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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231073, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365128

RESUMEN

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) sets a standard by which sustainable fisheries can be assessed and eco-certified. It is one of the oldest and most well-known fisheries certifications, and an estimated 15% of global fish catch is MSC-certified. While the MSC is increasingly recognized by decision-makers as an indicator for fishery success, it is also criticized for weak standards and overly-lenient third-party certifiers. This gap between the standard's reputation and its actual implementation could be a result of how the MSC markets and promotes its brand. Here we classify MSC-certified fisheries by gear type (i.e. active vs. passive) as well as by length of the vessels involved (i.e. large scale vs. small scale; with the division between the two occurring at 12 m in overall length). We compared the MSC-certified fisheries (until 31 December 2017) to 399 photographs the MSC used in promotional materials since 2009. Results show that fisheries involving small-scale vessels and passive gears were disproportionately represented in promotional materials: 64% of promotional photographs were of passive gears, although only 40% of MSC-certified fisheries and 17% of the overall catch were caught by passive gears from 2009-2017. Similarly, 49% of the photographs featured small-scale vessels, although just 20% of MSC-certified fisheries and 7% of the overall MSC-certified catch used small-scale vessels from 2009 to 2017. The MSC disproportionately features photographs of small-scale fisheries although the catch it certifies is overwhelmingly from industrial fisheries.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Certificación , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Industria de Alimentos , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Publicidad/clasificación , Publicidad/métodos , Publicidad/normas , Animales , Certificación/organización & administración , Certificación/normas , Eficiencia Organizacional , Explotaciones Pesqueras/clasificación , Explotaciones Pesqueras/organización & administración , Explotaciones Pesqueras/normas , Peces/fisiología , Industria de Alimentos/clasificación , Industria de Alimentos/instrumentación , Industria de Alimentos/organización & administración , Industria de Alimentos/normas , Afiliación Organizacional/organización & administración , Afiliación Organizacional/normas , Alimentos Marinos/clasificación , Consejos de Especialidades/organización & administración , Consejos de Especialidades/normas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233036, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413058

RESUMEN

Social campaigns are persuasive messages that attempt to communicate positive ideas and practices. One of the main challenges in designing effective social campaigns is the need to compete with other advertisements for viewers' attention. One of the most widely used methods of drawing attention to social advertising is the use of negative emotions. However, the effectiveness of negative emotional appeals in social campaigns is still a topic of debates. The aim of the study was to use both declarative and neural (EEG) measures to examine whether increasing the intensity of negative emotions in a social campaign enhances its effectiveness linearly or only to a certain level (curvilinear relation). The experimental study was conducted (N = 62) with road safety campaign, using three different levels of negative emotional intensity. The results showed that even though advertising with the strongest negative stimuli evoked the strongest negative emotions, it had no significantly stronger influence on behavioral intention (driving less risky) than moderately negative stimuli. Moreover, neural reaction to the negative stimuli in advertising depended on driving style-people with risky driving style payed less attention to more threatening message (higher beta oscillations).


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Emociones , Comunicación Persuasiva , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Accidentes de Tránsito/psicología , Adulto , Ritmo alfa , Ritmo beta , Encéfalo/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polonia , Psicofisiología , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Seguridad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 138: 105479, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178794

RESUMEN

Research on the effect of advertising billboards on road safety has accumulated over the past seven decades, but has led to inconclusive data, which prevent clear-cut conclusions. To enhance road safety, it was suggested that researchers should shift their efforts to exploring which billboard characteristics are distracting by nature. This line of research may promote the establishment of concrete guidelines for the least distracting permissible billboards. A previous study classified billboards into three clusters: 1. Loaded (colorful billboards with small quantities of graphic elements and large quantities of text); 2. Graphical (colorful billboards with large quantities of graphic elements and small quantities of text); and 3. Minimal (billboards with few or no graphic elements, few colors, and a small amount of text). The current study systematically explores the effect of these three clusters on drivers' performance in a driving simulator. Eighteen participants drove in scenarios which systematically manipulated the following variables: the perceptual load on the road, the perceptual load on the sides of the road, location of preplanned critical events, and the presence of billboards from each one of the three previously identified clusters. The findings show that the presence of billboards from the Loaded and Minimal clusters significantly compromised road safety in various experimental conditions. However, the presence of billboards from the Graphical cluster significantly affected drivers' performance only in one experimental condition. The conclusion, for the time being, is that Graphical billboards, which include a large quantity of graphic elements with few or no textual elements, are the least harmful while driving.


