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1.
Psychopathology ; 54(1): 18-25, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316802

RESUMEN

This article explores everydayness as a specific form of experience of the world and its alterations in schizophrenia. In the field of phenomenological psychopathology, the transformations of subjective experience in schizophrenia have been the subject of a great deal of work, but the relationship between these alterations of subjective experience and the experience of the everyday remains largely unexplored. A phenomenological point of view leads us to explore everydayness as a constitutive framework of experience, one that may be impeded in schizophrenia. The question of the everyday allows us to bridge the gap between the descriptions of subjective experience proposed by phenomenological psychopathology and what is at stake in therapeutic treatment. It seems to us that the work of constructing an individual narrative of the everyday may be a useful psychotherapeutic approach for helping patients rebuild the framework of everydayness.


Asunto(s)
Psicopatología/métodos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Humanos
2.
Psychopathology ; 54(1): 39-46, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326984

RESUMEN

Since ancient philosophy, extraordinary creativity is associated with mental disorders, emotional and cognitive destabilization, and melancholia. We here summarize the results of empirical and narrative studies and analyze the most prominent case of a highly creative person who suffered from dysthymia and major depression with suicidality. Hereby, we focus on the interaction of different phases of the creative process with "bipolar" personality traits. Finally, we offer an interdisciplinary interpretation of the creative dialectics between order and chaos. The results show that severe psychopathology inhibits creativity. Mild and moderate disorders can inspire and motivate creative work but are only leading to new and useful solutions when creators succeed in transforming their emotional instability and cognitive incoherence into stable and coherent forms. The cultural idea that creativity emerges in dialectical processes between order and chaos, is also to be found in the psychologic interplay of coherence and incoherence, and in neuro-scientific models of the dynamics between tightening and loosening of neuronal structures. Consequences are drawn for the psychotherapeutic treatment of persons striving for creativity.


Asunto(s)
Creatividad , Psicopatología/métodos , Humanos
3.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 126-132, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645701

RESUMEN

Authoritative classification systems for psychopathology such as the DSM and ICD are shifting toward more dimensional approaches in the field of personality disorders (PDs). In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the dimensionally oriented DSM-5 alternative model of PDs (AMPD). Since its publication in 2013, the AMPD has inspired a substantial number of studies, underlining its generative influence on the field. Generally speaking, this literature illustrates both the reliability and validity of the constructs delineated in the AMPD. The literature also illustrates empirical challenges to the conceptual clarity of the AMPD, such as evidence of substantial correlations between indices of personality functioning (criterion A in the AMPD) and maladaptive personality traits (criterion B in the AMPD). Key future directions pertain to linking the AMPD literature with applied efforts to improve the lives of persons who suffer from PDs, and surmounting challenges germane to the evolution of the DSM itself.


Asunto(s)
Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Psicopatología/métodos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
4.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 157-167, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663821

RESUMEN

Almost all forms of psychopathology, including personality disorders, are arrived at through complex interactions among neurobiological vulnerabilities and environmental risk factors across development. Yet despite increasing recognition of etiological complexity, psychopathology research is still dominated by searches for large main effects causes. This derives in part from reliance on traditional inferential methods, including ordinary factor analysis, regression, ANCOVA, and other techniques that use statistical partialing to isolate unique effects. In principle, some of these methods can accommodate etiological complexity, yet as typically applied they are insensitive to interactive functional dependencies (modulating effects) among etiological influences. Here, we use our developmental model of antisocial and borderline traits to illustrate challenges faced when modeling complex etiological mechanisms of psychopathology. We then consider how computational models, which are rarely used in the personality disorders literature, remedy some of these challenges when combined with hierarchical Bayesian analysis.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Factorial , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Personalidad/fisiología , Psicopatología/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Psicosom. psiquiatr ; (13): 33-40, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198563

