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1.
BMJ ; 368: m512, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144210

RESUMEN

The studyHewlett S, Almeida C, Ambler N, et al. Reducing arthritis fatigue impact: two-year randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural approaches by rheumatology teams (RAFT). Ann Rheum Dis 2019;78:465-72.Hewlett S, Almeida C, Ambler N, et al. Group cognitive behavioural programme to reduce the impact of rheumatoid arthritis fatigue: the RAFT RCT with economic and qualitative evaluations. Health Technol Assess 2019;23:57.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 11/112/01).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000860/group-cognitive-behavioural-courses-may-reduce-fatigue-from-rheumatoid-arthritis.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide/complicaciones , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Fatiga/prevención & control , Fatiga/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
2.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(1): 48-64, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841023

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic vulvo-vaginal pain condition affecting 8% of premenopausal women. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in managing pain and associated sexual and psychological symptoms, and a recent study found group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) to be equivalent. Our goal was to examine the long-term outcomes of these treatments and to explore mediators of change. METHOD: Participants were 130 women diagnosed with PVD who had participated in a clinical trial comparing 8 weeks of group CBT to 8 weeks of group MBCT. Data were collected at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up periods. Outcomes focused on (a) pain with vaginal penetration, (b) pain elicited with a vulvalgesiometer, and (c) sex-related distress. Mediators of interest included pain acceptance (both pain willingness and activities engagement), self-compassion, self-criticism, mindfulness, decentering, and pain catastrophizing. RESULTS: All improvements in the 3 outcomes were retained at 12-month follow-up, with no group differences. Pain catastrophizing, decentering, and chronic pain acceptance (both scales) were mediators of improvement common to both MBCT and CBT. Changes in mindfulness, self-criticism, and self-compassion mediated improvements only in the MBCT group. CONCLUSIONS: Both MBCT and CBT are effective for improving symptoms in women with PVD when assessed 12 months later. The findings have implications for understanding common and potentially distinct pathways by which CBT and MBCT improve pain and sex-related distress in women with PVD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Atención Plena/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Vulvodinia/psicología , Vulvodinia/terapia , Adulto , Catastrofización/psicología , Catastrofización/terapia , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17552, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689758

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the effect of comprehensive education and care (CEC) program on anxiety, depression, quality of life, and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent surgical resection.Totally 136 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy were randomly assigned to CEC group and control group as 1:1 ratio. CEC group received health education, psychological nursing, caring activity, and telephone condolence, whereas control group received basic health education and rehabilitation for 12 months. Anxiety and depression were assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); quality of life was evaluated using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30).HADS-Anxiety (HADS-A) score was decreased at 9 month (M9) and M12, and reduction in HADS-A score (M12-M0) was greater in CEC group compared with control group. At M12, percentage of anxiety patients was less, but anxiety severity was similar in CEC group compared with control group. HADS-Depression (HADS-D) score was decreased at M12, and reduction in HADS-D score (M12-M0) was greater in CEC group compared with control group. At M12, percentage of depression patients were less but depression severity was similar in CEC group compared with control group. In addition, QLQ-C30 global health status and functional score was increased at M12, and score improvement (M12-M0) was greater in CEC group compared with control group. In addition, overall survival was longer in CEC group compared with control group.CEC relieves anxiety and depression, improves quality of life, and prolongs survival in patients with HCC underwent surgical resection.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/psicología , Consejo/métodos , Depresión/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/psicología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/rehabilitación , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirugía , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/rehabilitación , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Calidad de Vida , Teléfono
4.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(5): 810-815, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612400

RESUMEN

Total laryngectomy affects the speaking functions of many patients. Speech deprivation has great impacts on the quality of life of patients, especially on self-efficacy. Learning esophageal speech represents a way to help laryngectomees speak again. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of collective esophageal speech training on self-efficacy of laryngectomees. In this study, 28 patients and 30 family members were included. The participants received information about training via telephone or a WeChat group. Collective esophageal speech training was used to educate laryngectomees on esophageal speech. Before and after collective esophageal speech training, all participants completed the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) to assess their perceptions on self-efficacy. Through the training, laryngectomees recovered their speech. After the training, the self-efficacy scores of laryngectomees were higher than those before the training, with significant differences noted (T<0.05). However, family members' scores did not change significantly. In conclusion, collective esophageal speech training is not only convenient and economical, but also improves self-efficacy and confidence of laryngectomees. Greater self-efficacy is helpful for laryngectomees to master esophageal speech and improve their quality of life. In addition, more attention should be focused on improving the self-efficacy of family members and making them give full play to their talent and potential on laryngectomees' voice rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Laringectomía/rehabilitación , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Autoeficacia , Logoterapia/métodos , Voz Esofágica/métodos , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patología , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirugía , Laringe/patología , Laringe/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Voz Esofágica/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Maturitas ; 129: 23-29, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547909

