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1.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 208, 2020 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Landmark-based approaches of two- or three-dimensional coordinates are the most widely used in geometric morphometrics (GM). As human face hosts the organs that act as the central interface for identification, more landmarks are needed to characterize biological shape variation. Because the use of few anatomical landmarks may not be sufficient for variability of some biological patterns and form, sliding semi-landmarks are required to quantify complex shape. RESULTS: This study investigates the effect of iterations in sliding semi-landmarks and their results on the predictive ability in GM analyses of soft-tissue in 3D human face. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection and the gender are predicted using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to test the effect of each relaxation state. The results show that the classification accuracy is affected by the number of iterations but not in progressive pattern. Also, there is stability at 12 relaxation state with highest accuracy of 96.43% and an unchanging decline after the 12 relaxation state. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there is a particular number of iteration or cycle where the sliding becomes optimally relaxed. This means the higher the number of iterations is not necessarily the higher the accuracy.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Cara/anatomía & histología , Imagenología Tridimensional , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Componente Principal , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Factores de Tiempo
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 435-443, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056459

RESUMEN

To accurately localize the centers of intramuscular nerve dense regions (CINDRs) of rotator cuff muscles. Twenty adult cadavers were used. The curves on skin connecting the superior angle of scapula with the acromion, and with the inferior angle of scapula were designed as the horizontal (H) and longitudinal (L) reference lines, respectively. One side of the rotator cuff muscles were removed and subjected to Sihler's staining to show intramuscular nerve dense regions, and the contralateral muscles' CINDRs were labeled with barium sulfate and scanned by computed tomography (to determine body surface projection points (P)). The intersection of the longitudinal line from point P to line H, and that of the horizontal line from point P to line L, were recorded as PH and PL, respectively. The projection of CINDRs on the anterior body surface across the saggital plane was defined as P' and the line connecting P to P' was recorded as Line PP'. Percentage positions of CINDRs of PH and PL on lines H and L, and the depths on line PP' were determined under the Syngo system. Two, four, one, and one CINDRs were identified in supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles, respectively. The positions of PH of these CINDRs on the H-line are as follows: supraspinatus, 25.43 % and 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53.85 %, 34.63 %, 35.96 % and 58.17 %; teres minor, 74.50 %; and subscapularis, 20.33 %. The PL on the L-line: supraspinatus, 11.09 % and 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21.59 %, 27.93 %, 48.55 % and 57.52 %; teres minor, 68.28 %; and subscapularis, 52.82 %. The depth on line PP': supraspinatus, 24.83 % and 25.40 %; infraspinatus, 21.55 %, 16.10 %, 10.01 % and 8.14 %; teres minor, 13.27 %; and subscapularis, 22.88 %. The identification of these CINDRs should provide the optimal target position for injecting botulinum toxin A to treat rotator cuff muscles spasticity accompanied by shoulder pain and to improve the efficiency and efficacy of blocking target localization.


Con el objetivo de localizar con precisión los centros de las regiones densas del nervio intramuscular (CRDNI) de los músculos del manguito rotador, se utilizaron veinte cadáveres adultos. Las curvas en la piel que conectan el ángulo superior de la escápula con el acromion y con el ángulo inferior de la escápula se determinaron como líneas de referencia horizontales (H) y longitudinales (L), respectivamente. Se extrajo de un lado los músculos del manguito rotador y se sometió a la tinción de Sihler para mostrar regiones densas de nervios intramusculares, y los CRDNI de los músculos contralaterales se marcaron con sulfato de bario y se escanearon mediante tomografía computarizada (para determinar los puntos de proyección de la superficie corporal (P)). La intersección de la línea longitudinal desde el punto P a la línea H, y de la línea horizontal desde el punto P a la línea L, se registraron como PH y PL, respectivamente. La proyección de CRDNI en la superficie del cuerpo anterior a través del plano sagital se definió como P 'y la línea que conecta P a P' se registró como Línea PP '. Las posiciones porcentuales de los CRDNI de PH y PL en las líneas H y L, y las profundidades en la línea PP 'se determinaron bajo el sistema Syngo. Se identificaron dos, cuatro, uno y un CINDR en los músculos supraespinoso, infraespinoso, redondo menor y subescapular, respectivamente. Las posiciones de PH de estos CRDNI en la línea H son las siguientes: supraespinoso, 25,43 % y 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53,85 %, 34,63 %, 35,96 % y 58,17 %; redondo menor, 74,50 %; y subescapular, 20,33 %. El PL en la línea L: supraespinoso, 11.09 % y 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21,59 %, 27,93 %, 48,55 % y 57,52 %; redondo menor, 68.28 %; y subescapular, 52,82 %. La profundidad en la línea PP ': supraespinoso, 24,83 % y 25,40 %; infraspinatus, 21,55 %, 16,10 %, 10,01 % y 8,14 %; redondo menor, 13.27 %; y subescapularis, 22,88 %. La identificación de estos CRDNI debería proporcionar la posición objetivo óptima para inyectar la toxina botulínica A para tratar la espasticidad de los músculos del manguito rotador acompañada de dolor en el hombro y para mejorar la eficiencia y la eficacia del bloqueo de la localización del objetivo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Nervios Periféricos/anatomía & histología , Manguito de los Rotadores/inervación , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Bloqueo Nervioso , Cadáver , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Espasticidad Muscular
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 367-373, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056449