Asunto(s)
Conducción Distraída/psicología , Directorios de Señalización y Ubicación/clasificación , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Adulto , Publicidad/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(3): 297-305, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687635

RESUMEN

Introduction: It is acknowledged that leading pharmaceutical companies lately spend more on marketing than they are investing in research and technology development. Romania registers one of the largest market growths in the pharmaceutical industry from Central and Eastern Europe, and it is one of the main investors on the advertising market. The rapid changes in the pharmaceutical landscape have demanded for organizations to re-evaluate their infrastructure and the information delivery methods, as well as cut through the clutter and build competitive advantages by using effective advertising. The dry eye is a commonly disease encountered worldwide, which is treated with the help of over-the-counter (OTC) artificial tear drops. Aim: The aim of this study was twofold: to determine the profile of the Romanian consumer who uses artificial tear drops and to assess the components of experiential marketing used in a TV advertisement, which have the highest influence on the consumer's perception of effective advertising. Material and method: We selected a TV advertisement that used the magical concept of the artificial tear drops in the shape of water in a desert area, suggesting an eye irritation. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire based on the watched advertising spot about the OTC artificial tear drops. The sample was made up of 384 participants and the sampling method was the snowball technique. Moreover, a model using Structural Equation was validated in order to assess the established relationships between the experiential marketing components and the effectiveness of the OTC artificial tear drops advertising. Findings: The findings showed that the demographic profile of the OTC artificial tear drops consumer is a female, with the mean age of 39 years, who graduated from university, with an average income of 2500 RON (Romanian currency), single, and with an office job. The mean number of hours spent in front of a computer per day was 10. The structural equation model revealed that the component think experience has the highest direct influence on the consumer's perception of an advertisement about OTC artificial tear drops as being effective. Discussion: The pharmaceutical market is different from other markets in that the decision maker is not the purchaser except for the OTC drugs that do not require a receipt from a physician. Think experience focuses on rational decision-making and problem solving but in a creative way.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/tratamiento farmacológico , Gotas Lubricantes para Ojos/farmacología , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Medicamentos sin Prescripción , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rumanía
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1479, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744491

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To determine if outdoor advertising density for non-alcoholic drinks, food, tobacco products, and alcohol, is associated with neighborhood poverty or other Census-level characteristics in New York City (NYC). METHODS: From June - July of 2015, photographs were taken of all street-level, stationary outdoor advertising (posters, stickers, decals, etc.) for consumable products in a sample of 953 NYC retail-dense street segments. Density of product images was analyzed by neighborhood poverty level and other characteristics using multivariate negative-binomial regression. RESULTS: A total of 16,305 discrete advertisements displaying 50,673 product images were photographed. Total product image prevalence relative to retail density was not significantly higher in high- vs. low-poverty neighborhoods, as hypothesized (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.77). However, total product image prevalence was higher in neighborhoods with a higher percentage of Black residents (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12), and for sugary drinks in areas with a higher percentage of adults with

Asunto(s)
Publicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Publicidad/métodos , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Bebidas , Censos , Femenino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4727-4738, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778522

