS: Firstly, an exploratory factor analysis was performed in a sample of 226 participants to discover the underlying factorial structure and to reduce the number of items in the original tool into a significant pool of items related to self-care. Later a confirmatory factor analyses were performed in a new sample of 261 participants to test for the fit and goodness of factor solutions. Internal validity, reliability, and convergent validity between its score with perceived stress and psychological well-being measures were examined on this sample. RESULTS: The exploratory analyses suggested a four-factor solution, corresponding to health consciousness, nutrition and physical activity, sleep, and intra-personal and inter-personal coping skills (14 items). Then, the four-factor structure was confirmed as the best model fit for self-care activities. The tool demonstrated good reliability, predictive validity of individuals' perception of coping with COVID-19 lockdown, and convergent validity with well-being and perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: This screening tool could be helpful to address future evaluations and interventions to promote healthy behaviours. Likewise, this tool can be targeted to specific population self-care's needs during a scalable situation.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Autocuidado/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autocuidado/normas
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e8, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436137

RESUMEN

AIMS: Occupational Burnout (OB) is currently measured through several Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) and some of them have become widely used in occupational health research and practice. We, therefore, aimed to review and grade the psychometric validity of the five OB PROMs considered as valid for OB measure in mental health professionals (the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Pines' Burnout Measure (BM), the Psychologist Burnout Inventory (PBI), the OLdenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI)). METHODS: We conducted systematic literature searches in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE databases. We reviewed studies published between January 1980 and September 2018 following a methodological framework, in which each step of PROM validation, the reference method, analytical technics and result interpretation criteria were assessed. Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments we evaluated the risk of bias in studies assessing content and criterion validity, structural validity, internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, hypotheses testing and responsiveness of each PROM. Finally, we assessed the level of evidence for the validity of each PROM using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: We identified 6541 studies, 19 of which were included for review. Fifteen studies dealt with MBI whereas BM, PBI, OLBI and CBI were each examined in only one study. OLBI had the most complete validation, followed by CBI, MBI, BM and PBI, respectively. When examining the result interpretation correctness, the strongest disagreement was observed for MBI (27% of results), BM (25%) and CBI (17%). There was no disagreement regarding PBI and OLBI. For OLBI and CBI, the quality of evidence for sufficient content validity, the crucial psychometric property, was moderate; for MBI, BM and PBI, it was very low. CONCLUSION: To be validly and reliably used in medical research and practice, PROM should exhibit robust psychometric properties. Among the five PROMs reviewed, CBI and, to a lesser extent, OLBI meet this prerequisite. The cross-cultural validity of these PROMs was beyond the scope of our work and should be addressed in the future. Moreover, the development of a diagnostic standard for OB would be helpful to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the PROMs and further reexamine their validity.The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42019124621).


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/diagnóstico , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Psicológico , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
6.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3371, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439944

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to perform the psychometric validation of the Brazilian version of the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI - Br) in patients with advanced diseases in palliative care. METHOD: a methodological study to verify the psychometric properties of the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI - Br) instrument, through validity and reliability tests. RESULTS: the exploratory factor analysis showed a factorial solution with three factors, responsible for 40.9% of the explained variance, with adequate internal consistency for the Presence of Symptoms (α=0.859), Dependence (α=0.871), and Existential Suffering (α=0.759) domains. The test-retest was performed and indicated moderate to strong correlations. Convergent validity demonstrated a positive correlation between the Presence of Symptoms and the sadness (r=0.443) and anxiety (r=0.464) variables. Weak negative correlations were observed between the PDI - Br domains and functionality, spiritual well-being and quality of life. CONCLUSION: composed of three domains and 25 items, the PDI - Br instrument presented satisfactory psychometric properties for its use in our environment, through the evidence of validity and reliability.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Respeto , Brasil , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3386, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439946

