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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585629, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997021

RESUMEN

Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition involving repetitive partial or complete collapse of the pharyngeal airway, especially in patient with mandibular hypoplasia. The present study investigated the differences between the volume of the oropharyngeal airway and the minimum axial area in three skeletal patterns through the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: CBCT scans of 147 patients were collected to measure the upper oropharyngeal airway volume (UOV), lower oropharyngeal airway volume (LOV), upper oropharyngeal airway area (UOA), minimum upper oropharyngeal airway area (MUOA), lower oropharyngeal airway area (LOA), minimum lower oropharyngeal airway area (MLOA), anatomical structures (orbitale, Or; porion, Po; pogonion, Pog; hyoid, H; second cervical vertebra, C2; fourth cervical vertebra, C4), and relevant angles. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Pearson's test. Results: Compared with patients in Class II, those in Class III and Class I exhibited a significantly anterior position of H and Pog. The vertical positions of H and Pog revealed no significant difference between the three skeletal patterns. Patients in skeletal Class III exhibited significantly larger oropharyngeal area (UOA, MUOA, LOA, MLOA) and oropharyngeal airway (UOV and LOV) than those in skeletal Class II did. The horizontal position of Pog had a moderately significant correlation with UOA (r = 0.471) and MUOA (r = 0.455). Conclusion: Patients in skeletal Class II had significantly smaller oropharyngeal airway areas and volumes than those in Class III did. The minimum oropharyngeal cross-sectional area had a 67% probability of occurrence in the upper oropharyngeal airway among patients in Class I and Class II and a 50% probability of occurrence among patients in Class III.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Masculino , Orofaringe/anatomía & histología , Adulto Joven
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585297, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997020

RESUMEN

Purpose: This study investigated the antilingula and its related landmarks, the mandibular rami, by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: CBCT images of 37 patients (74 sides of the mandibular ramus) were collected. The landmarks of antilingula (AntiL), anterior ramus (A), posterior ramus (P), superior ramus (S), and inferior ramus (I) were identified. The distances (A-AntiL, P-AntiL, S-AntiL, and I-AntiL) were statistically evaluated according to gender, side (right and left), and skeletal patterns. Results: The distance from the antilingula to the anterior (A-AntiL) border of the ramus was significantly longer on the right side (14.69 mm) than on the left side (13.97 mm). Male patients had longer AntiL-P, AntiL-I, and S-I distances (18.96, 40.07, and 54.94 mm, respectively) than did female patients (16.66, 35, and 47.54 mm, respectively). Regarding skeletal patterns, the classes can be ordered as follows in terms of the measurements: class III>class II>class I. However, the differences between the classes were nonsignificant. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that gender and S-I distance were strongly correlated (r = 0.667); specifically, male patients had a longer S-I distance. A-AntiL and A-P also exhibited a strong correlation (r = 0.796). Conclusion: Antilingula-related distances did not differ between skeletal patterns. Among antilingula-related variables, A-AntiL could serve as a favorable measuring point during operation.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Osteotomía , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6 Supple A): 81-86, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053279

RESUMEN

AIMS: The objective of this study is to assess the use of ultrasound (US) as a radiation-free imaging modality to reconstruct 3D anatomy of the knee for use in preoperative templating in knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Using an US system, which is fitted with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker that is integrated into the US probe, allows 3D tracking of the probe, femur, and tibia. The raw US radiofrequency (RF) signals are acquired and, using real-time signal processing, bone boundaries are extracted. Bone boundaries and the tracking information are fused in a 3D point cloud for the femur and tibia. Using a statistical shaping model, the patient-specific surface is reconstructed by optimizing bone geometry to match the point clouds. An accuracy analysis was conducted for 17 cadavers by comparing the 3D US models with those created using CT. US scans from 15 users were compared in order to examine the effect of operator variability on the output. RESULTS: The results revealed that the US bone models were accurate compared with the CT models (root mean squared error (RM)S: femur, 1.07 mm (SD 0.15); tibia, 1.02 mm (SD 0.13). Additionally, femoral landmarking proved to be accurate (transepicondylar axis: 1.07° (SD 0.65°); posterior condylar axis: 0.73° (SD 0.41°); distal condylar axis: 0.96° (SD 0.89°); medial anteroposterior (AP): 1.22 mm (SD 0.69); lateral AP: 1.21 mm (SD 1.02)). Tibial landmarking errors were slightly higher (posterior slope axis: 1.92° (SD 1.31°); and tubercle axis: 1.91° (SD 1.24°)). For implant sizing, 90% of the femora and 60% of the tibiae were sized correctly, while the remainder were only one size different from the required implant size. No difference was observed between moderate and skilled users. CONCLUSION: The 3D US bone models were proven to be closely matched compared with CT and suitable for preoperative planning. The 3D US is radiation-free and offers numerous clinical opportunities for bone visualization rapidly during clinic visits, to enable preoperative planning with implant sizing. There is potential to extend its application to 3D dynamic ligament balancing, and intraoperative registration for use with robots and navigation systems. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6 Supple A):81-86.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla , Imagenología Tridimensional , Articulación de la Rodilla/anatomía & histología , Modelación Específica para el Paciente , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Cadáver , Humanos , Ondas de Radio , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6646406, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860047