RESUMEN

Sexual interest and arousal disorder (SIAD) is the most common female sexual dysfunction. This mental disorder has a strong negative impact in the women's well-being, relationships and quality of life. A comprehensive approach to the multiple psychological factors that contribute to its appearance and maintenance is needed, in order to optimize the different therapeutic options. In this study, a sample of 10 women with SIAD was compared to a control group of women without a sexual dysfunction. For that purpose, participants were asked to complete standardized questionnaires. Results showed significant differences in psychopathological symptoms, personality dimensions and copying strategies between both groups. This study provides greater empirical understanding of the linkages between SIAD and personality traits, psychopathological symptoms, and stress coping strategies. Further research needs to be conducted to examine the effectiveness of interventions and improve current clinical treatments


El trastorno del interés/excitación sexual (TIES) es la disfunción sexual femenina más frecuente. Ocurre en mujeres de todas las edades y tiene un fuerte impacto negativo en su bienestar, relaciones y calidad de vida. Dado que presenta una elevada resistencia al tratamiento, es preciso revisar las distintas opciones terapéuticas y ello requiere profundizar en la comprensión de algunos de los múltiples factores psicológicos que contribuyen a su aparición y mantenimiento.En este estudio descriptivo comparativo, una muestra de 10 mujeres con TIE se comparó con un grupo control de mujeres sanas mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y cuestionarios estandarizados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el programa estadístico SPSS 17.0 Los resultados del estudio indican diferencias significativas en sintomatología psicopatológica, dimensiones de personalidad y uso de estrategias de afrontamiento de estrés


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Proyectos Piloto , Personalidad , Psicopatología/métodos , Adaptación Psicológica , Asexualidad , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trastornos Somatomorfos/psicología
6.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 189-197, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375147

RESUMEN

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (5th Edition) Alternative Model of Personality Disorders includes a dimensional trait model to describe individual differences in the manifestation of personality pathology. Empirically derived quantitative trait models of psychopathology address many of the structural problems of classical diagnostic schemes (e.g., nonbinary distributions, excessive comorbidity, and diagnostic heterogeneity). However, they are largely based on the structure of individual differences in the manifestation of psychopathology. In contrast, clinical theories of personality disorder, which are the foundation of intervention efforts, are based on the function of maladaptive behavior. This distinction is akin to the difference between morphology and physiology in the broader biological sciences. A structure-function divide in the focus of empirical and clinical work contributes to a lack of integration and difficulties with translation. Here we discuss this tension and argue for the need to bridge this divide and adopt research efforts that integrate structure and function of personality traits. Specifically, we suggest that between-person structure identifies the principal domains of functioning, but to understand dysfunction personality must be conceptualized and studied as an ensemble of contextualized dynamic processes.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Psicopatología/métodos , Humanos
7.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(2): 163-168, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129754

RESUMEN

In this article, we present the main methodological principles of symptom networks in psychopathology. It is a topological approach linking entities from different scales of analysis of an individual (from genetics to behavior, via cerebral connectivity). They are an alternative to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), but they do not exclude them. Symptom networks exceed or circumvent some limits of these classifications. Furthermore, they contribute to the stratification and organization of these nosologies. Behind the originality of its methodology, this program proposes a redefinition of mental illness which modifies the conception of psychiatry. But their future is still uncertain: they must take on an epistemological and methodological challenge. At the same time, they have to convince the community of mental health researchers and clinicians of their utility and value.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Psicopatología/métodos , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Conocimiento , Trastornos Mentales/clasificación , Salud Mental/clasificación , Salud Mental/normas , Técnicas Psicológicas/normas , Psicopatología/clasificación , Evaluación de Síntomas/normas
8.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 133-140, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114579

RESUMEN

Criteria A of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) defines personality pathology in terms of impairments in "self" (identity, self-direction) and "interpersonal" (empathy, intimacy) functioning. Articulated as a set of dynamic regulatory and relational processes that are stratified in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, these impairments involve how individuals think and feel about themselves and others and how they relate to others. Defining personality pathology in terms of regulatory and relational processes involving self and other, and distinguishing severity of personality pathology from individual differences in its expression (Criteria B), offers the AMPD several advantages. First, it distinguishes the nature and severity of personality pathology from other forms of psychopathology. Second, it allows the AMPD to integrate personality structure and personality processes. Third, it is highly suitable for synthesis with the Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory of personality. Finally, beyond the interpersonal perspective, it facilitates even broader theoretical and treatment integration.