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to confirm the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey version in a sample of health professionals from the emergency services. METHOD: a quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and analytical study. Two hundred and eighty-two health professionals participated in the study. For data collection, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. The psychometric sensitivity for the MBI-HSS items was estimated by measures of central tendency, variability and the distribution shape. Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the adequacy of the sample was verified using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index. As indexes for assessing the quality of fit of the model, the chi-square ratio by the degrees of freedom (χ2/DoF), the comparative fit index (CFI), the goodness of fit index (GFI), the Tucker Lewis index (TLI) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were considered. To test data fit, the maximum likelihood method was used. RESULTS: the three-factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was confirmed. Items 9, 12, 15 and 16 had a factorial weight below what was considered appropriate and were removed from the model. The second order hierarchical model with the aforementioned modifications presented an adequate adjustment to the data and can be considered the best and most parsimonious model tested according to the information theory indexes. The internal consistency of the instrument's factors was recalculated considering the exclusion of the items and the three factors were considered adequate. CONCLUSION: the results obtained show that the Maslach Burnout Inventory is a reliable and factorially valid instrument for measuring the burnout syndrome in emergency service professionals in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Agotamiento Psicológico , Brasil , Agotamiento Profesional/diagnóstico , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24264, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429835

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The physical and psychological condition of patients with gynaecological cancer has received much attention, but there is little research on spirituality in palliative care. This study aimed to investigate spiritual well-being and its association with quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with gynaecological cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted in China in 2019 with 705 patients diagnosed with primary gynaecological cancer. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life instruments (EORTC QLQ-SWB32 and EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to measure spiritual well-being, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between spiritual well-being, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Functioning scales and global health status were positively correlated with spiritual well-being (P < .05). Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated with spiritual well-being (P < .05). Depression (-0.362, P < .001) was the strongest predictor of Existential score. Anxiety (-0.522, P < .001) was the only predictor of Relationship with self. Depression (-0.350, P < .001) and Global health (0.099, P = .011) were the strongest predictors of Relationship with others. Religion (-0.204, P < .001) and Depression (-0.196, P < .001) were the strongest predictors of Relationship with someone or something greater. Global health (0.337, P < .001) and Depression (-0.144, P < .001) were the strongest predictors of Global-SWB. Well spiritual well-being is associated with lower anxiety and depression, and better quality of life. Health providers should provide more spiritual care for non-religious patients and combine spiritual care with psychological counselling to help patients with gynaecological cancer, especially those who have low quality of life or severe symptoms, or experience anxiety or depression.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Espiritualidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388086

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adapting and translating already developed tools to different cultures is a complex process, but once done, it increases the validity of the construct to be measured. This study aimed to assess the 12 items WHODAS-2 and test its psychometric properties among road traffic injury victims in Ethiopia. This study aimed to translate the 12 items WHODAS- 2 interview-based tools into Amharic and examine the psychometric properties of the new version among road traffic injury victims. METHODS: The 12 items WHODAS 2 was first translated into Amharic by two experts. Back translation was done by two English experts. A group of experts reviewed the forward and backward translation. A total of 240 patients with road traffic injury completed the questionnaires at three selected Hospitals in Amhara Regional State. Internal consistency was; assessed using Chronbach's alpha, convergent, and divergent validity, which were; tested via factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); was computed, and the model fit; was examined. RESULTS: The translated Amharic version 12 -items WHODAS-2 showed that good cross-cultural adaptation and internal consistency (Chronbach's α =0.88). The six factor structure best fits data (model fitness indices; CFI = 0.962, RMSEA = 0.042, RMR = 0.072, GFI = 0.961, chi-square value/degree of freedom = 1.42, TLI = 0.935 and PCLOSE = 0.68). Our analysis showed that from the six domains, mobility is the dominant factor explaining 95% of variability in disability. CONCLUSION: The 12 items interview-based Amharic version WHODAS-2; showed good cultural adaptation at three different settings of Amhara Regional State and can be used to measure dis-ability following a road traffic injury.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Heridas y Traumatismos/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Etiopía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Traducciones , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
10.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205040p1-7501205040p9, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399052