RESUMEN

Several anti-smoking campaigns have been used for decades to reduce smoking consumption. However, so far, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of inducing distinct emotions in reducing smoke consumption. This study tested the effects of two types of anti-smoking ads, inducing fear or humor, on emotions, perceived effectiveness, support for tobacco control policies, urges to smoke, and susceptibility to smoke. Participants (N = 108; 54 smokers) of both genders were randomly assigned to one of the two following emotion ads condition: fear (N = 52) or humor (N = 56). During exposure, the continuous flow of their emotions by self-report and physiologically was collected. Measures of ads impact on emotions, perceived effectiveness, urges and susceptibility to smoking, and support for tobacco policies were applied after exposure. The results have shown that fear ads were perceived as more effective and reduced the urges to smoke in smokers. Non-smokers were more supportive of tobacco control policies. In conclusion, this study showed that fear campaigns can reduce the urge to smoke among smokers and are perceived to be more effective. This perceived effectiveness can be partially explained by feelings of fear, regardless the other emotions it also triggers, and of the smoking status.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Miedo/psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Ingenio y Humor como Asunto/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , No Fumadores/psicología , Política Pública , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652921

RESUMEN

Restricting alcohol advertising and marketing is a cost-effective intervention for reducing alcohol harms. However, the alcohol industry maintains that advertising does not affect consumption, claiming that its purpose is to help consumers choose brands, it is not aimed at young people, it only promotes "responsible consumption", and any relationships with consumption are not causal. We reviewed 39 case studies (1981-2016) published by the advertising industry, which evaluate the effects of alcohol advertising campaigns. We used these to examine these industry claims. 30/39 (77%) of the case studies mentioned increasing/maintaining market share as an objective, or used this to assess the effectiveness of advertising campaigns. Most (25/39, 64%) found that campaigns increased consumption-related outcomes. Some campaigns targeted women, and heavy drinkers (e.g., Stella Artois lager, Famous Grouse whisky). Campaigns often (13/39, 33%) targeted younger drinkers. These data show that advertising does influence market share. Other effects reported in the case studies include changing the consumer profile towards: younger drinkers, women, new/lapsed drinkers, and heavy drinkers. They also present evidence of a causal relationship between advertising and consumption. In conclusion, this analysis, based on industry data, presents significant new evidence on (i) the effects of alcohol advertising on consumption-related outcomes, and (ii) the mechanisms by which it achieves those effects.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
8.
Health Educ Res ; 34(5): 532-541, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495876

RESUMEN

In recent years, the geographic information system (GIS) application has used the latest spatial data to help researchers make the right decisions in the shortest time. This study was conducted with the aim of using geographic information systems (ArcGIS) for selecting the best location for installing banners and billboards in a health campaign. This research was an analytical and applied research conducted in Sirjan city, Iran in 2018. In this research, GIS and fuzzy logic methods were used. In order to implement the fuzzy operator in the GIS environment, initially, the main influencing criteria in location selection were determined. Then the weighted layers were put on top of each other and, by considering the sub criteria, the most suitable places to install banners and billboards were identified in the final map. The final map showed the best places to install billboards and educational banners for the 'hookah is the enemy of health' campaign. The final number of these places was 30 according to the main criteria, and the number was reduced to 25 places, after considering the sub criteria. ArcGIS can be used in selecting the best locations for installing banners and billboards in a health campaign.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Ciudades , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Irán
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(8): e14021, 2019 08 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429409

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Facebook has shown promise as an economical means of recruiting participants for health research. However, few studies have evaluated this recruitment method in Canada, fewer still targeting older adults, and, to our knowledge, none specifically in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess Facebook advertising as an economical means of recruiting a representative sample of adults aged 35 to 74 years in NL for a cross-sectional health survey. METHODS: Facebook advertising was used to recruit for a Web-based survey on cancer awareness and prevention during April and May 2018; during recruitment, additional advertisements were targeted to increase representation of demographics that we identified as being underrepresented in our sample. Sociodemographic and health characteristics of the study sample were compared with distributions of the underlying population to determine representativeness. Cramer V indicates the magnitude of the difference between the sample and population distributions, interpreted as small (Cramer V=0.10), medium (0.30), and large (0.50). Sample characteristics were considered representative if there was no statistically significant difference in distributions (chi-square P>.01) or if the difference was small (V≤0.10), and practically representative if 0.10

Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Acad Med ; 94(9): 1293-1298, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460918

RESUMEN

Academic departments are increasingly borrowing from the business world as they encourage faculty members to consider their personal mission, vision, and values statements in crafting their plans for engagement and advancement. Business organizations have long known that although doing the work necessary to refine these internal guideposts is important, failing to understand what consumers actually perceive about their product is detrimental. In the business world, perception is reality, and understanding the external shorthand of what consumers perceive-that is, the brand-is essential. Academic clinicians have a brand whether they take ownership of it or not. A faculty member's brand is both what their work (academic products) and how they do their work say about them to those who encounter it. In this Perspective, the authors explore the brand framework informed by marketing literature, and they outline a four-step process for faculty members to identify their own personal brands. The authors share how knowing one's academic brand can (1) help faculty members approach projects and other responsibilities through the lens of building or detracting from that brand, (2) provide a framework for determining how faculty members might best work within their institutions, and (3) help faculty members better understand and advocate their own engagement and advancement. The authors also share a paradigm for finding one's brand sweet spot at the intersection of passion, skill, and institutional need, and they propose how working outside of this sweet spot is a setup for failure.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Docentes Médicos/psicología , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Autoimagen , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Objetivos Organizacionales , Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Law Med ; 45(1): 7-31, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293209

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Widespread digital retouching of advertising imagery in the fashion, beauty, and other consumer industries promotes unrealistic beauty standards that have harmful effects on public health. In particular, exposure to misleading beauty imagery is linked with greater body dissatisfaction, worse mood, poorer self-esteem, and increased risk for disordered eating behaviors. Moreover, given the social, psychological, medical, and economic burden of eating disorders, there is an urgent need to address environmental risk factors and to scale up prevention efforts by increasing the regulation of digitally altered advertising imagery. METHODS: This manuscript summarizes the health research literature linking digital retouching of advertising to increased risk of eating disorders, disordered weight and appearance control behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in consumers, followed by a review of global policy initiatives designed to regulate digital retouching to reduce health harms to consumers. Next, we turn to the US legal context, reporting on findings generated through legal research via Westlaw and LexisNexis, congressional records, federal agency websites, law review articles, and Supreme Court opinions, in addition to consulting legal experts on both tax law and the First Amendment, to evaluate the viability of various policy initiatives proposed to strengthen regulation on digital retouching in the United States. FINDINGS: Influencing advertising practices via tax incentives combined with corporate social responsibility initiatives may be the most constitutionally feasible options for the US legal context to reduce the use of digitally alternated images of models' bodies in advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Policy and corporate initiatives to curtail use of digitally altered images found to be harmful to mental and behavioral health of consumers could reduce the burden of eating disorders, disordered weight and appearance control behaviors, and body dissatisfaction and thereby improve population health in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Publicidad/métodos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública , Responsabilidad Social , Industria de la Belleza/economía , Insatisfacción Corporal , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Política de Salud , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/economía , Impuesto a la Renta/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/economía , Autoimagen , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220407, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344096