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Menopause syndrome generally includes psychological problems. Group treatment delivered via the Internet and mobile phone (imGT) may improve women's physiological and psychological conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy of menopause-related mood swings and quality of life, delivered face to face or via the Internet and mobile phone. METHODS: This protocol is for a randomized controlled clinical trial with a sample of 140 menopausal women divided into 2 groups: imGT and face-to-face group treatment (ffGT). The primary outcome will be the improvement in the menopausal symptoms of the two groups, as assessed by the Greene Climacteric Scale. The secondary outcomes will be: quality of life, assessed by the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire; insomnia, assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory; anxiety, assessed by the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; and therapeutic alliance, assessed by the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised and Client Sat-is-fac-tion Qes-tion-naire-8. imGT will be performed once a week for 1.5 h for 10 weeks with a daily 'Punched-in' on the WeChat app; ffGT will be performed once a week for 1.5 h for 10 weeks. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, at a post-intervention evaluation (week 10), and at a follow-up evaluation (week 22). DISCUSSION: This study will be the first clinical trial to examine the effects of imGT on menopausal women in China. If imGT is found to be non-inferior to ffGT, it will facilitate access to menopausal health services.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Afectivos/terapia , Teléfono Celular , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Internet , Menopausia/psicología , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto , Ansiedad/terapia , China , Estudios de Equivalencia como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aplicaciones Móviles , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Síndrome
6.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 537-553, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537087

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a prevention intervention on French adolescents' Internet and video games use and on their beliefs concerning gaming and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), in order to adjust prevention programs further. METHODS: The study comprised a prevention intervention group (PIG) and a control group assessed at three times - baseline, post-test, and 4-month follow-up. At baseline, a total of 434 junior high adolescents from five secondary schools were assessed (Mage = 13.2 years; SD = 0.5). The main outcome measures were adolescents' gaming and Internet use (amount of time spent during the week and the weekend), the number of adolescents with IGD, and beliefs about gaming and IGD. RESULTS: The results showed significant effects of the prevention intervention on Internet and gaming use (at T2, time spent was significantly lower in the PIG), an important increase of IGD prevalence between baseline and follow-up in the control group, and decreased rates of IGD among adolescents in the PIG between post-intervention and follow-up. Between baseline and follow-up, the control group showed a more significant increase of minutes per day during the week and the weekend on Internet versus during the week on video games. The impact of the prevention intervention on adolescents' beliefs varied according to gender. Girls had a better understanding generally of the potential dangers of and reasons for IGD. DISCUSSION: Implications for future research and prevention approaches are discussed in this study.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Adictiva/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Internet , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Tiempo de Pantalla , Juegos de Video , Adolescente , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 83(3): 259-277, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502871

RESUMEN

Individuals on the autism spectrum experience difficulties in social relationships and emotion regulation. The aim of the present exploratory research study was to develop and explore the effectiveness of a manualized emotion regulation group intervention for autistic adults to improve emotion regulation and social communication. The group participants included seven young adults (age > 18 years) on the autism spectrum. Primary outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Group participants reported significant improvements on the Social Communication and Interaction subscale (SCI; t = 2.601, p = .041), the Social Awareness (AWR; t = 3.163, p = .019), and the Social Cognition (COG; t = 4.861, p = .003) subscales of the SRS-2: Self Report. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a group treatment approach that focuses on emotion regulation to improve social interactions for young adults on the autism spectrum.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
8.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 83(3): 301-325, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502873