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: The Assessment of Quality of Activities (A-QOA) is an observation-based tool for assessing the strength of engagement in an activity by the person performing it in a natural context. By quantifying the quality of engagement, the A-QOA can help occupational therapy practitioners be better able to select meaningful activities and more clearly understand the effectiveness of various choices. OBJECTIVE: To examine use of the A-QOA as a valid unidimensional scale and to clarify preliminary results on its internal scale validity and item reliability using the Rasch model. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-one participants with dementia performing 262 activities. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We used the Rasch model to clarify the psychometric properties of A-QOA's measurement quality. RESULTS: Rasch analysis revealed that 21 of the 25 items reached an acceptable level of fit, and 4 did not. After eliminating the 4 misfitting items, the resulting A-QOA was determined to have both acceptable internal scale validity and item separation reliability, which are fundamental psychometric properties of a clinical observational instrument. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The A-QOA can be used to quantitatively assess the strength of engagement in an activity by the person performing it by using the observational method. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: In clinical settings, the A-QOA can be used both to select activities for clients with dementia and to quantitatively show the effects of occupational therapy interventions.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Terapia Ocupacional , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205140p1-7501205140p11, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399062

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: The most frequently used measures of facial emotion recognition (FER) are insufficiently comprehensive, reliable, valid, and efficient; moreover, the impact of gender on scoring has not been controlled. OBJECTIVE: To develop a computerized adaptive test of FER for adults with schizophrenia. DESIGN: First, we selected photographs from a published database. Second, items that fitted well to a Rasch model were used to form the item bank. Third and last, we determined the best administration mode for prospective users to achieve both high reliability and efficiency. SETTING: Psychiatric hospitals and the community. PARTICIPANTS: Adults living with schizophrenia (n = 351) and adults without diagnosed mental illness (n = 101). RESULTS: After removal of misfit items (infit or outfit ≥1.4), the remaining 165 items were selected to form an item bank. Among them, 39 showed severe gender bias, so the item difficulties were adjusted accordingly. On the basis of the item bank, two administration modes were recommended for prospective users. The reliable mode required approximately 128 items (nearly 20 min) to achieve reliability (.72-.81), similar to that of the entire item bank. The efficient mode required approximately 73 items (approximate 11 min) to provide acceptable reliability (.69-.73) for the seven domain scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our newly developed measure provides comprehensive, valid, and unbiased (to examinees' gender) assessments of FER in adults living with schizophrenia. In addition, the administration modes can be flexibly changed to optimize the reliability or efficiency for prospective users. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This newly developed FER measure can help occupational therapists identify deficits in recognizing specific basic emotions and plan corresponding interventions to manage the impact on their clients' social functions.


Asunto(s)
Reconocimiento Facial , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sexismo
12.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 247-254, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346799

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at risk for cognitive decline. Cross-sectional studies show patients' complaints of cognitive decline do not correlate well with concurrently measured objective neuropsychological performance, but rather with emotional variables and health-related quality of life. This longitudinal study investigated whether patient self-report of cognitive status would be concordant with objectively measured neuropsychological performance after accounting for change from their own pre-transplant objective baseline. METHODS: Pre-HSCT and at 30 and 100 days post-HSCT, 46 patients underwent computerized neuropsychological testing (CogState) and completed surveys assessing patient-reported cognitive complaints, emotional symptoms (depression, anxiety), sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and physical and functional well-being. Correlations were calculated between cognitive complaints and neuropsychological performance (at each time-point and across time-points), as well as all other patient-reported variables. RESULTS: Patient-reported cognitive complaints were largely independent of concurrently assessed objective neuropsychological performance. Uniquely, our longitudinal data demonstrated significant medium to large effect size associations between subjective cognitive complaints post-HSCT with objectively measured change from pre-HSCT in attention, visual learning, and working memory (p < .05-.01). Subjective cognitive complaints post-HSCT were also associated with depression, anxiety, daytime sleepiness and physical well-being (p < .05-.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients appear better able to assess their cognitive functioning relative to their own baseline and changes across time rather than relative to community norms. Thus, patient complaints of cognitive compromise justify further in-depth neuropsychological, emotional, and functional assessment. Future research into relationships between cognitive complaints and neuropsychological performance should account for changes in performance over time.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/psicología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Autoevaluación , Receptores de Trasplantes/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Atención , Cognición/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría/métodos , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 20-28, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307818