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Video games have grown in popularity since the 1970s, and tobacco imagery is present in a substantial subset of games, including those oriented to youth. Much like exposure to tobacco content in films, exposure to tobacco content in video games may influence smoking uptake and use; however, the tobacco industry's role in facilitating or promoting the use of tobacco imagery in video games is unclear. We explored the industry's interest in and use of video games to market their products to youth and young adults. METHODS: We retrieved and analyzed archival tobacco industry documents. We supplemented information from the documents with current and archived versions of several brand and corporate websites and one website containing user-supplied information on video games. RESULTS: Tobacco companies recognized the youth appeal and marketing potential of video games as early as 1980. Initial marketing ideas included incorporating video game themes into product packaging and design. More fully realized plans focused on incorporating video games into product promotions in bars, as a high visibility way to attract younger patrons and increase long-term marketing opportunities by generating names for tobacco company direct-marketing databases. Tobacco companies also incorporated video games into in-home product promotions, primarily as components of brand websites, in order to enhance brand image and generate repeat website traffic. A similar desire to attract and keep visitors led to discussions about the inclusion of video games on corporate youth smoking prevention websites, although only one company, Lorillard, followed through. CONCLUSIONS: Video game players are an attractive target market for tobacco companies. Video games, as used by these companies, facilitate consumer engagement with particular tobacco brands or particular corporate messages. Eliminating the use of video games as a promotional vehicle may require limiting tobacco marketing in both physical and online environments.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Industria del Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Juegos de Video , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidad/tendencias , Ansia/fisiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Internet , Embalaje de Productos/métodos , Industria del Tabaco/economía , Industria del Tabaco/historia , Industria del Tabaco/métodos , Industria del Tabaco/tendencias , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/provisión & distribución , Juegos de Video/psicología , Juegos de Video/tendencias , Adulto Joven
14.
Acad Med ; 94(10): 1546-1553, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149923

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To study the effect of a planned social media promotion strategy on access of online articles in an established academic medical journal. METHOD: This was a single-masked, randomized controlled trial using articles published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, a large-circulation general/internal medicine journal. Articles published during the months of October, November, and December 2015 (n = 68) were randomized to social media promotion (SoMe) using Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn or to no social media promotion (NoSoMe), for 30 days (beginning with the date of online article publication). Journal website visits and full-text article downloads were compared for 0-30 and 31-60 days following online publication between SoMe versus NoSoMe using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: Website access of articles from 0 to 30 days was significantly higher in the SoMe group (n = 34) compared with the NoSoMe group (n = 34): 1,070 median downloads versus 265, P < .001. Similarly, full-text article downloads from 0-30 days were significantly higher in the SoMe group: 1,042 median downloads versus 142, P < .001. Compared with the NoSoMe articles, articles randomized to SoMe received a greater number of website visits via Twitter (90 vs 1), Facebook (526 vs 2.5), and LinkedIn (31.5 vs 0)-all P < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Articles randomized to SoMe were more widely accessed compared with those without social media promotion. These findings show a possible role, benefit, and need for further study of a carefully planned social media promotion strategy in an academic medical journal.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Difusión de la Información , Internet , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Método Simple Ciego
15.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(4): 346-351, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180614

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Price promotions are used to influence purchases and represent an important target for obesity prevention policy. However, no long-term contemporary data on the extent and frequency of supermarket price promotions exists. We aimed to evaluate the frequency, magnitude and weekly variation of beverage price promotions available online at two major Australian supermarket chains over 50 weeks. METHODS: Beverages were categorised into four policy-relevant categories (sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages, flavoured milk and 100% juice, milk and water). The proportional contribution of each category to the total number of price proportions, the proportion of price promotions within the available product category, the mean discount, and weekly variation in price promotions were calculated. RESULTS: For Coles and Woolworths respectively, 26% and 30% of all beverages were price promoted in any given week. Sugar-sweetened beverages made up the greatest proportion of all price promotions (Coles: 46%, Woolworths: 49%). Within each product category, the proportion of sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages that were price promoted was similar, higher than the other categories and reasonably constant over time. Diet drinks and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were most heavily discounted (by 29-40%). CONCLUSIONS: Beverage price promotions are used extensively in Australian supermarkets, undermining efforts to promote healthy population diets. Implications for public health: Policies restricting price promotions on sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to be an important part of strategies to reduce obesity and improve population nutrition.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Bebidas/economía , Bebidas/provisión & distribución , Comercio/economía , Australia , Bebidas Gaseosas , Humanos , Obesidad/prevención & control
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(10): 1285-1291, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222599