Asunto(s)
Ego , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Psicopatología/métodos , Humanos
9.
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 37(1): 5-16, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193560

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: La escala CBCL de Achenbach completada por padres evalúa un amplio rango de problemas conductuales y emocionales de inicio en la infancia. Sus subescalas "retraimiento-depresión" y principalmente "problemas de pensamiento" se han propuesto como medida de detección de riesgo de psicosis en adolescentes. Dentro de los posibles endofenotipos de la esquizofrenia se plantean la disfunción ejecutiva y la alteración en el lenguaje pragmático. OBJETIVOS: Identificar mediante ambas subescalas de la CBCL un subgrupo de niños y adolescentes con puntuaciones elevadas entre los pacientes que consultan en psiquiatría infantil por trastornos del neurodesarrollo y que tienen antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los padres completan la escala CBCL de Achenbach, CCC-Childrens Communication Checklist- (evaluación del lenguaje pragmático) y BRIEF-2 (evaluación conductual de la función ejecutiva). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 21 niños (16 niños: 5 niñas). Edad media 11,4 años. Los diagnósticos principales fueron TDAH (66,7%), trastorno de aprendizaje (9,5%) y TEA (9,5%). Las dos subescalas de la CBCL "retraimiento-depresión" y "problemas de pensamiento" discriminan dos grupos, uno con afectación (n=11) con puntuaciones por encima del Pc70 y otro sin afectación (n=10) con puntuaciones inferiores al Pc70. Los casos con afectación mostraron más dificultades en el lenguaje pragmático y función ejecutiva que los del grupo sin afectación. CONCLUSIONES: Realizar una evaluación dimensional más completa de la psicopatología, como la que ofrece la CBCL, en niños con trastornos del neurodesarrollo y antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia puede ayudar a describir mejor las dificultades premórbidas e identificar casos susceptibles de seguimiento longitudinal e intervención precoz


INTRODUCTION: The CBCL is a standardized form that parents fill out to describe their children ́s behavioral and emotional problems. Previous studies have suggested that two subscales, "withdrawal-depressed" and mainly "thought problems" may have utility as a psychosis risk screening measure in youth. Executive function and higher-order language dysfunctions have been postulated as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: To identify by means of the two CBCL subscales mentioned above, a group of children and adolescents with higher ratings amongst those patients attending an outpatient psychiatric clinic, who present a neurodevelopmental disorder and a family history of schizophrenia MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parents filled out CBCL, CCC-Childrens Communication Checklist- (evaluates pragmatic language) and BRIEF-2 (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function). RESULTS: Twenty-one children were included (16 males; 5 females). Mean age 11,4 y/o. Main diagnoses were ADHD (66,7%), Learning Disorder (9,5%) and ASD (9,5%). CBCL subscales "withdrawn-depressed" and "thought problems" discriminated two groups. One with higher ratings (above Pc70) showing the presence of symptoms (n=11) and the other with lower ratings (below Pc70) indicating symptom absence (n=10). The first group showed more pragmatic language difficulties as well as poorer executive function. CONCLUSIONS: A more comprehensive dimensional evaluation of the psychopathology of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and family history of schizophrenia, by means of CBCL, may provide a better description of premorbid difficulties, helping to identify more vulnerable cases for long term follow up and early intervention


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Función Ejecutiva , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/patología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/psicología , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Anamnesis , Psicopatología/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de la Comunicación , Discapacidades para el Aprendizaje
10.
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 37(1): 34-41, ene.-mar. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193563