RESUMEN

Scales assessing stressor exposure often fail to demonstrate adequate psychometric qualities, demonstrating low interitem reliability or complex factor structures, as would be expected, given that the majority of stressors are independent events. However, in large-scale mass crisis events, the stressors may be highly interrelated, indicating shared experience. Furthermore, few stressor exposure scales also measure appraised stressfulness of those stressors. Development of a psychometrically sound measure of both stressor exposure and appraisal advances the study of highly stressful events such as community-wide crises, especially in providing a useful measure of its cumulative stressfulness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an enduring, worldwide stressor with an indefinite timeline. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a 23-item measure of stressor exposure and appraisal related to the pandemic developed within the first weeks of widespread shelter-in-place practices in the Unites States. We present initial psychometric results of the COVID-19 Stressor Scale. Results of a principal components analysis indicate that the measure is unidimensional and has strong internal consistency. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated. The COVID-19 Stressor Scale is a useful measure for studying the ongoing stressors associated with the pandemic and presents a model for measuring other massive, ongoing crises.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Percepción , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e23897, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Confirmed COVID-19 cases have been registered in more than 200 countries, and as of July 28, 2020, over 16 million cases have been reported to the World Health Organization. This study was conducted during the epidemic peak of COVID-19 in Italy. The early identification of individuals with suspected COVID-19 is critical in immediately quarantining such individuals. Although surveys are widely used for identifying COVID-19 cases, outcomes, and associated risks, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the capability of self-reported symptoms in discriminating COVID-19 to identify individuals who need to undergo instrumental measurements. We defined and validated a method for identifying a cutoff score. METHODS: Our study is phase II of the EPICOVID19 Italian national survey, which launched in April 2020 and included a convenience sample of 201,121 adults who completed the EPICOVID19 questionnaire. The Phase II questionnaire, which focused on the results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and serological tests, was mailed to all subjects who previously underwent NPS tests. RESULTS: Of 2703 subjects who completed the Phase II questionnaire, 694 (25.7%) were NPS positive. Of the 472 subjects who underwent the immunoglobulin G (IgG) test and 421 who underwent the immunoglobulin M test, 22.9% (108/472) and 11.6% (49/421) tested positive, respectively. Compared to NPS-negative subjects, NPS-positive subjects had a higher incidence of fever (421/694, 60.7% vs 391/2009, 19.5%; P<.001), loss of taste and smell (365/694, 52.6% vs 239/2009, 11.9%; P<.001), and cough (352/694, 50.7% vs 580/2009, 28.9%; P<.001). With regard to subjects who underwent serological tests, IgG-positive subjects had a higher incidence of fever (65/108, 60.2% vs 43/364, 11.8%; P<.001) and pain in muscles/bones/joints (73/108, 67.6% vs 71/364, 19.5%; P<.001) than IgG-negative subjects. An analysis of self-reported COVID-19 symptom items revealed a 1-factor solution, the EPICOVID19 diagnostic scale. The following optimal scores were identified: 1.03 for respiratory problems, 1.07 for chest pain, 0.97 for loss of taste and smell 0.97, and 1.05 for tachycardia (ie, heart palpitations). These were the most important symptoms. For adults aged 18-84 years, the cutoff score was 2.56 (sensitivity: 76.56%; specificity: 68.24%) for NPS-positive subjects and 2.59 (sensitivity: 80.37%; specificity: 80.17%) for IgG-positive subjects. For subjects aged ≥60 years, the cutoff score was 1.28, and accuracy based on the presence of IgG antibodies improved (sensitivity: 88.00%; specificity: 89.58%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a short diagnostic scale to detect subjects with symptoms that were potentially associated with COVID-19 from a wide population. Our results support the potential of self-reported symptoms in identifying individuals who require immediate clinical evaluations. Although these results come from the Italian pandemic period, this short diagnostic scale could be optimized and tested as a screening tool for future similar pandemics.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Psicometría , Autoinforme , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /fisiopatología , Femenino , Fiebre/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/análisis , Inmunoglobulina M/análisis , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 76-86, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341172

