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2.
J Clin Ethics ; 31(4): 383, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259344

RESUMEN

The author, editor-in-chief of The Journal of Clinical Ethics, recalls the contributions of Albert R. Jonsen, PhD, one of the founding members of the editorial board of the journal.


Asunto(s)
Eticistas/historia , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Edición/historia , Comités Consultivos , Discusiones Bioéticas , Políticas Editoriales , Ética Clínica , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Am Nat ; 196(6): 663-678, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211565

RESUMEN

The American Naturalist recently passed its sesquicentennial. Throughout this long history, it regularly encountered moments of introspection and debate over its goals, mission, identity, and audience. Here, we chronicle the history of those debates and transitions at critical moments. The Naturalist began as a popular magazine for amateur naturalists in the late 1860s. In the late 1870s, it transitioned to an increasingly academic journal for professional scientists from all branches of the natural sciences. By the turn of the century, academic specialization led to increasing fragmentation of the sciences into a multitude of societies and journals, creating an identity crisis for the once-broad-reaching American Naturalist. This identity crisis was resolved when the journal pivoted around 1910 to focus on fundamental advances in the newly emerging field of genetics. In the 1960s, the journal underwent a remarkably rapid transition to its present focus on evolution and ecology. The profound shifts in the journal's contents over this time are a reflection of the historical changes in science as a whole: from amateur naturalists, to polymath professionals, to increasingly specialized academics. This chronicle reveals the ways in which The American Naturalist has left its mark on many disciplines, many of which are today only loosely affiliated with the journal, if at all.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Naturales/historia , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Evolución Biológica , Ecología , Genética , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Estados Unidos
5.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 143-150, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921484

RESUMEN

After the first successful public demonstration of modern anesthesia in 1846, most female anesthetists were nurses by trade since none were yet allowed to attend medical school to become physicians. The turn of the twentieth century, however, brought about greater opportunity for female physician-anesthetists. We explore the life and career of Barbara E. Waud (1931-), a pioneering woman physician and researcher in the field of anesthesiology. Waud chose to pursue a career in medicine at a time when most women did not even attend college, and for most of her training and practice, she was the only woman in her department. Personal interviews with Waud, her daughter, and her colleagues highlight her rebellious and resilient nature that helped her overcome the obstacles put forth by male colleagues, and the judgment she received from female acquaintances for being a working mother. Waud's impressive career of dedicated clinical practice and ground-breaking research spanned four decades and inspired generations of physicians.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos/historia , Docentes Médicos/historia , Médicos Mujeres/historia , Anestesiología/educación , Anestesiología/historia , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Canadá , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Massachusetts , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Sexismo/historia
6.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 151-155, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921485

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Regional and general anesthesia were widely available in the United States in the late 1960s. The risk of permanent neurological sequelae resulting from spinal anesthesia had largely been dismissed. Although many academic departments of anesthesiology had gained independent status, a significant number operated as divisions within the department of surgery. We present a case report from Peter Bent Brigham Hospital to illustrate the state of anesthetic techniques in use during the late 1960s, and the power dynamics vis-à-vis physician anesthesiologists and surgeons. SOURCES: Hospital records and interviews with individuals familiar with the case. FINDINGS: An otherwise healthy patient underwent inguinal hernia repair. The resident anesthesiologist conducted a preoperative assessment the evening prior to surgery with the patient consenting to the spinal anesthesia, a plan agreeable to the faculty anesthesiologist. The attending surgeon was one of the most prominent surgeons in America and the chairman of their department. He disapproved of the planned anesthetic. Subsequent modifications to the anesthetic plans are discussed, as is the fallout from those actions. CONCLUSION: Spinal anesthesia remained a popular anesthetic option during the late 1960s. General anesthesia with ether, halothane, and other agents an alternative. This case highlights various aspects of perioperative management during a period when many American academic departments of anesthesiology existed as divisions within the department of surgery. It also touches upon the careers of two prominent American physicians.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia General/historia , Anestesia Raquidea/historia , Anestesiología/historia , Anestesiólogos/historia , Anestesiología/métodos , Boston , Historia del Siglo XX , Hospitales de Enseñanza/historia , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Cirujanos/historia
7.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 164-165, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921489

RESUMEN

Famous for pioneering the oxygenation of nitrous-oxide anesthetics, Chicago surgeon Edmund Andrews trusted the Manhattan-based Colton Dental Association's claim that they had conducted 75,000 nitrous-oxide anesthetics without a single mortality. Those statistics were cited in Andrews' 1870 journal article on anesthetic risks and then, remarkably, advertised on the business cards of dentist James M. Spencer, Jr., of Gouverneur, New York.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/historia , Anestesia Dental/historia , Anestésicos por Inhalación/historia , Óxido Nitroso/historia , Anestésicos por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Óxido Nitroso/efectos adversos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Estados Unidos
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105568, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562929

RESUMEN

Accident Analysis & Prevention (AA&P) is a leading academic journal established in 1969 that serves as an important scientific communication platform for road safety studies. To celebrate its 50th anniversary of publishing outstanding and insightful studies, a multi-dimensional statistical and visualized analysis of the AA&P publications between 1969 and 2018 was performed using the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database, bibliometrics and mapping-knowledge-domain (MKD) analytical methods, and scientometric tools. It was shown that the annual number of AA&P's publications has grown exponentially and that over the course of its development, AA&P has been a leader in the field of road safety, both in terms of innovation and dissemination. By determining its key source countries and organizations, core authors, highly co-cited published documents, and high burst-strength publications, we showed that AA&P's areas of focus include the "effects of hazard and risk perception on driving behavior", "crash frequency modeling analysis", "intentional driving violations and aberrant driving behavior", "epidemiology, assessment and prevention of road traffic injuries", and "crash-injury severity modeling analysis". Furthermore, the key burst papers that have played an important role in advancing research and guiding AA&P in new directions - particularly those in the fields of crash frequency and crash-injury severity modeling analyses were identified. Finally, a modified Haddon matrix in the era of intelligent, connected and autonomous transportation systems is proposed to provide new insights into the emerging generation of road safety studies.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Bibliometría , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto
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