RESUMEN

Ante un cambio radical en el comportamiento en un varón de 17 años, a las 12 horas de administrar, en el mismo día, las vacunas contra el Meningococo C, Hepatitis B, Triple Vírica y Varicela, y la detección de un cuadro maníaco a la semana, se sospechó que se tratase de un cuadro de encefalitis post-vacunal. A pesar de la ausencia de hallazgos patológicos en las exploraciones complementarias realizadas, y aunque en la literatura científica no se haya demostrado una asociación temporal a día de hoy, no podemos aceptar ni descartar con certeza la sospecha diagnóstica dado que no contamos con la serología infecciosa o un estudio de anticuerpos en líquido cefalorraquídeo. Los efectos secundarios graves tras vacunaciones no han quedado claramente demostrados, lo que sí está ampliamente demostrado es que la inmunidad adquirida es uno de los mayores logros de la medicina que ha ayudado a erradicar enfermedades potencialmente mortales


A radical behavioral change was observed in a 17-year-old male 12 hours after having received vaccines for Meningococcus C, Hepatitis B, Triple Viral and Varicella on the same day. Moreover a manic episode was detected one week later. It was suspected that this was a case of post-vaccinal encephalitis. In spite of the absence of pathological findings in the complementary explorations carried out and although a temporal association has not been demonstrated to date in the scientific literature, we can not be certain of this diagnostic suspicion since we do not have the infectious serology or a study of antibodies in central spinal fluid. Serious side effects after vaccinations have never been clearly demonstrated, while it has been widely demonstrated that the acquired immunity from these vaccines is one of the greatest achievements of medicine, and this has helped to eradicate life-threatening diseases


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Trastorno Bipolar/inducido químicamente , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Vacunas Virales/efectos adversos , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Neisseria meningitidis Serogrupo C/inmunología , Hepatitis B/inmunología , Vacuna contra la Varicela/efectos adversos , Psicopatología/métodos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228384, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023291

RESUMEN

In the field of psychopathy, there is an ongoing debate about the core traits that define the disorder, and that therefore must be present to some extent in all psychopaths. The main controversy of this debate concerns criminal behaviour, as some researchers consider it a defining trait, while others disagree. Using a representative sample of 204 Spanish convicted inmates incarcerated at the Pereiro de Aguiar Penitentiary in Ourense, Spain, we tested two competing models, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), which includes criminal behaviour items, versus the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), which does not. We used two different PCL-R models, one that includes criminal items and another that does not. PCL-R factors, facets, and testlets from both models and CAPP dimensions were correlated and compared. Two different PCL-R cut-off scores, 25 or more and 30 or more, were used for the analysis. Overall, a strong correlation was found between PCL-R and CAPP scores in the whole sample, but as scores increased and inmates became more psychopathic, the correlations weakened. All these data indicate that psychopathy, understood to mean having high scores on the PCL-R and CAPP, is a multidimensional entity, and inmates can develop the disorder and then receive the diagnosis through different dimensions. The CAPP domains showed better correlations when compared with the PCL-R factors from both models, showing that an instrument for the assessment of psychopathy without a criminal dimension is valuable for clinical assessment and research purposes.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisioneros/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Psicopatología/métodos , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Lista de Verificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Psicológicos , España
12.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(12): 1645-1657, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016572

RESUMEN

Deficits in social cognition have been reported in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis exclusively using socio-cognitive tasks and in adolescent and young adult mixed population. Aim of this study was (1) to assess subjective experience of social cognition in adolescent help-seekers identified through UHR criteria, (2) to explore its significant correlations with psychopathology and functioning in UHR individuals; and (3) to monitor longitudinally its stability after a 24-month follow-up period. Participants [51 UHR, 91 first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 48 non-UHR/FEP patients], aged 13-18 years, completed the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states and the GEOPTE scale of social cognition for psychosis. In comparison with non-UHR/FEP patients, both UHR and FEP adolescents showed significantly higher GEOPTE total scores. After 12 months of follow-up, UHR individuals had a significant decrease in severity on GEOPTE "Social Cognition" subscore. In the UHR group at baseline, GEOPTE scores had significant positive correlations with general psychopathology, positive and negative dimensions. Across the 2-year follow-up period, social cognition subscores specifically showed more stable associations with general psychopathology and negative symptoms. Social cognition deficits are prominent in UHR adolescents and similar in severity to those of FEP patients at baseline. However, these impairments decreased over time, presumably together with delivery of targeted, specialized models for early intervention in psychosis.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Psicopatología/métodos , Trastornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
13.
Health Psychol ; 39(3): 245-254, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944798