RESUMEN

A major barrier to improving care effectiveness for mental health is a lack of consensus on outcomes measurement. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) has already developed a consensus-based standard set of outcomes for anxiety and depression in adults (including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and the WHO Disability Schedule). This Position Paper reports on recommendations specifically for anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder in children and young people aged between 6 and 24 years. An international ICHOM working group of 27 clinical, research, and lived experience experts formed a consensus through teleconferences, an exercise using an adapted Delphi technique (a method for reaching group consensus), and iterative anonymous voting, supported by sequential research inputs. A systematic scoping review identified 70 possible outcomes and 107 relevant measurement instruments. Measures were appraised for their feasibility in routine practice (ie, brevity, free availability, validation in children and young people, and language translation) and psychometric performance (ie, validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change). The final standard set recommends tracking symptoms, suicidal thoughts and behaviour, and functioning as a minimum through seven primarily patient-reported outcome measures: the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory for Children, the Children's Revised Impact of Events Scale, the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the KIDSCREEN-10, the Children's Global Assessment Scale, and the Child Anxiety Life Interference Scale. The set's recommendations were validated through a feedback survey involving 487 participants across 45 countries. The set should be used alongside the anxiety and depression standard set for adults with clinicians selecting age-appropriate measures.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Depresión/diagnóstico , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Psicometría/métodos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Niño , Consenso , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Perfil de Impacto de Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 239-246, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346797

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Breast cancer (BC) patients report complex negative emotions, including symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). What's more, being diagnosed with cancer also has a negative impact on the patient's family such as additional financial burden and care needs, leading to higher levels of caregiver burden. This study aimed to explore whether dispositional mindfulness could alleviate multiple negative emotions of BC patients and to investigate the mediating effect of caregiver burden on the relationship between the patients' dispositional mindfulness and negative emotions. METHODS: A sample of 230 Chinese BC patients receiving chemotherapy and their caregivers voluntarily participated in the study by completing a set of questionnaires including the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, the Caregiver Self-assessment Questionnaires, the General Anxiety Symptoms Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, negative emotions, and caregiver burden. RESULTS: Dispositional mindfulness was significantly and negatively correlated with negative emotions, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD among the BC patients. Structural equation modeling showed that caregiver burden mediated the relation between patients' dispositional mindfulness and negative emotions. CONCLUSION: BC patients with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness showed less negative emotions. The results of the mediation analysis suggested that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness of breast cancer patients could decrease the caregivers' perceived burden and, in turn, relieve patients' negative emotions. Dispositional mindfulness was beneficial to breast cancer patients as well as their caregivers, indicating that mindfulness-based interventions targeting distress in patient-caregiver dyads would be more effective than what interventions for patients alone.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Atención Plena/métodos , Pacientes/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/psicología , Atención , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , China , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personalidad , Psicometría/métodos , Rol , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190119, 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1133869

RESUMEN

The present work analyzes the access of deaf people fluent in Brazilian Sign Language in the National High School Exam, which was created to measure the performance based on the curriculum and on the High School guidelines, which acquired the purpose of providing the access of High school seniors to higher education. The methodological theoretical approach upon which this study is based is the qualitative research of exploratory nature. The sequential mixed method was used for the collection and analysis of qualitative data and, based on these, the quantitative analysis was performed. The results show an increase in the number of deaf participants in the exams and justify the offer of bilingual exams to measure learning.


O presente trabalho analisa o acesso de pessoas surdas fluentes em Língua Brasileira de Sinais ao Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio. Este foi criado para mensurar o desempenho com base no currículo e nas diretrizes do ensino médio e adquiriu a finalidade de selecionar concluintes do ensino médio para ingresso em cursos superiores. A abordagem teórico-metodológica que fundamenta este trabalho é a pesquisa qualitativa de cunho exploratório. O método misto sequencial foi empregado para a coleta e a análise de dados qualitativos e, a partir destes, foi realizada a análise quantitativa. Os resultados evidenciam o aumento do número de participantes surdos nas provas e justificam a oferta de provas bilíngues para aferir a aprendizagem.


Asunto(s)
Psicometría , Lengua de Signos , Sordera , Evaluación Educacional
18.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190124, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1133866

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to update the psychometric properties of the Del-Prette Social Skills Inventory-2, a measure of social performance in social interaction situations. The sample consisted of 4,250 participants of both sexes aged between 18 and 59 years old (M = 35.85; df = 11.33; 51.1% woman). Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling suggested the adequacy of the internal structure of the original version of the instrument, consisting of five factors: Assertive Conversation, Affective-Sexual Approach, Expression of positive sentiment, Self-Control/Coping, and Social Resourcefulness, all of them with good reliability indicators, alphas higher than 0.774, and measurement invariance indicators across groups as a function of sex and different age ranges. The Partial Credit Model provided the item's and participant's parameters: difficulty level/theta and adjustment indices, which were adequate. The results suggest that the inventory is a suitable measure of social skills for professional and research purposes.