RESUMEN

Purpose: Sella turcica bridging (STB) refers to a rare anatomical variation formed by the ossification of the ligament between the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. The presence of the STB was significantly correlated with craniofacial skeleton classification and a higher prevalence rate in skeletal Class III. The current study is aimed at investigating the dimensions of sella turcica and the prevalence of STB in different sexes and on the three craniofacial skeletal patterns using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: A total of 159 adults (66 males and 93 females), including 3 different craniofacial skeletal patterns (skeletal Classes I, II, and III), were included in the study. The sella turcica dimensions and the prevalence of STB were calculated. An independent t-test and generalized linear model were used to compare the differences in the sella turcica dimensions and the skeletal relations. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlations between sella turcica dimensions and skeletal relation. Results: The sella length (SL) was 11.05 ± 1.80 mm for males and 10.77 ± 1.56 mm for females. The anterior clinoid distance (ACD) which was measured for the anterior width of sella turcica showed 25.83 ± 2.04 mm and 24.04 ± 2.28 mm for males and females, respectively (p < 0.0001). The overall percentage of complete bridging and partial bridging was 6.6% and 56.9%, respectively. Complete bridges were more common in males (males: 9.1%, females: 4.8%), and partial bridges were more frequent in females (males: 49.2%, females: 62.4%). Both sexes differed with respect to sella turcica dimensions. Moreover, males had a significantly larger ACD, posterior clinoid distance (PCD), and diameter of sella turcica (DST), on both sides, relative to females. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of complete STB in the Taiwanese population was 6.6%. Significant differences between sexes were found in sella turcica dimensions. The prevalence rates of STB as well as the sella turcica dimensions did not significantly differ between different craniofacial skeletal patterns (skeletal Classes I, II, and III).


Asunto(s)
Silla Turca/anatomía & histología , Caracteres Sexuales , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Cefalometría , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Cara/anatomía & histología , Lejano Oriente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 29(5): 189-195, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587498

RESUMEN

Since its introduction by Smith and Robinson, the anterior approach to the subaxial cervical spine has become one of the standard procedures for numerous cervical spine pathologies, including, but not limited to degenerative disease, trauma, tumor, deformity, and instability. Along with its increasing popularity and improvements in anterior instrumentation techniques, a comprehensive knowledge of the surgical anatomy during the anterior exposure is critical for trainees and experienced spine surgeons alike to minimize the infrequent but potentially devastating risks associated with this approach. Understanding the anatomy and techniques to minimize damage to relevant structures can reduce the risks of developing notable postoperative complications and morbidity.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Cervicales/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Humanos , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/prevención & control
6.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(3): 187-199, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635008

RESUMEN

The primary goal of surgery for rectal cancer is to achieve an oncologically safe resection, i.e., a radical resection with a sufficient safe margin. Total mesorectal excision has been introduced for radical surgery of rectal cancer and has yielded greatly improved oncologic outcomes in terms of local recurrence and cancer-specific survival. Along with oncologic outcomes, functional outcomes, such as voiding and sexual function, have also been emphasized in patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery to improve quality of life. Intraoperative nerve damage or combined excision is the primary reason for sexual and urinary dysfunction. In the past, these forms of damage could be attributed to the lack of anatomical knowledge and poor visualization of the pelvic autonomic nerve. With the adoption of minimally invasive surgery, visualization of nerve structure and meticulous dissection for the mesorectum are now possible. As the leading hospital employing this technique, we have adopted minimally invasive platforms (laparoscopy, robot-assisted surgery) in the field of rectal cancer surgery and standardized this technique globally. Here, we review a standardized technique for rectal cancer surgery based on our experience at Severance Hospital, suggest some practical technical tips, and discuss a couple of debatable issues in this field.