RESUMEN

Sexual dimorphism in Homo-sapiens is a phenomenon of a direct product of evolution by natural selection where evolutionary forces acted separately on the sexes which brought about the differences in appearance between male and female such as in shape and size. Advances in morphometrics have skyrocketed the rate of research on sex differences in human and other species. However, the current challenges facing 3D in the acquisition of facial data such as lack of homology, insufficient landmarks to characterize the facial shape and complex computational process for facial point digitization require further study in the domain of sex dimorphism. This study investigates sexual dimorphism in the human face with the application of Automatic Homologous Multi-points Warping (AHMW) for 3D facial landmark by building a template mesh as a reference object which is thereby applied to each of the target mesh on Stirling/ESRC dataset containing 101 subjects (male = 47, female = 54). The semi-landmarks are subjected to sliding along tangents to the curves and surfaces until the bending energy between a template and a target form is minimal. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection and the features are classified using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with an accuracy of 99.01 % which demonstrates that the method is robust.


El dimorfismo sexual en el Homo-sapiens es un fenómeno directo de la evolución por selección natural, donde las fuerzas evolutivas actuaron por separado en los sexos, lo que provocó las diferencias en la apariencia entre hombres y mujeres, tal como la forma y tamaño. Los avances en el área de la morfometría, han generado un aumento significativo de las investigaciones en las diferencias de sexo en humanos y otras especies. Sin embargo, los desafíos actuales que enfrenta el 3D en el análisis de datos faciales, como la falta de homología, puntos de referencia insuficientes para caracterizar la forma facial y la complejidad del proceso computacional para la digitalización de puntos faciales, requiere un estudio adicional en el área del dimorfismo sexual. Este estudio investiga el dimorfismo sexual en el rostro humano con la aplicación de la deformación automática de múltiples puntos homólogos para el hito facial 3D, mediante la elaboración de una malla de plantilla como objeto de referencia, y se aplica en cada una de las mallas objetivas en el conjunto de datos Stirling / ESRC que contiene 101 sujetos (hombre = 47, mujer = 54). Los semi-puntos de referencia se deslizan a lo largo de las tangentes a las curvas y superficies hasta que la energía de flexión entre una plantilla y una forma objetivo es mínima. El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) se utiliza para la selección de características y las características se clasifican mediante el análisis discriminante lineal (ADL) con una precisión del 99,01 %, lo que demuestra la validez del método.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Caracteres Sexuales , Tejido Conectivo/anatomía & histología , Cara/anatomía & histología , Análisis Discriminante , Análisis Multivariante , Tejido Conectivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional , Cara/diagnóstico por imagen , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228402, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271782