O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi atualizar as propriedades psicométricas do Inventário de Habilidades Sociais Del-Prette, uma medida de desempenho sociais em situações de interação social. A amostra foi composta por 4.250 participantes de ambos os sexos com idade entre 18 e 59 anos (M = 35,85; DP = 11,33; 51,1% mulheres). A Análise de Equações Estruturais Exploratória indicou adequação da estrutura interna da versão original do instrumento, composta por cinco fatores:conversação assertiva, abordagem afetivo-sexual, expressão de sentimento positivo, autocontrole/enfrentamento e desenvoltura social. Todos obtiveram bons indicadores de precisão, alfas superiores a 0,774, e indicadores de invariância dos parâmetros da medida em função dos sexos e faixas etárias. O Modelo de Créditos Parciais forneceu os parâmetros dos itens e características dos participantes: níveis de dificuldades/theta e índices de ajuste, que se mostraram apropriados. Os resultados sugerem que o inventário é uma medida de habilidades sociais adequada para uso profissional e pesquisa.


Asunto(s)
Psicometría , Asertividad , Relaciones Interpersonales
19.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1143374

RESUMEN

Abstract The Common Sense Model refers to the association between disease perception and health behaviors. This study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire for Healthy People - (IPQ-RH) in healthy women about breast cancer. A total of 321 women participated, with a mean age of 55.72 years old (SD = 10.75), users of Basic Health Units. Confirmatory factor analyzes (CFAs) were carried out and the McDonald's Omega and Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated. The results of the CFAs confirmed the structure of seven factors for the IPQ-RH (CFI = .92; TLI = .91; RMSEA = .03; SRMR = .06) and of two factors for the subscale of causes of the disease (CFI = .97; TLI = .97; RMSEA = .00; SRMR = .05). The instrument's reliability was, in general, satisfactory. The IPQ-RH has appropriate psychometric properties to investigate the illness perception in healthy women.


Resumo O Modelo do Senso Comum aponta para a associação entre a percepção da doença e comportamentos em saúde. Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar as propriedades psicométricas do Questionário de Percepção da Doença para Pessoas Saudáveis - Revisado (IPQ-RH) em mulheres saudáveis sobre o câncer de mama. Participaram 321 mulheres, com idade média de 55,72 anos (DP = 10,75), usuárias de Unidades Básicas de Saúde. Foram realizadas análises fatoriais confirmatórias (AFCs) e calculados os coeficientes Ômega de McDonald e alpha de Cronbach. Os resultados das AFCs confirmaram a estrutura de sete fatores para o IPQ-RH (CFI = .92; TLI = .91; RMSEA = .03; SRMR = .06) e de dois fatores para a subescala de causas da doença (CFI = .97; TLI = .97; RMSEA = .00; SRMR = .05). A fidedignidade do instrumento foi, em geral, satisfatória. O IPQ-RH apresenta propriedades psicométricas adequadas para investigar a percepção da doença em mulheres saudáveis.


Resumen El modelo del Senso Comum refiere que existe una asociación entre percepción dela enfermedad y conductas em salud. El objetivo de la investigación fue examinar las propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionário de Percepción de la Enfermedad para personas sanas - Revisado (IPQ-RH) en mujeres sanas con respecto al cáncer de mama. Participaron 321 mujeres, con edad media de 55,72 años (DP = 10,75), usuarias de la atención primaria en salud. Fueron realizadas análisis factoriales confirmatórias (AFCs) y calculados los coeficientes Omega de McDonald y alpha de Cronbach. Los resultados de las AFCs confirmaron la estructura de siete factores para el IPQ-RH (CFI = 0.92; TLI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.03; SRMR = 0.06) y de dos factores para la subescala de las causas de la enfermedad (CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.00; SRMR = 0.05). La fiabilidad del cuestionario fue, en general, satisfactoria. El IPQ-RH presenta propiedades psicométricas adecuadas para investigar la percepción de la enfermedad en mujeres sanas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Percepción , Psicometría , Neoplasias de la Mama , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Causalidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Automanejo
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