Asunto(s)
Vías Autónomas/anatomía & histología , Fascia/anatomía & histología , Fascia/inervación , Hospitales , Pelvis/anatomía & histología , Pelvis/inervación , Recto/cirugía , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Humanos
7.
Phys Ther Sport ; 49: 21-30, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550202

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the concurrent validity of using automated 2D video analysis relative to 3D motion capture for assessing frontal and sagittal-plane knee kinematics during landing, 2) compare the accuracy of visually estimating joint center locations (2D Manual) with computing joint center locations using anatomical markers (2D Automatic), and 3) compare landing kinematics between a controlled laboratory setting and a non-laboratory setting. DESIGN: Validity/repeatability study. SETTINGS: Biomechanics research laboratory and non-laboratory athletic facility. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty uninjured recreational athletes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak knee flexion, knee flexion range of motion, peak knee frontal plane projection angle, and knee frontal plane projection angle range of motion during bilateral and unilateral landing were measured simultaneously in 3D using motion capture and in 2D using two low-cost video cameras during the first study session (biomechanics research laboratory), and in 2D only during the second study session (non-laboratory athletic facility). RESULTS: There was good to excellent agreement between 3D motion capture and both 2D Manual (ICC = 0.86-0.99) and 2D Automatic (ICC = 0.89-0.99) video analysis methods. There was good to excellent agreement between data collected in a laboratory and non-laboratory setting (ICC = 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: The methods introduced in this study are inexpensive, reliable, and feasible for use in non-laboratory settings.


Asunto(s)
Rodilla/fisiología , Ejercicio Pliométrico , Adulto , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevención & control , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios de Tiempo y Movimiento , Adulto Joven
8.
Med Sci Law ; 61(1_suppl): 136-140, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591867

RESUMEN

When human remains are found, with no evidence of identity, facial approximation can be a useful technique to employ. The reconstruction of the ante-mortem appearance can reproduce the likely features of the face, starting from the skull, based on the overlying soft-tissue thickness. Over the years, many techniques have been developed to achieve soft-tissue thickness measurements, one of which is based on the use of cone beam computed tomography. This study aimed to review the status of this technique and to evaluate heterogeneity among studies undertaken in this field, with particular regard to determination of landmarks, sex and body mass index.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Restos Mortales , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Tejido Conectivo/anatomía & histología , Cara/anatomía & histología , Antropología Forense/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445758

RESUMEN

This study was designed to develop and verify a fully automated cephalometry landmark identification system, based on multi-stage convolutional neural networks (CNNs) architecture, using a combination dataset. In this research, we trained and tested multi-stage CNNs with 430 lateral and 430 MIP lateral cephalograms synthesized by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to make a combination dataset. Fifteen landmarks were manually and respectively identified by experienced examiner, at the preprocessing phase. The intra-examiner reliability was high (ICC = 0.99) in manual identification. The results of prediction of the system for average mean radial error (MRE) and standard deviation (SD) were 1.03 mm and 1.29 mm, respectively. In conclusion, different types of image data might be the one of factors that affect the prediction accuracy of a fully-automated landmark identification system, based on multi-stage CNNs.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Cefalometría/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Anomalías Craneofaciales/diagnóstico por imagen , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(6): 1355-1401, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454227

RESUMEN

Since its initial description in 1996 by Yii and Niranjan, the internal pudendal perforator flap (also known as the Singapore flap, the gluteal fold flap, and the lotus petal flap) has become a workhorse in perineal soft tissue reconstruction. In 2001, Hashimoto described the presence of three to five perforators in the perineal anogenital triangle. The ischial tuberosity has thus become a useful anatomic landmark for the safe boundary of medial dissection during flap elevation, in order to avoid damaging the perforator vessels. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the perforators' positions within the anogenital triangle by using color Doppler ultrasound. In a study of 15 subjects in the lithotomy position, we identified a total of 24 perforator vessels with a diameter greater than 5 mm. We noted the vessels' positions using orthonormal measurements, according to the distance from the midline and the distance on a straight line between the two ischial tuberosities (i.e. consistent bony anatomic landmarks that are independent of the patient's height and body mass index). The mean distance between the ischial tuberosity and the internal pudendal perforator was 27.3 mm. Based on our present results, we consider that routine ultrasound identification and dissection of the perforators is not always required before pudendal flap harvesting. This decreases the operating time and simplifies the flap harvesting procedure.