RESUMEN

Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience deficits in social knowledge. It has long been theorized that these youth must learn these skills explicitly, and social skills interventions (SSIs) have followed suit. Recently, performance-based SSIs have emerged, which promote in vivo opportunities for social engagement without explicit instruction. Effects of performance-based SSIs on social knowledge have not been examined. This study employs two discrete samples (one lab-based, one community-based) of youth with ASD to examine the effects of performance-based interventions on social knowledge. Results largely support the efficacy and effectiveness of improving social knowledge by performance-based interventions without explicit teaching. This indicates that youth with ASD may be able to learn these aspects of social cognition implicitly, rather than exclusively explicitly. The results of the current study also suggest that SSI content, dosage, and intensity may relate to these outcomes, which are important considerations in clinical practice and future studies.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Percepción Social , Habilidades Sociales , Teoría de la Mente , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(9): 772-786, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403814

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Test whether a dissonance-based transdiagnostic eating disorder treatment reduces valuation of the thin beauty ideal and high-calorie binge foods, the intervention targets, and eating pathology relative to waitlist controls. METHOD: Women with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 eating disorders (N = 100) were randomized to an 8-week group-implemented Body Project Treatment (BPT) redesigned to encourage rapid symptom reduction or a waitlist control condition, completing functional MRI paradigms assessing neural response to thin models and binge foods, questionnaires, and diagnostic interviews at pretest and posttest. RESULTS: Compared to controls, BPT participants showed greater reductions in responsivity of regions involved in reward valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, caudate) to thin models but not binge foods, pursuit of the thin ideal (d = .72), palatability ratings of binge foods (d = .78), and greater increases in attractiveness ratings of average-weight models (d = .44), the intervention targets. BPT participants also showed significantly greater reductions in body dissatisfaction (d = .83), negative affect (d = .76), and eating disorder symptoms (d = .59), and marginally greater abstinence from binge eating and compensatory behaviors (39% vs. 21%) than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide novel evidence that BPT affected the hypothesized intervention targets and reduced variables that are putatively secondary to pursuit of the thin ideal, including body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and eating disorder symptoms. Symptom reductions were smaller than in past trials, suggesting that it may be optimal to reduce valuation of the thin ideal before asking participants to reduce disordered eating behaviors that are used to pursue this ideal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatología , Disonancia Cognitiva , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/terapia , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiopatología , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Recompensa , Adulto , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Corteza Prefrontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
10.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(9): 1004-1014, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373405

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial with a parallel design was to evaluate the effect of brief, cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa (AN) on set-shifting. METHOD: Two hundred seventy-five inpatient adults and adolescents with AN (mean age = 23.1; SD = 12.7) were randomly assigned (using simple randomization procedures) to either a CRT or control condition. All participants received treatment as usual; however, the CRT condition completed five CRT group sessions in lieu of other group therapies provided on the unit. Set-shifting abilities were evaluated by: (a) neuropsychological measures and (b) experimental cognitive behavior therapy thought records. Blinding of group assignment occurred during baseline assessment and ended following group commencement. RESULTS: Data from 135 CRT and 140 control condition participants were analyzed. On all neuropsychological measures, results revealed no between group condition effects, but did show statistically significant time effects, with medium to large effect sizes. Thought record analysis revealed a significant condition by age interaction effect where adults in the CRT condition generated significantly more alternative thoughts and had stronger believability of alternative thoughts than children, a trend that was not found in the control condition. This yielded moderate to large effect sizes of.0.56 and 0.72, respectively. DISCUSSION: Based on traditional neuropsychological measures, these findings do not suggest a differential effect of CRT for AN in the format applied. However, results suggest that CRT may have some increased beneficial cognitive effect for adults, as compared to children, based on thought record analysis.


Asunto(s)
Anorexia Nerviosa/terapia , Remediación Cognitiva/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
11.
Psychopathology ; 52(2): 110-116, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394540