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity, which has been increasing worldwide. However, bariatric surgery causes dramatic physical changes that can cause significant stress. Prior research has found that psychological variables such as personality traits and levels of psychopathology can influence success after bariatric surgery (in terms of body mass index [BMI] reduction and weight loss). However, most prior studies have been limited by small sample sizes, inconsistent follow up, and categorical assessment of psychopathology. METHOD: The present study examines the predictive utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales for three bariatric surgery outcomes (BMI reduction, weight loss, and percent excess weight loss [%EWL]) across 10 follow-up points 5 years after surgery. It also examines the largest sample of bariatric surgery-completing patients (N = 2,267) on the PAI to date. Latent growth modeling was used to examine change in the outcome variables. RESULTS: Results indicate that personality and psychopathology variables predicted less BMI reduction, weight loss, and %EWL 5 years after surgery and also affected the trajectories of change in the outcome variables across time. The PAI scales predicted more variance in the 5-year BMI outcomes than did age and gender. The most robust effects were for scales assessing phobias, traumatic stress, identity problems, and negative relationships. CONCLUSION: The PAI may be useful to clinical health psychologists who conduct recommended psychological evaluations with potential bariatric surgery candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Psicopatología/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Mórbida/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 28(2): 105-121, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916367

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the nature of interventions addressing eating psychopathology in athletes, identify the characteristics of successful interventions, and review the efficacy of interventions at reducing or preventing eating psychopathology. METHOD: SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched to identify studies addressing eating psychopathology in athletes, which included an outcome measure of disordered eating. RESULTS: Seventeen studies (11 randomised controlled trials, six nonrandomised trials) reporting data on 13 interventions were included. The methodological quality was observed to be generally low. All interventions (11 implemented in North America) were delivered face to face in groups with variable duration and intensity. Thirteen studies reported significant reductions in athletes' eating psychopathology following the intervention, with seven reporting sustained effects (small to moderate). Successful interventions were characterised by higher intervention dosage, higher retention, and incorporated a focus on self-esteem and self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The complex nature of interventions, combined with a lack of evaluation data and poor methodological quality, limits the scaling and refinement of many interventions. Future research should explore other modes of delivery, collect evaluation data, and adhere to clearer study reporting. Doing this will consequently improve the development and delivery of effective eating psychopathology interventions offered to athletes more widely.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Psicopatología/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Adulto Joven
15.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(10): 1453-1464, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980930

RESUMEN

While slow processing speed (PS) is well documented in youth with ADHD, growing evidence suggests that this difficulty affects children with other neuropsychiatric conditions. Clarifying the relationship between slow PS and different forms of psychopathology is important clinically, given the potential impact of PS on academic functioning, and conceptually. In 751 youth, ages 6-21, consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation, we examined the association between slow PS (i.e., Wechsler PS Index < 85) and seven neuropsychiatric diagnostic groups. In 492 of these youth, we also related slow PS to eight psychopathology symptom dimensions. Finally, we modeled the relationship between PS, other cognitive functions and academic achievement. Data are from the Longitudinal Study of Genetic Influences on Cognition. Analyses included one-sample t tests, ANOVA, logistic regression, mixed modeling, and structural equation modeling (SEM), controlling for age, sex, and medication. Compared to normative data, all clinical groups showed PS decrements. Compared to referred youth without full diagnoses and accounting for other psychopathology, risk for slow PS was elevated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (OR = 1.8), psychotic disorders (OR = 3.4) and ADHD-inattentive type (OR = 1.6). Having multiple comorbidities also increased risk for slow PS. Among dimensions, inattention (OR = 1.5) associated with slow PS but did not fully explain the association with autism or psychosis. In SEM, PS had direct effects on academic achievement and indirect effects through working memory. Findings extend evidence that PS relates to multiple aspects of child psychopathology and associates with academic achievement in child psychiatric outpatients.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Psicopatología/métodos , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Éxito Académico , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Adulto Joven
16.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(4): 564-573, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922279