Asunto(s)
Nalgas , Perineo/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Recolección de Tejidos y Órganos/métodos , Ultrasonografía Doppler en Color/métodos , Adulto , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Antropometría/métodos , Arterias/cirugía , Nalgas/irrigación sanguínea , Nalgas/cirugía , Precisión de la Medición Dimensional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Colgajo Perforante/irrigación sanguínea , Colgajo Perforante/trasplante , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
11.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 846-858, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410519

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Three-dimensional (3D) data collected by structured light scanners, photogrammetry, and computed tomography (CT) scans are increasingly combined in joint analyses, even though the scanning techniques and reconstruction software differ considerably. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality and accuracy of surface models and landmark data obtained from modern clinical CT scanning, 3D structured light scanner, photogrammetry, and MicroScribe digitizer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We tested 13 different photogrammetric software tools and compared surface models obtained by different methods for four articulated human pelves in a topographical analysis. We also measured a set of 219 landmarks and semilandmarks twice on every surface as well as directly on the dry bones with a MicroScribe digitizer. RESULTS: Only one photogrammetric software package yielded surface models of the complete pelves that could be used for further analysis. Despite the complex pelvic anatomy, all three methods (CT scanning, 3D structured light scanning, photogrammetry) yielded similar surface representations with average deviations among the surface models between 100 and 200 µm. A geometric morphometric analysis of the measured landmarks showed that the different scanning methods yielded similar shape variables, but data acquisition via MicroScribe digitizer was most prone to error. DISCUSSION: We demonstrated that three-dimensional models obtained by different methods can be combined in a single analysis. Photogrammetry proved to be a cheap, quick, and accurate method to generate 3D surface models at useful resolutions, but photogrammetry software packages differ enormously in quality.


Asunto(s)
Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Osteología/métodos , Programas Informáticos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/anatomía & histología , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Antropología Física , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pelvis/anatomía & histología , Pelvis/diagnóstico por imagen , Fotogrametría/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adulto Joven
12.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(3): 824-834, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474986

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively implement a patient-informed organ dose monitoring framework for clinical CT and compare the effective dose (ED) according to the patient-informed organ dose with ED according to the dose-length product (DLP) in 1048 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Organ doses for a given examination are computed by matching the topogram to a computational phantom from a library of anthropomorphic phantoms and scaling the fixed tube current dose coefficients by the examination volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and the tube-current modulation using a previously validated convolution-based technique. In this study, the library was expanded to 58 adult, 56 pediatric, five pregnant, and 12 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference models, and the technique was extended to include multiple protocols, a bias correction, and uncertainty estimates. The method was implemented in a clinical monitoring system to estimate organ dose and organ dose-based ED for 647 abdomen-pelvis and 401 chest examinations, which were compared with DLP-based ED using a t test. RESULTS. For the majority of the organs, the maximum errors in organ dose estimation were 18% and 8%, averaged across all protocols, without and with bias correction, respectively. For the patient examinations, DLP-based ED was significantly different from organ dose-based ED by as much as 190.9% and 234.7% for chest and abdomen-pelvis scans, respectively (mean, 9.0% and 24.3%). The differences were statistically significant (p < .001) and exhibited overestimation for larger-sized patients and underestimation for smaller-sized patients. CONCLUSION. A patient-informed organ dose estimation framework was comprehensively implemented applicable to clinical imaging of adult, pediatric, and pregnant patients. Compared with organ dose-based ED, DLP-based ED may overestimate effective dose for larger-sized patients and underestimate it for smaller-sized patients.