RESUMEN

Beyond the language of medicine and psychology, the essence of many psychopathological experiences remains something that cannot be explained, even if it is possible to perceive it. Phenomenological language in this case must adapt itself to the heart of the lived experience. The phenomenological attitude, in particular, allows us to grasp something that happens before (a priori) the distinction between subject and object. The application of the phenomenological setting to groups of human beings in a clinical and therapeutic context allows us, in spite of its descriptive-contemplative aura, the extreme richness of potentialities, applicative and transformative, of one of the greatest intuitions of modern thought: the disappearance of the fission between the subject, the others and the world-of-life, in the evidence of meaning that the mutual experience of one's own presence (Dasein) opens up. The Mitseindoes not represent the only existential structure that makes the Daseinable to exist with others, but the relationship between the "originary temporality" of the Daseinand the other as "you." Dasein is that entity that is structurally "with" others. And it is in this dynamic relationship that the theme of Sorge unfolds. Care becomes for Heidegger the existential of existential, fundamental ontological structure, indicating the original opening of being, And in this sense, a we-ness-which-cares. This phenomenological approach to group therapy is quite different from the psychoanalytical approach. Indeed, it is based on consciousness and not on the unconscious. The phenomenologist sees the essence of phenomena, he does not use interpretation, whereas the psychoanalyst is more interested in recording the hidden meanings beyond the phenomena. The particular group atmosphere is made up of the following elements: lack of pre-selection, free accessibility into the group unrestricted by rigid rules, less structured actions, the presence of addicts, psychotics and "normal" people side by side. It is very difficult to treat this existential situation, which is characterized by patients frequently dropping out of conventional treatment, the loss of the being-in-the-world structure, boredom, emptiness, dread, anger, lack of meaning, loneliness and isolation. Dasein group analysis (an original interpretation and application of Binswanger's Daseinsanalyse) is here proposed and discussed. Unlike Dasein analysis, this approach applies phenomenology, beyond the classic pair of therapist and patient, to a group of people, in which everyone is simply a human being in the world.


Asunto(s)
Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Humanos
12.
Psychiatr Rehabil J ; 42(3): 329, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464484

RESUMEN

In our clinical work with veterans experiencing serious mental illness and substance use disorders, we noticed specific challenges not commonly addressed with traditional dual recovery group therapy-including having overactive threat systems and feelings of shame and self-criticism. For a program development project at our Veterans Affairs Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Recovery Center, we designed and implemented a group therapy program based on Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT), a therapeutic model that directly addresses the aforementioned challenges (Gilbert, 2009b). Results from pre- and post-intervention measures suggested veterans gained compassion and mindfulness skills and experienced reduced depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Depresión/terapia , Empatía , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Veteranos , Adulto , Diagnóstico Dual (Psiquiatría) , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
13.
Behav Ther ; 50(5): 864-885, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422844

RESUMEN

The evidence base for behavioral activation (BA) as a front-line treatment for depression is grounded in individual delivery. No valid previous meta-analytic reviews of BA delivered in groups have been conducted. This study therefore examined the efficacy and acceptability of group BA drawn from clinical trial evidence. Randomized controlled trials of group BA were identified using a comprehensive literature search. Depression outcomes at posttreatment/follow-up, recovery and dropout rates were extracted and analyzed using a random-effects meta-analysis. Treatment moderators were analyzed using meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Nineteen trials were quantitatively synthesized. Depression outcomes postgroup BA treatment were superior to controls (SMD 0.72, CI 0.34 to 1.10, k=13, N=461) and were equivalent to other active therapies (SMD 0.14, CI -0.18 to 0.46, k=15, N=526). Outcomes were maintained at follow-up for group BA and moderators of treatment outcome were limited. The dropout rate for group BA (14%) was no different from other active treatments for depression (17%). Further research is required to refine the conditions for optimum delivery of group BA and define robust moderators and mediators of outcome. However, BA delivered in groups produces a moderate to large effect on depressive symptoms and should be considered an appropriate front-line treatment option.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Behav Ther ; 50(5): 898-909, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422846

RESUMEN

This study investigates the extent to which achieving goals during behavioral activation (BA) treatment predicts depressive symptom improvement, and whether goal-related cognitions predict goal achievement or treatment response. Patients (n = 110, mean age 37.6, 54% female) received low-intensity cognitive behavioral therapy for depression, which included setting up to three behavioral goals in each of three BA-focused sessions (i.e., 9 goals per patient). Patients completed items from the Self-Regulation Skills Battery to assess goal-related cognitions and goal achievement for these goals, and depressive symptoms were assessed weekly with the PHQ-9. Multilevel models investigated the relationships between goal-related cognitions, goal achievement and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms improved curve-linearly during treatment (B = 0.12, p < .001), but were not predicted by contemporaneous or time-lagged goal achievement. While cumulative goal achievement predicted end-of-treatment depressive symptoms (r = -.23; p < .01), this relationship became nonsignificant after controlling for depressive symptoms at baseline. Readiness, planning and action control predicted greater goal achievement, whereas greater goal ownership predicted less goal achievement (all p < .05). Motivation and outcome expectancy were related to subsequent, but not contemporaneous, improvements in depressive symptoms (all p < .05). This study indicates the importance of goal-related cognitions in BA treatments, and future research should investigate potential moderators of the relationships between goal-related cognitions, goal achievement, and improvements in depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adulto , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
Australas Psychiatry ; 27(5): 496-500, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423812