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The application of three-dimensional scan models offers a useful resource for studying craniofacial variation. The complex mathematical analysis for facial point acquisition in three-dimensional models has made many craniofacial assessments laborious. METHOD: This study investigates three-dimensional (3D) soft-tissue craniofacial variation, with relation to ethnicity, sex and age variables in British and Irish white Europeans. This utilizes a geometric morphometric approach on a subsampled dataset comprising 292 scans, taken from a Liverpool-York Head Model database. Shape variation and analysis of each variable are tested using 20 anchor anatomical landmarks and 480 sliding semi-landmarks. RESULTS: Significant ethnicity, sex, and age differences are observed for measurement covering major aspects of the craniofacial shape. The ethnicity shows subtle significant differences compared to sex and age; even though it presents the lowest classification accuracy. The magnitude of dimorphism in sex is revealed in the facial, nasal and crania measurement. Significant shape differences are also seen at each age group, with some distinct dimorphic features present in the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of shape variation show that white British individuals have a more rounded head shape, whereas white Irish individuals have a narrower head shape. White British persons also demonstrate higher classification accuracy. Regarding sex patterns, males are relatively larger than females, especially in the mouth and nasal regions. Females presented with higher classification accuracy than males. The differences in the chin, mouth, nose, crania, and forehead emerge from different growth rates between the groups. Classification accuracy is best for children and senior adult age groups.


Asunto(s)
Cefalometría , Cara/anatomía & histología , Imagenología Tridimensional , Caracteres Sexuales , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Análisis de Varianza , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Componente Principal , Adulto Joven
5.
J Ultrasound Med ; 39(7): 1413-1419, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227492

RESUMEN

Growing evidence is showing the usefulness of lung ultrasound in patients with the 2019 new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has now spread in almost every country in the world. In this study, we share our experience and propose a standardized approach to optimize the use of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19. We focus on equipment, procedure, classification, and data sharing.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/normas , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Inteligencia Artificial , Bases de Datos Factuales , Predicción , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Internacionalidad , Pandemias , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 929-935, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221205

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Jowl fat overhang can reduce jawline definition. The most common treatment to reduce jowl fat is liposuction. ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection), a minimally invasive treatment approved for submental fat reduction, may also be an effective treatment for jowl fat. The current study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 treatment for reducing jowl fat. METHODS: In this prospective single-site study, 66 adults were treated for excess jowl fat with ATX-101 (area-adjusted dose: 2 mg/cm). Eligible patients had pinchable fat on the jawline and relatively minimal skin laxity in the jowl. Depending on the size of the treatment area, ATX-101 injections of 0.2 ml spaced 1.0 cm apart or 0.1 ml spaced 0.50 to 0.75 cm apart were administered. Improvement in jowl appearance was assessed 6 months or more after the last treatment in person by the clinician. Improvement was also assessed by the patient and two independent plastic surgeons using blinded before/after treatment photographs. Safety was evaluated via adverse events. RESULTS: The mean number of ATX-101 treatments received was 1.8, with a mean injection volume of 0.8 ml per treatment per jowl. The majority of patients (98 percent) experienced an improvement in jowl appearance. Common adverse events were injection-site edema, numbness, tenderness, and bruising. Injection-site marginal mandibular nerve paresis and alopecia were experienced by three patients each; all events resolved without sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: ATX-101 effectively reduced jowl fat and was well tolerated in this small cohort. Care should be taken when injecting ATX-101 into jowl fat to avoid underlying anatomic structures such as the marginal mandibular nerve. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Asunto(s)
Colagogos y Coleréticos/administración & dosificación , Ácido Desoxicólico/administración & dosificación , Grasa Subcutánea/efectos de los fármacos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Mentón , Colagogos y Coleréticos/efectos adversos , Técnicas Cosméticas , Ácido Desoxicólico/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción del Paciente , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 938-942, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221208

RESUMEN

Techniques for nasal tip shaping have evolved from destructive to nondestructive techniques. These techniques have proven to be effective, yet they are often applied incrementally and require repeated intraoperative evaluation and manipulation to assess their efficacy. We describe a simple, effective, and reliable five-suture technique to achieve consistent results in tip shaping based on previously described ideals for nasal tip aesthetics.