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Positive and negative influences from teammates (e.g., supportive teammate friendships, modelling of teammates' disordered eating) have been associated with athletes' eating/exercise psychopathology. However, research is yet to explore how an athlete's psychological well-being and gender may impact upon these relationships. This study aimed to explore whether psychological well-being mediates the relationship between teammate influences and eating/exercise psychopathology, and to determine whether gender moderates the significant mediation effects identified. METHOD: Athletes (N = 195, mean age 18.35 years, n = 110 female, n = 81 lean sport athletes) completed a survey three times over an 8-month period exploring teammate influences, psychological well-being (self-esteem, anxiety, depression) and eating/exercise psychopathology. Mediation and moderated-mediation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Higher levels of anxiety significantly mediated the positive relationships between bulimia modelling and teammate pressure with eating and exercise psychopathology. Higher levels of depression significantly mediated the positive relationship between teammate pressure and body dissatisfaction, and the negative relationship between supportive friendships and body dissatisfaction. Higher levels of self-esteem mediated both inverse relationships between supportive friendships and a lower drive for thinness (fully) and body dissatisfaction (partially). Gender did not significantly moderate any mediation relationships. DISCUSSION: Male and female athletes with poor psychological well-being (i.e., high levels of anxiety or depression) are more susceptible to negative teammate influences, while athletes with good psychological well-being (i.e., high self-esteem) reap the protective benefits of supportive teammate friendships. Understanding the circumstances under which teammates are influential is vital for the development of targeted intervention and prevention strategies to reduce athlete eating and exercise psychopathology.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Negociación/métodos , Psicopatología/métodos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(10): 1349-1361, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758358

RESUMEN

Understanding the dysregulation profile (DP) consisting of high scores in aggression, attention problems, and anxious/depressed problems is still limited. The aims of the present study were threefold: (a) to analyze developmental trajectories of DP (b) to identify predictors of these trajectories, and (c) to study the outcome of DP in terms of mental disorders and criminal offenses in young adulthood. A sample of 402 individuals aged 11-14 years at baseline was followed up during adolescence and young adulthood. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify DP based on the youth self-report and the young adult self-report. Self-related cognitions, perceived parental behavior, life events and coping served as predictors, psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions in young adulthood as outcomes. There were three developmental trajectories representing high, moderate, and low DP subgroups with 9.2% of participants represented by the high DP subgroup. Among predictors, self-esteem (negative), self-awareness (positive), and high numbers of life events had the most consistent effect on high DP. Affective and anxiety disorders and any mental disorder were significant outcomes of the high DP subgroup in both sexes at the time of young adulthood. This first report on DP based on longitudinal self-reports shows that DP is stable for a sizeable proportion of youth during adolescence and young adulthood. The predictors for DP share some similarity with those predicting psychopathology in general. However, so far there seems to be no heightened risk for the development of crime in the concerned individuals.