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a psychosocial group treatment for people with dementia. The aims of this project were to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of a one-day training workshop; (b) measure the uptake of CST following the workshops; and (c) explore the barriers of implementing CST. METHOD: Ten workshops were conducted. Attendees completed a self-evaluation at the end of the training day and were later invited to complete an online survey enquiring about implementation. RESULTS: Two hundred and fourteen workshop attendees completed the self-evaluation. The mean self-rated knowledge and skills for conducting and facilitating CST (1 = No skills, 5 = Very good skills) was 2.3 (SD = 1.2) and 4.3 (SD = 0.7) before and after the workshop, respectively (p = 0.000). The mean self-rated confidence for applying learning to conducting and facilitating CST was 4.2 (SD = 0.7) (1 = Not confident, 5 = Very confident). There were 11 CST programmes started after the workshops and another 10 sites were in the process of starting CST programmes. The main barriers of implementation were lack of staff time/funding and problems of finding suitable participants with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The one-day training workshop is an effective method to disseminate CST. Addressing the barriers identified could improve the adoption of CST in practice.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/educación , Demencia/terapia , Personal de Salud/educación , Utilización de Procedimientos y Técnicas , Psicoterapia de Grupo/educación , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Educación , Humanos , Desarrollo de Programa , Psicoterapia Breve/educación , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos
16.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 26(2): 66-72, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185033

RESUMEN

Introducción: La esquizofrenia es uno de los trastornos mentales que mayor discapacidad humana genera en todo el mundo. Hasta el momento, el tratamiento de síntomas negativos en esquizofrenia dista de estar resuelto de un modo satisfactorio. La singular capacidad del cine para activar la atención, la imaginación y la memoria, así como de activar procesos mentales complejos en los espectadores, permite pensar que puede ser una herramienta terapéutica eficaz para el tratamiento de determinados trastornos mentales. Objetivos: Evaluar el eficacia de una nueva técnica psicoterapéutica (diseñada ad hoc) basada en el análisis fílmico por secuencias y el doble visionado utilizando cine de ficción en pacientes con diagnóstico de trastornos del espectro de la esquizofrenia y otros trastornos psicóticos. Metodología: Se realizó un ensayo clínico multicéntrico, aleatorizado y en grupos paralelos en el que participaron 48 pacientes con diagnóstico de trastornos psicóticos del espectro de la esquizofrenia. Se compararon los efectos de la aplicación de una técnica psicoterapéutica grupal, basada en el uso de cine de ficción como soporte y cuya técnica estaba inspirada en el análisis fílmico, frente a un grupo control que también trabajaba con una técnica más inespecífica sobre el mismo soporte. Para el desarrollo de la nueva técnica psicoterapéutica grupal -objeto de este estudio- se seleccionaron 3 técnicas del análisis fílmico en las que los investigadores en su práctica clínica observaron un potencial terapéutico: 1) la segmentación del material fílmico en secuencias; 2) el análisis por secuencias de los contenidos de la película, y 3) el doble visionado del material cinematográfico. La intervención constaba de 26 sesiones, que implicaban la doble visión de los 13 episodios de la primera temporada de la serie de televisión Los Soprano. Las medidas primarias de resultado fueron los cambios obtenidos en las subescalas de la Escala de Síndromes Positivo y Negativo de la Esquizofrenia, según el modelo pentafactorial de Wallwork, entre la situación basal y final tras el tratamiento. Como medidas de resultado cognitivas se utilizaron los cambios en las escalas de cognición incluidas en la MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery y en escalas de cognición social (MSCEIT, FEIT, FBS) antes y después del tratamiento. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron una mejoría estadísticamente significativa en el grupo experimental frente al grupo control en los síntomas, positivos (p=0,01; d=0,82 [IC del 95%, 0,2-1,43]), negativos (p=0,005; d=0,89 [IC del 95%, 0,26-1,51]) y desorganizados (p=0,013; d=0,49 [IC del 95%, 0,11-1,09]). En el análisis post-hoc del factor negativo se encontró mejorías estadísticamente significativas en las variables: embotamiento afectivo (p=0,041; d=0,64 [IC del 95%, 0,03-1,24]), retraimiento emocional (p=0,012; d=0,80 [IC del 95%, 0,18-1,41]), contacto pobre (p=0,000; d=1,18 [IC del 95%, 0,52-1,82]) y enlentecimiento motor (p=0,003; d=0,96 [IC del 95%, 0,33-1,58]). En el análisis post-hoc del factor positivo se encontró mejoría significativa en el subdominio delirios (p=0,01; d=0,82 [IC del 95%, 0,2-1,4]). No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en síntomas afectivos ni en ninguno de los dominios cognitivos estudiados. Conclusiones: La nueva técnica psicoterapéutica propuesta es aplicable y bien aceptada por los pacientes con esquizofrenia y otros trastornos psicóticos. El uso de esta nueva técnica psicoterapéutica inspirada en el uso del análisis fílmico puede servir para mejorar los síntomas positivos, negativos y desorganizados en pacientes con esquizofrenia