Asunto(s)
Nariz/cirugía , Rinoplastia/métodos , Técnicas de Sutura , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Estética , Humanos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 1049-1057, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Conventional reconstructive options for large full-thickness eyelid defects are limited to static local flaps without replacing the missing orbicularis. The authors' aim is to delineate the platysma neurovascular anatomy for innervated functional eyelid reconstruction. METHODS: Fourteen fresh latex-injected heminecks were dissected. The locations where neurovascular structures entered the platysma muscles were expressed as the percentage distance ± SD from the sternocleidomastoid muscle mastoid insertion to manubrium origin. RESULTS: The superior thyroid, facial, and lingual vessels were the major pedicles in eight of 14 (57.1 percent), four of 14 (28.6 percent), and one of 14 specimens (7.1 percent), respectively. In one specimen (7.1 percent), both the superior thyroid and facial vessels supplied a major pedicle. Venous drainage generally mirrored arterial inflow but was redundant, with 43 percent and 14 percent of flaps also with major contributions from the external jugular and anterior jugular veins, respectively. Neurovascular pedicles entered the platysma 28 to 57 percent caudal to the sternocleidomastoid muscle mastoid insertion, between 0.5 and 4.8 cm anterior to the medial sternocleidomastoid muscle border. CONCLUSION: Although variability exists, platysma neurovascular pedicles enter at predictable locations between 28 and 57 percent of the distance from the mastoid insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, therefore making free platysma transfer a feasible option for eyelid reconstruction.


Asunto(s)
Párpados/cirugía , Colgajo Miocutáneo/irrigación sanguínea , Anciano , Anastomosis Quirúrgica/métodos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Cadáver , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Músculo Esquelético/trasplante , Colgajo Miocutáneo/inervación , Recolección de Tejidos y Órganos/métodos
9.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20190771, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208971

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography scans of the kidney, ureters, and bladder (CT-KUB) are crucial in investigating urinary calculi but impart a substantial radiation doses. Radiation can be limited by minimising the scanning field to the necessary area (i.e. from the kidneys to urethra). Before auditing, the superior limit of CT-KUB scans had not been formally clarified at our trust. Consistently ensuring the upper limit of scans is at or below T10 has been shown to be a viable method of performing CT-KUB scans. This study aimed to assess the overscan length of CT-KUB investigations and modify practice accordingly to minimise it. There were two standards that were set for CT-KUB scanning. First, the mean percentage overscan length (i.e. percentage of the scan above the kidneys) should be <15%. Second, all scans should include the superior borders of both kidneys. METHODS: 90 consecutive CT-KUB scans for ureteric calculus were retrospectively investigated using IMPAX software in the first phase of data collection. After these data were analysed, a newly devised protocol using T11 as the superior scan limit was delivered to radiographers in the department. and 105 in the second phase (re-audit). The analysis parameters were: percentage overscan length, distance between diaphragm and upper border of kidneys, vertebral level at which the scan commenced, and whether both kidneys were fully included. RESULTS: In the first phase, overscan of >15% was present in 94.4% of scans. The mean percentage overscan length was 28.2%. The superior vertebral limit of 59% of scans was at T10 or below and a lower superior vertebral limit correlated with decreasing overscan. 99% of scans fully included both kidneys. In the second phase (3 months later), the mean overscan percentage reduced to 10.6% (standard deviation = 4.4%). Excessive overscan affected 35.2% of scans. The superior vertebral limit of 8% of scans was at T10 or below. 100% of scans fully included both kidneys. CONCLUSION: Excessive overscanning was due to inconsistent technique in capturing CT-KUB scans. Before this audit, the superior limit of CT-KUB scans had not been formally clarified at our trust. By successfully standardising the process with a reproducible method, the overscan target was comfortably met. Therefore, patient dose was minimised without compromising scan quality. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This audit has successfully shown a feasible standardised protocol for CT-KUB investigations which can be used to minimise overscanning of patients.


Asunto(s)
Riñón/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Uréter/diagnóstico por imagen , Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Cálculos Urinarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Auditoría Médica , Dosis de Radiación , Exposición a la Radiación/prevención & control , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos , Programas Informáticos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/estadística & datos numéricos , Cálculos Ureterales/diagnóstico por imagen
10.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190435, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049138