RESUMEN

Objectives Several types of epidemiologic studies suffer from decreasing participation rates, resulting in potential selection bias and delay or termination of studies. We aimed to determine the feasibility of online methods for recruitment of pregnant women into a prospective cohort study. Methods In addition to traditional recruitment through prenatal care providers, we advertized participation in the PRegnancy and Infant DEvelopment (PRIDE) Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study with long-term follow-up in The Netherlands enrolling women in early pregnancy, through Google AdWords (30 days) and Facebook Ads (31 and 27 days) campaigns between September 2016 and January 2017. We calculated costs per eligible participant and compared demographics, health-related characteristics, and follow-up rates between participants recruited through online methods and prenatal care providers. Results During the study period, we recruited six women through AdWords (€54.28 per participant), 59 through Facebook (€10.17 per participant), and 327 through prenatal care providers (no valid cost estimate available). Facebook participants seemed to be younger (29.0 vs. 30.7 years), to have a higher body mass-index and/or low/intermediate education (27.0 vs. 24.0 kg/m2 and 41 vs. 25%, respectively), and to start prenatal care in secondary care more often (12 vs. 5%) than participants recruited through prenatal care providers. Item non-response and loss to follow-up rates were higher among women recruited online than among those recruited through prenatal care providers. Conclusion Google AdWords did not contribute substantially, but Facebook Ads may complement traditional recruitment methods of pregnant women into prospective cohort studies, despite challenges that may threaten internal validity.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Selección de Paciente , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/instrumentación , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Adulto , Publicidad/tendencias , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Internet , Países Bajos , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194006, 2019 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099874

RESUMEN

Importance: Use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) such as electronic cigarettes, chewing tobacco, pipes, cigars, cigarillos, little cigars, and hookah is rapidly increasing. Although marketing restrictions exist for cigarettes, marketing of ATPs is not yet fully regulated, and studies have not assessed the association between ownership of ATP promotional materials and subsequent ATP or cigarette initiation among adolescents and young adults. Objective: To estimate the association between marketing receptivity measured at baseline and ATP and any tobacco initiation 1 year later, including cigarettes, among adolescents and young adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal cohort study of adolescents and young adults aged 13 to 19 years recruited at high schools in California from July 2014 to October 2015, with follow-up 1 year later. Data were analyzed from January to March 2018. Exposures: Ownership of ATP-specific promotional material and ownership of any tobacco promotional materials (eg, samples, coupons, branded caps, t-shirts, or posters) assessed in wave 1. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were (1) ATP initiation and (2) either ATP or cigarette initiation in wave 2. Results: Of 757 participants (mean [SD] age at wave 1, 16.1 [1.1] years; 481 [63.5%] female; 166 [21.9%] Asian or Pacific Islander, 202 [26.7%] white, and 276 [36.4%] Latino), 129 (17.0%) initiated ATP use and 141 (18.6%) initiated ATP or cigarette use 1 year later. In unadjusted models, wave 2 ATP initiation was found to be significantly associated with wave 1 ownership of ATP promotional materials (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.26-3.97). After adjustment for wave 1 demographic covariates, the association between ownership of ATP promotional material and ATP initiation 1 year later yielded similar results (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.16-3.91). Results of models assessing a combined outcome variable of either ATP or cigarette ever use were not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: Ownership of ATP promotional materials was associated with subsequent initiation of ATPs. The results of this study are consistent with the suggestion that current marketing restrictions for cigarettes, including restrictions of the distribution of samples, coupons, and other promotional material, should extend to ATPs.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Publicidad/métodos , California/epidemiología , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Adulto Joven
18.
Health Educ Res ; 34(5): 471-482, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106344