Introduction: Schizophrenia is one of the mental disorders that generate the greatest human disability in the world. The treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is still far from being resolved satisfactorily. The unique ability of cinema to activate attention, imagination and memory, as well as to activate complex mental processes in viewers leads one to think that it can be an effective therapeutic tool for the treatment of certain mental disorders. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a new psychotherapeutic technique (designed ad hoc) based on the analysis of film sequences and double viewed using fiction films in patients diagnosed with spectrum disorders of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Methods: A multicentre, randomised and parallel group clinical trial was conducted on 48 patients with a diagnosis of psychotic disorders of the schizophrenia spectrum. The effects of the application of a psychotherapeutic group therapy technique, based on the use of fiction films, were compared to a control group that also worked with fiction films, but using a non-specific technique. Three film analysis techniques with potential therapeutic properties were selected for the development of the new group psychotherapy technique: 1) the segmentation of the cinematic material into sequences, 2) the analysis by sequences of the contents of the film, 3) the double viewing of the cinematographic material. The intervention consisted of 26 sessions, which involved the double viewing of the 13 episodes of the first season of the television series Los Soprano. The primary outcome measures were the changes obtained in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) subscales, according to Wallwork's five-factor model, between the baseline and final situation after treatment. Cognitive outcome measurements included changes in the cognition scales included in the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and in social cognition scales, like MSCEIT, FEIT, and FBS (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Facial Emotion Identification Test, and Frankfurt self-assessment scale for persons with schizophrenia, respectively), before and after treatment. Results: The results showed a statistically significant improvement in the experimental group versus the control group in the positive [P=.01; d=0.82 (95% CI; 0.2-1.43)], negative [P=.005; d=0.89 (95% CI; 0.26-1.51)] and disorganised symptoms [P=.013; d=0.49 (95% CI; 0.11-1.09)]. In the "post-hoc" analysis of the negative factor, statistically significant improvements were found in the following variables: blunted effect (P=.041, d=0.64 (95% CI; 0.03-1.24)], emotional withdrawal (P=.012, d=0.80 (95% CI; 0.18-1.41)], poor contact (P=.000, d=1.18 (95% CI; 0.52-1.82)], and motor retardation (P=.003, d=0.96 (95% CI; 0.33-1.58).] In the "post-hoc" analysis of the positive factor there was a significant improvement in the delusions subdomain [P=.01; d=0.82 (95% CI; 0.2-1.4).] No significant differences were found between groups in affective symptoms or in any of the cognitive domains. Conclusions: The proposed new psychotherapy technique is applicable and well accepted by patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The use of this new psychotherapy technique inspired in film analysis is effective in leading to improvements in the positive, negative, and disorganised symptoms in patients with schizophrenia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Películas Cinematográficas , Trastornos Psicóticos/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Terapias de Arte Sensorial/métodos
17.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 17.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313757