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the bone volume that can be safely withdrawn from 3 donor sites: (1) the mandibular symphysis, (2) the oblique mandibular line and (3) the skullcap. METHODOLOGY: For the symphysis, 200 tomographic exams were evaluated by the extension of the anterior loop of mental foramen, by the nerve, by the distance of the foramens, by the distance between the vestibular cortical and the lingual plates and by the distance between the apexes, or lower anterior teeth, and the mandibular base, using the "distance" tool of the I-CAT Vision, in the panoramic and parasagittal reformations. For the oblique line, 70 TCFC exams were analyzed retrospectively in panoramic and parasagittal reformations, evaluating the thickness of the vestibular cortical and the distance between the cortical and the mandibular canal. For the cranial bone, a hexagonal donor site located in parietal area was considered. RESULTS: The average dimensions of the bone blocks that can be safely removed from the region of the mandibular symphysis are: 32.27 mm in length, 4.87 mm in height and 4 mm in thickness, providing a volume of 628.61 mm3 available for grafting. In the oblique line, the available bone volume for grafting was 859.61 mm3. In the region of the cranial vault, multiplying the average bone thickness by the area of the hexagon, an average volume of 2,499 mm3 was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the donor sites, the bone availability in the cranial vault is 3 times greater than in the mandibular posterior region, and at least 2 times greater than in the mandibular symphysis.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante Óseo/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Mandíbula/trasplante , Cráneo/trasplante , Sitio Donante de Trasplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Cortical/trasplante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Ilustración Médica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cráneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Sitio Donante de Trasplante/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto Joven
11.
Am Surg ; 86(2): 146-151, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106908

RESUMEN

We aim to observe and dissect the essential anatomical landmarks in totally extraperitoneal (TEP) procedures. Forty-six TEP procedures in 30 patients were prospectively performed in our department. During the dissection of the preperitoneal space, the following distances between landmarks were measured. D1: the distance from pubic symphysis to the arcuate line in the midline; D2: the distance from the inferior epigastric artery to the lateral border of the arcuate line (before sharp incision was performed); D3: as in D2 (but after sharp incision was performed); D4: the distance from the inferior epigastric artery to the crossing site of vas deferens and obliterated umbilical artery. Furthermore, the morphology of the posterior rectus sheath was documented. The corresponding distance between the anatomical landmarks varied greatly in each individual. D1: 8 ± 1.6 cm (range 4-10 cm). D2: 4.9 ± 0.8 cm (3.5-7 cm). D3: 6.8 ± 0.9 cm (5-9 cm). D4: 6.1 ± 1 cm (4.8-8.5 cm). Complete rectus sheath was found in 30.4 per cent (14/46) of the hernias. Anatomical variations were common in preperitoneal space. The crossing site of vas deferens and obliterated umbilical artery can serve as a landmark for dissection. Complete rectus was present in one-third of hernias, which necessitates a sharp incision for entering the correct lateral preperitoneal space.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/anatomía & histología , Endoscopía/métodos , Hernia Inguinal/cirugía , Herniorrafia/métodos , Músculos Abdominales/anatomía & histología , Disección/métodos , Arterias Epigástricas/anatomía & histología , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Sínfisis Pubiana/anatomía & histología , Mallas Quirúrgicas , Arterias Umbilicales/anatomía & histología , Conducto Deferente/anatomía & histología
12.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(5): 632-639, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Various techniques are described for proximal motor nerve conduction studies (NCSs). We investigated alternative reference electrode (E2) locations for accessory and axillary NCSs. METHODS: Multi-channel recordings were made from trapezius or deltoid referred to different sites, and from those sites referred to a remote electrode. Responses were compared using grouped statistics, and correlation analysis. RESULTS: For accessory NCSs, all belly:E2 montages showed comparable responses but axillary NCSs were more variable. Low amplitude contamination was seen at the sternum and contralateral acromion but greater distortion using other potential E2 sites. In both accessory and axillary studies, the ipsilateral acromion showed moderate activity, which correlated with the belly:remote response. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in E2 electrode sites may significantly distort the measured compound muscle action potential (CMAP). For accessory and axillary NCS, a sternal reference has favorable characteristics. Other sites, such as ipsilateral acromion or deltoid insertion, may not yield a representative CMAP.