RESUMEN

The authors designed and evaluated an innovative, branded campaign called 'Adelante' to promote positive youth development (PYD) and reduce risk behaviors among Latino youth near Washington, DC. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the intervention and a comparison community to evaluate campaign exposure and changes in PYD outcomes. The sample consisted of 1549 Latino and immigrant adolescents surveyed at three time points in intervention and comparison communities. A social marketing campaign was implemented using outdoor advertising, Web, video and social media channels to promote PYD and health outcomes over a 1-year period from 2015 to 2016. Measures included media use; self-reported exposure to campaign promotions; Adelante message receptivity; validated PYD scales; substance use, sexual risk taking, violence-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, intentions and risk behavior. Outcomes were regressed first on campaign exposure to examine dose-response effects of the Adelante campaign over time. Second, we compared outcomes between the Adelante and comparison communities. We observed a positive effect of self-reported exposure on multiple outcomes, including improvements in pro-violence and sexual risk outcomes and lower pro-violence attitudes and lower risky attitudes toward sex. Adelante was effective in improving youth risk outcomes and offers a promising model for future health promotion with Latino and immigrant populations.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/educación , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Hispanoamericanos , Mercadeo Social , Adolescente , Publicidad/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/etnología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Violencia/etnología , Violencia/prevención & control
19.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 38(4): 391-398, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037783

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We tested whether incidental exposure to alcohol marketing messages in sporting events: (i) influenced automatic evaluation of brands and alcohol in general; and (ii) if these processes occur through deliberative (conscious) or non-conscious processes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using an experimental design, participants watched a sport event containing: (i) a prototypical alcohol brand; (ii) a brand unrelated to alcohol; or (iii) a non-prototypical alcohol brand. One hundred and nine participants were randomly assigned to either a cognitively depleting task to impair motivation for effortful conscious processing before watching the excerpt, or a control task. We measured indirect (implicit) and direct (explicit) attitudes toward alcohol and brands, and self-report measures assessing affective response toward the event, involvement in processing the message and identifications toward the playing teams. RESULTS: We found a positive main effect of incidental exposure to alcohol brands on indirect measures of attitudes toward alcohol as well as the specific brand. No effect of cognitive fatigue on indirect measure toward brands and alcohol was observed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Incidental exposure to alcohol marketing messages appear to impact indirect measures of attitudes toward the brand and alcohol in general, and seems to rely on non-conscious automatic processes.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Actitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía , Adulto Joven
20.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e026306, 2019 04 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948599

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) which utilise prefilled 'pods' (pod devices) entered the US market in 2015. One brand, JUUL, captured more than half the e-cigarette market in early 2018, and the US Food and Drug Administration recently warned its manufacturer about adolescent uptake. This is the first qualitative study to describe distinct features of pod devices that appear to contribute to their popularity among young people. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study of young adults who had used pod devices. Participants were recruited from Facebook, other social media, street recruitment and via snowball sampling. SETTING: Participants were from California, with most from the San Francisco Bay Area. PARTICIPANTS: Young adults (aged 18-29 years) using multiple tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco) were recruited. Of the sample of 60 participants, 24 were included in this analysis: 10 who reported experience with pod devices and 14 who used other non-pod e-cigarette devices. RESULTS: Ten participants had used a pod device in the past year. Of the pod device users, seven still used a pod device at the time of the interview and five did so daily. Nearly all (n=9) pod device users smoked cigarettes in the past month; none were daily smokers. The 14 participants who used non-pod devices provided a point of comparison. Participants highlighted some distinct aspects of pod devices that facilitated use, including their aesthetic similarity to personal electronics, high levels of nicotine delivery with distinct psychoactive effects, more discreet and shorter duration use sessions, and greater social acceptability than more ostentatious non-pod e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Pod devices' unique characteristics likely encourage pod device uptake among young people. Limitations on advertising in youth channels, flavours and distribution, and education about nicotine addiction may decrease initiation among young people and non-smokers.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/normas , Investigación Cualitativa , Fumar/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , San Francisco/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
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