Asunto(s)
Dosis de Radiación , Monitoreo de Radiación/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Tamaño Corporal , Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Niño , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pelvis/diagnóstico por imagen , Fantasmas de Imagen , Embarazo , Estándares de Referencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Flujo de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(1): 227-237, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483951

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Increased use of three-dimensional (3D) imaging data has led to a need for methods capable of capturing rich shape descriptions. Semi-landmarks have been demonstrated to increase shape information but placement in 3D can be time consuming, computationally expensive, or may introduce artifacts. This study implements and compares three strategies to more densely sample a 3D image surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three dense sampling strategies: patch, patch-thin-plate spline (TPS), and pseudo-landmark sampling, are implemented to analyze skulls from three species of great apes. To evaluate the shape information added by each strategy, the semi or pseudo-landmarks are used to estimate a transform between an individual and the population average template. The average mean root squared error between the transformed mesh and the template is used to quantify the success of the transform. RESULTS: The landmark sets generated by each method result in estimates of the template that on average were comparable or exceeded the accuracy of using manual landmarks alone. The patch method demonstrates the most sensitivity to noise and missing data, resulting in outliers with large deviations in the mean shape estimates. Patch-TPS and pseudo-landmarking provide more robust performance in the presence of noise and variability in the dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Each landmarking strategy was capable of producing shape estimations of the population average templates that were generally comparable to manual landmarks alone while greatly increasing the density of the shape information. This study highlights the potential trade-offs between correspondence of the semi-landmark points, consistent point spacing, sample coverage, repeatability, and computational time.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/anatomía & histología , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Animales , Antropología Física , Cefalometría/métodos
14.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(1): e49-e58, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357762

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The midsagittal plane (MSP) is the foundation for 3-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analyses. This article aimed to provide a protocol to construct a reliable and accurate MSP for 3D cephalometric craniofacial analysis. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography data of 16 adult patients without obvious bilateral asymmetry were collected. The model of the anterior cranial base and sphenoid bone was constructed, and the candidate MSP was determined on the basis of the symmetry of this model. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess intra- and interexaminer reliability of the candidate MSP. To investigate the accuracy of this candidate MSP, we constructed a true plane of symmetry of craniomaxillofacial structure and a control plane on the basis of 3 cranial midline points. We then compared these with the candidate MSP. RESULTS: This candidate MSP resembled the true plane of symmetry with all the mean absolute errors <1 mm, and all the absolute errors for the candidate MSP were significantly smaller than the control plane (P ≤0.002). The relative intra- and interexaminer reliability for this candidate MSP was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.9). CONCLUSIONS: The candidate MSP constructed using this method was thought to be reliable and accurate for 3D cephalometric analysis in patients without obvious cranial asymmetry.


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Imagenología Tridimensional , Adulto , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Cefalometría , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Base del Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 49-65, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871028

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The primate foot has been extensively investigated because of its role in weight-bearing; however, the calcaneus has been relatively understudied. Here we examine entire gorilla calcaneal external shape to understand its relationship with locomotor behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Calcanei of Gorilla gorilla gorilla (n = 43), Gorilla beringei graueri (n = 20), and Gorilla beringei beringei (n = 15) were surface or micro-CT scanned. External shape was analyzed through a three-dimensional geometric morphometric sliding semilandmark analysis. Semilandmarks were slid relative to an updated Procrustes average in order to minimize the bending energy of the thin plate spline interpolation function. Shape variation was summarized using principal components analysis of shape coordinates. Procrustes distances between taxa averages were calculated and resampling statistics run to test pairwise differences. Linear measures were collected and regressed against estimated body mass. RESULTS: All three taxa exhibit statistically different morphologies (p < .001 for pairwise comparisons). G. g. gorilla demonstrates an anteroposteriorly elongated calcaneus with a deeper cuboid pivot region and mediolaterally flatter posterior talar facet. G. b. beringei possesses the flattest cuboid and most medially-angled posterior talar facets. G. b. graueri demonstrates intermediate articular facet morphology, a medially-angled tuberosity, and an elongated peroneal trochlea. DISCUSSION: Articular facet differences separate gorillas along a locomotor gradient. G. g. gorilla is adapted for arboreality with greater joint mobility, while G. b. beringei is adapted for more stereotypical loads associated with terrestriality. G. b. graueri's unique posterolateral morphology may be due to a secondary transition to greater arboreality from a more terrestrial ancestor.