Asunto(s)
Nervio Accesorio/fisiopatología , Potenciales de Acción/fisiología , Plexo Braquial/fisiopatología , Músculo Deltoides/inervación , Electrodos , Electrodiagnóstico/métodos , Conducción Nerviosa/fisiología , Músculos Superficiales de la Espalda/inervación , Nervio Accesorio/fisiología , Acromion , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Axila , Plexo Braquial/fisiología , Codo , Femenino , Mano , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esternón , Adulto Joven
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(3): 514e-523e, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional surface imaging system is becoming more common in plastic surgeries. However, few studies have assessed three-dimensional periocular structures and surgical outcomes. This study aimed to propose a standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region, investigate its precision and accuracy, and determine the three-dimensional periocular anthropometric norms for young Caucasians. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy young Caucasians (78 eyes) were enrolled. Three-dimensional facial images were obtained with a VECTRA M3 stereophotogrammetry device. Thirty-eight measurements in periocular regions were obtained from these images. Every subject underwent facial surface capture twice to evaluate its precision. A paper ruler was applied to assess its accuracy. RESULTS: Sixty-three percent of measurements in linear distances, curvatures, angles, and indices were found to reach a statistically significant difference between sexes (p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Across all measurements, the average mean absolute difference was 0.29 mm in linear dimensions, 0.56 mm in curvatures, 1.67 degrees in angles, and 0.02 in indices. In relative error of magnitude, 18 percent of the measurements were determined excellent, 51 percent very good, 31 percent good, and none moderate. The mean value of the paper-ruler scale was 10.01 ± 0.05 mm, the mean absolute difference value 0.02 mm, and the relative error of magnitude 0.17 percent. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to propose a detailed and standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region and confirm its high precision and accuracy. The results provided novel metric data concerning young Caucasian periocular anthropometry and determined the variability between sexes.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Antropometría/métodos , Ojo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametría/métodos , Adulto , Antropometría/instrumentación , Estética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Ojo/anatomía & histología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional/normas , Masculino , Fotogrametría/instrumentación , Fotogrametría/normas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227791, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040514

RESUMEN

The objective investigation of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibrations demands the recording and further quantitative analysis of laryngeal high-speed video (HSV). Quantification of the vocal fold vibration patterns requires as a first step the segmentation of the glottal area within each video frame from which the vibrating edges of the vocal folds are usually derived. Consequently, the outcome of any further vibration analysis depends on the quality of this initial segmentation process. In this work we propose for the first time a procedure to fully automatically segment not only the time-varying glottal area but also the vocal fold tissue directly from laryngeal high-speed video (HSV) using a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) approach. Eighteen different Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) network configurations were trained and evaluated on totally 13,000 high-speed video (HSV) frames obtained from 56 healthy and 74 pathologic subjects. The segmentation quality of the best performing Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model, which uses Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) cells to take also the temporal context into account, was intensely investigated on 15 test video sequences comprising 100 consecutive images each. As performance measures the Dice Coefficient (DC) as well as the precisions of four anatomical landmark positions were used. Over all test data a mean Dice Coefficient (DC) of 0.85 was obtained for the glottis and 0.91 and 0.90 for the right and left vocal fold (VF) respectively. The grand average precision of the identified landmarks amounts 2.2 pixels and is in the same range as comparable manual expert segmentations which can be regarded as Gold Standard. The method proposed here requires no user interaction and overcomes the limitations of current semiautomatic or computational expensive approaches. Thus, it allows also for the analysis of long high-speed video (HSV)-sequences and holds the promise to facilitate the objective analysis of vocal fold vibrations in clinical routine. The here used dataset including the ground truth will be provided freely for all scientific groups to allow a quantitative benchmarking of segmentation approaches in future.


Asunto(s)
Endoscopía , Glotis/diagnóstico por imagen , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Grabación en Video , Pliegues Vocales/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Algoritmos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
15.
World Neurosurg ; 136: e447-e459, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953092

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the microsurgical anatomy of the donor arteries for extracranial-intracranial bypass, namely, the superficial temporal artery (STA), occipital artery (OA), and internal maxillary artery (IMA). METHODS: Seven cadaveric specimens were dissected to identify the relationships between each artery and its surrounding structures. Nineteen computed tomographic angiographic images of Japanese adult patients (38 sides) were analyzed to examine the course of each artery and to measure the diameters and distances from various anatomic landmarks to each artery. RESULTS: The courses of the STA, OA, and IMA, which must be exposed during revascularization procedures, were shown via cadaver dissection with special reference to the following relationships to surrounding structures: STA, soft tissue layers of the temporoparietal region and facial nerve; OA, suboccipital muscles; and IMA, mandibular nerve. In addition, we measured the diameter of the anastomotic site for each artery and its relationship with surrounding muscles. CONCLUSIONS: A precise understanding of the anatomic characteristics of the donor arteries and their relationships with surrounding structures provides safe access to these arteries.