Asunto(s)
Psicopatología/métodos , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Autoinforme , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(2): 256-265, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702051

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the current and lifetime prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and suicidality in treatment- and nontreatment-seeking individuals with full and subthreshold avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). We also sought to examine unique associations between the three DSM-5 ARFID profiles (i.e., sensory sensitivity, fear of aversive consequences, and lack of interest in food or eating) and specific categories of psychiatric diagnoses and suicidality. METHOD: We conducted structured clinical interviews with 74 children and adolescents with full or sub threshold ARFID to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and the severity of each of the three ARFID profiles. RESULTS: Nearly half of the sample (45%) met criteria for a current comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and over half (53%) met criteria for a lifetime comorbid diagnosis. A total of 8% endorsed current suicidality and 14% endorsed lifetime suicidality. Severity in the sensory sensitivity profile was uniquely associated with greater odds of comorbid disorders in the neurodevelopmental, disruptive, and conduct disorders category; the anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and trauma-related disorders category; and the depressive and bipolar-related disorders category. Severity in the fear of aversive consequences profile was associated with greater odds of disorders in the anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and trauma-related disorders category. DISCUSSION: Our findings underscore the severity of psychopathology among individuals with ARFID and related presentations, and also highlight the potential that shared psychopathology between specific ARFID profiles and other psychiatric disorders represent transdiagnostic constructs (e.g., avoidant behavior) that may be relevant treatment targets.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de la Ingesta Alimentaria Evitativa/Restrictiva , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Psicopatología/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
19.
Psychol Aging ; 35(1): 91-96, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556647

RESUMEN

This study investigated the age differences in the Dark Triad (DT) traits with 2 independent samples. Personality was measured using the Short Dark Triad and the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Results showed a significant negative correlation between age and DT traits except for narcissism, which differed between the samples. Significant age-by-sex interaction effects were observed for Machiavellianism and the DT composite score, indicating that women showed a steeper downward age trend in dark personalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Personalidad/fisiología , Psicopatología/métodos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Envejecimiento , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(1): 82-93, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953003

RESUMEN

Alterations in brain intrinsic activity-as organized in resting-state networks (RSNs) such as sensorimotor network (SMN), salience network (SN), and default-mode network (DMN)-and in neurotransmitters signaling-such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT)-have been independently detected in psychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between such neurotransmitters and RSNs in healthy, by reviewing the relevant work on this topic and performing complementary analyses, in order to better understand their physiological link, as well as their alterations in psychiatric disorders. According to the reviewed data, neurotransmitters nuclei diffusively project to subcortical and cortical regions of RSNs. In particular, the dopaminergic substantia nigra (SNc)-related nigrostriatal pathway is structurally and functionally connected with core regions of the SMN, whereas the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-related mesocorticolimbic pathway with core regions of the SN. The serotonergic raphe nuclei (RNi) connections involve regions of the SMN and DMN. Coherently, changes in neurotransmitters activity impact the functional configuration and level of activity of RSNs, as measured by functional connectivity (FC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations/temporal variability of BOLD signal. Specifically, DA signaling is associated with increase in FC and activity in the SMN (hypothetically via the SNc-related nigrostriatal pathway) and SN (hypothetically via the VTA-related mesocorticolimbic pathway), as well as concurrent decrease in FC and activity in the DMN. By contrast, 5-HT signaling (via the RNi-related pathways) is associated with decrease in SMN activity along with increase in DMN activity. Complementally, our empirical data showed a positive correlation between SNc-related FC and SMN activity, whereas a negative correlation between RNi-related FC and SMN activity (along with tilting of networks balance toward the DMN). According to these data, we hypothesize that the activity of neurotransmitter-related neurons synchronize the low-frequency oscillations within different RSNs regions, thus affecting the baseline level of RSNs activity and their balancing. In our model, DA signaling favors the predominance of SMN-SN activity, whereas 5-HT signaling favors the predominance of DMN activity, manifesting in distinct behavioral patterns. In turn, alterations in neurotransmitters signaling (or its disconnection) may favor a correspondent functional reorganization of RSNs, manifesting in distinct psychopathological states. The here suggested model carries important implications for psychiatric disorders, providing novel and well testable hypotheses especially on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Dopamina/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Serotonina/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Bipolar/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Mapeo Encefálico , Dopamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Red Nerviosa/fisiopatología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Psicopatología/métodos , Descanso , Serotonina/metabolismo
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