Asunto(s)
Variación Anatómica/fisiología , Calcáneo/anatomía & histología , Gorilla gorilla/anatomía & histología , Gorilla gorilla/fisiología , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/anatomía & histología , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Animales , Antropología Física , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Calcáneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Calcáneo/fisiología , Femenino , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Hominidae/fisiología , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales
16.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101773, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810795

RESUMEN

Sex estimation is the keystone for positive identification when an unidentified human body is recovered in forensic contexts. However, in complex death scenes such as mass disasters, the remains are often fleshed, mutilated, burned, and/or commingled. In situations such as these where it is not possible to analyze pelvis and/or cranium data, traditional metric and qualitative morphological methods on postcranial bones can yield unsatisfactory results. In such cases, geometric morphometric techniques offer an alternative to the analysis of both shape and size components of morphological variation that can be of great utility for sex estimation in forensic investigations. The study population consisted of 72 well-preserved adult humeri (40 males and 32 females; mean age of 62 years) that were photographed in standardized positions with landmarks located in four two-dimensional views of the humerus (anterior surface of the proximal epiphysis, and anterior, posterior and inferior surface of distal epiphysis). Principal components analysis, canonical variates analysis and discriminant analysis were applied. The data indicated that males and females were classified with low levels of accuracy (54.95-77.92% for males; 56.87-71.78% for females) based on shape variables. However, when the shape variable was combined with the centroid size, the levels of accuracy increased (81.86-94.92% for males; 84.08-94.88% for females). To obtain larger differences between males and females, it is necessary the combination of centroid size with shape variables; the shape of the humerus is insufficient to discriminate sex with accuracy.


Asunto(s)
Restos Mortales , Antropología Forense/métodos , Húmero/anatomía & histología , Determinación del Sexo por el Esqueleto/métodos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/anatomía & histología , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultados Negativos , Análisis de Componente Principal , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21475, 2020 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756171

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Typically, the tendon of the pectoralis major inserts into the crest of the greater tubercle of the humerus. However, anomalous insertion sites of the pectoralis major tendons have been noted. PATIENT CONCERNS: The cadaver of a 95-year-old Japanese man was selected from the bodies used for gross anatomy practice at the Tokai University School of Medicine in 2018. DIAGNOSIS: In this cadaver, the left side of the pectoralis major tendon appeared to insert at the crest of the greater tubercle and lesser tubercle of the humerus, forming a tunnel measuring 2.5 cm in total length. INTERVENTION: We removed the fat and skin around the shoulder joint and upper extremity for observational purposes and carefully examined the structures during gross anatomy. OUTCOMES: The medial side of the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon was not into the humerus but had combined with the tendon of the latissimus dorsi, which then loosely inserted into the humerus. As the roof and both walls comprised the tendon of the pectoralis major and the floor was formed by the tendon of the latissimus dorsi and humerus, the structure formed a tunnel. LESSONS: This study is important for orthopedic and rehabilitation physicians in treating diseases of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. As part of management, the condition of the tendon of the pectoralis major should be confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.


Asunto(s)
Músculos Pectorales/anatomía & histología , Músculos Superficiales de la Espalda/anatomía & histología , Tendones/anomalías , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Cadáver , Disección , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(5): 444-452, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620457

RESUMEN

The aim of the present paper is to systematically review all available literature on preradiotherapy high uptake areas (hotspots) as a potential target for dose escalation in different tumour sites, and to understand the potential role and limitations of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in this context. An electronic database (Medline) search was conducted to identify articles reporting on a correlation between high tracer uptake on pretreatment PET and preferential sites of local recurrence after radiotherapy. Search was limited to English language. No date range limitation was applied. Among 45 studies initially identified, nine series matching with inclusion criteria have finally been retained from the literature after reviewing (5 retrospective and 4 prospective). Primary tumour locations were head-neck (n=2), lung (n=4), oesophageal (n=2) and rectal (n=1) areas. Overlaps between FDG hotspot on preradiotherapy PET/CT and site of local recurrence on post-treatment scan showed good to excellent agreement. Only studies on head-neck cancer reported moderate agreement probably explained by the lack of reproducibility of the patients positioning between pre- and post-treatment FDG-PET/CT; and by the rigid registration process of images limited by post-therapeutic changes that highly affect anatomical landmarks. FDG hotspot-guided radiotherapy may allow dose escalation in respecting a robust methodology (treatment position, co-registration method, four-dimensional PET).


Asunto(s)
Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18 , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/métodos , Radiofármacos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/radioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Estudios Prospectivos , Neoplasias del Recto/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias del Recto/radioterapia , Estudios Retrospectivos
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