Asunto(s)
Arterias Cerebrales/anatomía & histología , Anciano , Anastomosis Quirúrgica , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Prótesis Vascular , Cadáver , Arterias Cerebrales/diagnóstico por imagen , Arterias Cerebrales/cirugía , Revascularización Cerebral , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Disección/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Arteria Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Arteria Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Arteria Maxilar/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Arterias Temporales/anatomía & histología , Arterias Temporales/diagnóstico por imagen , Arterias Temporales/cirugía , Donantes de Tejidos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18069, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914012

RESUMEN

This study aims to find and locate foramens exactly in maxilla and mandible in case of complications during surgeries.Computer topographic angiography (CTA) images of 120 cases were reviewed. The measurements were performed on coronal, sagittal and axial planes after the 3 dimension volume reconstruction. The distances among foramens, bony landmarks, teeth, and facial artery were all measured with the angles as adjustments.The incisive foramen (IF) was measured 20.55 ±â€Š2.81 mm to margo inferior of incisor, and 45.27 ±â€Š5.27 degree from the axial midline. The greater palatine foramen located 43.17 ±â€Š2.55 mm from the IF, while 21.08 ±â€Š3.75 degree from the midline in axial plane. The lesser palatine foramina located 44.56 ±â€Š5.74 mm from the IF and 20.05 ±â€Š3.59 degree to the midline. The Mandibular foramen (MBF) was 91.15 ±â€Š1.86 mm horizontally to the margo inferior of incisor. The angle that the MBF-margo inferior of incisor line made with the axial midline was 31.25 ±â€Š2.89 degree. The shortest horizontal distance from the mental foramen (MF) to the facial artery in sagittal plane was 21.90 ±â€Š1.86 mm, while it became 13.00 ±â€Š2.05 mm in coronary section. The horizontal distance from the MF to the margo inferior of incisor in sagittal plane was 22.04 ±â€Š3.22 mm. It turned out to be 25.78 ±â€Š5.23 mm between MF and mid-sagittal line in coronary section. The vertical distance was 25.20 ±â€Š3.06 mm from the upper margin of the second premolar to the MF.The foramens were clearly seen through CTA. Moreover, linear and angular measurements were presented, which makes it safer and wiser for surgeons to consider the biometric data before operations.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Foramen Mental/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Arterias , Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Huesos/cirugía , Niño , Cara/irrigación sanguínea , Cara/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomía & histología , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/patología , Mandíbula/cirugía , Foramen Mental/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228016, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999749

RESUMEN

The taxonomy of foot shapes or other parts of the body is important, especially for design purposes. We propose a methodology based on archetypoid analysis (ADA) that overcomes the weaknesses of previous methodologies used to establish typologies. ADA is an objective, data-driven methodology that seeks extreme patterns, the archetypal profiles in the data. ADA also explains the data as percentages of the archetypal patterns, which makes this technique understandable and accessible even for non-experts. Clustering techniques are usually considered for establishing taxonomies, but we will show that finding the purest or most extreme patterns is more appropriate than using the central points returned by clustering techniques. We apply the methodology to an anthropometric database of 775 3D right foot scans representing the Spanish adult female and male population for footwear design. Each foot is described by a 5626 × 3 configuration matrix of landmarks. No multivariate features are used for establishing the taxonomy, but all the information gathered from the 3D scanning is employed. We use ADA for shapes described by landmarks. Women's and men's feet are analyzed separately. We have analyzed 3 archetypal feet for both men and women. These archetypal feet could not have been recovered using multivariate techniques.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Análisis de Datos , Pie/anatomía & histología , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(2): 198-200, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997630

RESUMEN

Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a relatively rare condition that often leads to surgical treatment, including debridement and arthrodesis. Here we introduce a new surgical technique using bilateral dual iliac screws to secure early ambulation and maximal fusion success rate for the treatment of pyogenic sacroiliitis. We retrospectively reported a case and technical reports of pyogenic sacroiliitis treated by a new bilateral dual iliac screw fixation arthrodesis technique using radiologic outcomes, including plain X-rays and MRI scans, as well as outcomes based on the visual analogue scale for pain measurement. This technique improved uncontrolled pyogenic sacroiliitis with immediate stability that enabled ambulation and secured firm fixation for extensive evacuation of infected debris and subsequent autograft bone arthrodesis. In conclusion, we recommend bilateral dual iliac screw fixation for the treatment of pyogenic sacroiliitis, as this technique can improve uncontrolled pyogenic sacroiliitis with immediate stability.