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The incorporation of gender variable in drug addiction studies provides information about the presence of differences in the therapeutic success rates between men and women. Is therefore essential to carry out studies to analyse the efficacy of differentiated treatments to improve their success. The objective of this study is to observe differences in success rates among women and men undergoing therapy for drug dependence at an addiction centre during two different periods, before 2005, in which they are treated together and after 2005, in which they are treated in separate groups. METHODS: The method was as follows: profiling of the individuals in treatment, analysis of the relationship between successful therapy and the independent variables, T-tests of independent samples and, finally, a logistic regression analysis of the period after 2005 when women and men were separated. RESULTS: Improved success rates were observed among women after 2005 compared with the previous period (Odds of success in women before 2005=2,00; after 2005=7,08). Success rates among men did not change significantly (Odds of success in men before 2005=2,78; after 2005=2,75). Women's success rates were higher than men's (24,4 times more probable on average) for all types of substance abuse and increased for shorter types of treatment, whereas success rates with longer treatments tended to be similar for both men and women (20,5 more likely). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows improved success rates for drug-dependent women when they are treated separately from men, once the specific problems of drug addiction in women are taken into account.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Análisis de Regresión , España , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
18.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(8): 720-733, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294589

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Very few controlled trials have evaluated targeted treatment methods for childhood selective mutism (SM); the availability of evidence-based services remains limited. This study is the first controlled trial to evaluate an intensive group behavioral treatment (IGBT) for children with SM. METHOD: Twenty-nine children with SM (5-9 years; 76% female; 35% ethnic minority) were randomized to immediate SM 5-day IGBT or to a 4-week waitlist with psychoeducational resources (WLP), and were assessed at Week 4 and again 8 weeks into the following school year. RESULTS: IGBT was associated with high satisfaction and low perceived barriers to treatment participation. At Week 4, 50% of the immediate IGBT condition and 0% of the WLP condition were classified as "clinical responders." Further, Time × Condition interactions were significant for social anxiety severity, verbal behavior in social situations, and global functioning (but not for SM severity, verbal behavior in home settings, or overall anxiety). School-year follow-up assessments revealed significant improvements across all outcomes. Eight weeks into the following school year, 46% of IGBT-treated children were free of an SM diagnosis. In addition, teachers in the post-IGBT school year rated less school impairment and more classroom verbal behavior relative to teachers in the pre-IGBT school year. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide the first empirical support for the efficacy and acceptability of IGBT for SM. Further study is needed to examine mechanisms of IGBT response, and other effective SM treatment methods, in order to clarify which treatment formats work best for which affected children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Mutismo/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios , Mutismo/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 267-276, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192720

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) and family psychoeducation (FPE) in promoting and maintaining adolescent mental health. This quantitative study used a quasi-experiment method, pre- and post-testing with a control group design. A total of 86 adolescents were selected using the purposive sampling method and allocated into two groups that were administered different types of intervention. The first intervention group was provided with mental health education and adolescent developmental stimulation only, which was carried out with individual exercises of stimulation. The second intervention group was provided with mental health education and adolescent developmental stimulation in addition to CBGT and FPE. A mental health continuum short-form questionnaire was used to determine mental health scores. The results showed that most of the adolescents received flourishing mental health scores. These scores significantly increased after receiving mental health education and developmental stimulation, as well as CBGT and FPE. Our results indicate that mental health education and developmental stimulation can be used to promote and maintain good mental health. CBGT and FPE can be used not only to treat mental health problems but also to promote flourishing mental health.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/normas , Salud Mental/normas , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/tendencias , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 33(4): 214-221, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192833

RESUMEN

Each year, 40% to 60% of smokers try to quit, but smoking cessation success rate for 1 year was 1% to 9% without professional help and 7% to 40% with professional help. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of group counseling with auricular acupressure on smoking cessation and tobacco withdrawal symptoms. This study is a randomized controlled trial. This study was performed at a university in South Korea. Fifty-five smokers were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group 1 (auricular acupressure + counseling), group 2 (placebo acupressure + counseling), and the control group (self-help smoking cessation). Group counseling and auricular acupressure were undertaken once a week for 6 weeks. The smoking cessation rate in group 1 for 1 year was significantly higher than that in group 2 and the control group (22.2%, 5.3%, and 5.6%, respectively). Tobacco withdrawal symptom scores were significantly decreased in group 1 compared with that in group 2 over 6 weeks (F = 3.2, P = .025). Auricular acupressure with group counseling was effective and group counseling alone was not effective for 1-year smoking cessation.


Asunto(s)
Acupresión/normas , Entrevista Motivacional/normas , Psicoterapia de Grupo/normas , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Acupresión/métodos , Acupresión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Entrevista Motivacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Psicoterapia de Grupo/estadística & datos numéricos , República de Corea , Método Simple Ciego , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
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