Asunto(s)
Artrodesis , Tornillos Óseos , Trasplante Óseo , Ilion/cirugía , Sacroileítis/cirugía , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sacroileítis/diagnóstico por imagen , Trasplante Autólogo , Adulto Joven
19.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(1): 37-48, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-186063

RESUMEN

Paralysis of the facial nerve is a common complication during the surgical removal of parotid gland tumors (parotidectomies). This may be due to the close relationship of the tumor and the facial nerve (along its extracranial course). This study aimed to explore the extracranial course of the facial nerve in terms of branching patterns, bony anatomical landmarks and variations. The sample comprised of 40 facial nerve specimens. The parameters identified and recorded were facial nerve trunk division, branching patterns and variations in terms of connections, course and branching. The parameters were classified and compared according to sex and laterality. Bifurcation of the facial nerve trunk occurred in 90% of cases, whilst trifurcation occurred in only 10%. The cases of trifurcation displayed variations. The frequency of each type of branching pattern was: Type I = 7.5%, Type II = 12.5%, Type III = 25%, Type IV = 15%, Type V = 27.5% and Type VI =12.5%. The six types were further categorized into three subtypes based on the origin of the buccal branch. The distance fromthe facial nerve trunk to bony anatomical landmarks was measured viz. mastoid process, angle of the mandible and external auditory canal. Only the distance to the angle of the mandible displayed significant differences according to sex (p-value < 0.001) and laterality (p- value = 0.002). All three landmarks displayed good-excellent reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.82 to 0.95) with regard to bony anatomical landmarks for the localization of the facial nerve trunk. The present study proposes the use of the three subtypes in conjunction with the classification system. Anatomical knowledge of the extracranial course of the facial nerve and its relation to bony anatomical landmarks are of im-portance to surgeons during procedures such as parotidectomies


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Nervio Facial/anatomía & histología , Glándula Parótida/anatomía & histología , Glándula Parótida/cirugía , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia/inervación , Cadáver , Apófisis Mastoides/anatomía & histología , Neoplasias de la Parótida/patología , Neoplasias de la Parótida/cirugía , Disección/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología
20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(3): 353-358, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959048

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship, if any, between body mass index (BMI) and attenuation of the arcuate eminence (AE). STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review. SETTING: Tertiary neurotologic referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Submillimeter distances were recorded from high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans of 50 patients (100 sides). The AE (defined as the superiormost location of the petrous bone over the otic capsule), the bony apex of the superior semicircular canal (SSC), and the geniculate ganglion (GG) were identified and 3-dimensional distances measured. The height of the AE relative to the bony apex of the superior semicircular canal was determined using Euclidean geometry using the fixed anatomical landmark of the GG as the origin. Correlations between AE and BMI were calculated using Pearson's, linear mixed effects, and sensitivity analysis models. RESULTS: The mean (SD) BMI was 30 (8.1) kg/m2, with 16 (30%) patients falling in the underweight/normal category (BMI <25 kg/m2), 10 (20%) overweight patients (25 kg/m2≤ BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2), and 24 (48%) patients considered obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The mean (SD) AE heights for the left and right ears were 2.5 (1.11) and 2.6 (1.09), respectively. The results of the linear mixed-effects models indicated little evidence that BMI is associated with AE height when including all patients (partial R2 = 0.040) and when using BMI categories (partial R2 = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Contrary to other structures within the lateral skull base, the relative prominence of the arcuate eminence does not correlate with BMI or any other demographic variables.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Ganglio Geniculado/anatomía & histología , Hueso Petroso/anatomía & histología , Canales Semicirculares/anatomía & histología , Hueso Temporal/anatomía & histología , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Femenino , Ganglio Geniculado/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hueso Petroso/diagnóstico por imagen , Canales Semicirculares/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Temporal/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
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