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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(5): 39, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787546

RESUMEN

Purpose: Post-saccadic oscillations (PSOs) reflect movements of gaze that result from motion of the pupil and lens relative to the eyeball rather than eyeball rotations. Here, we analyzed the characteristics of PSOs in subjects with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and normal vision (NV). Our aim was to assess the differences in PSOs between people with vision loss and healthy controls because PSOs affect retinal image stability after each saccade. Methods: Participants completed a horizontal saccade task and their gaze was measured using a pupil-based eye tracker. Oscillations occurring in the 80 to 200 ms post-saccadic period were described with a damped oscillation model. We compared the amplitude, decay time constant, and frequency of the PSOs for the three different groups. We also examined the correlation between these PSO parameters and the amplitude, peak velocity, and final deceleration of the preceding saccades. Results: Subjects with vision loss (AMD, n = 6, and RP, n = 5) had larger oscillation amplitudes, longer decay constants, and lower frequencies than subjects with NV (n = 7). The oscillation amplitudes increased with increases in saccade deceleration in all three groups. The other PSO parameters, however, did not show consistent correlations with either saccade amplitude or peak velocity. Conclusions: Post-saccadic fixation stability in AMD and RP is reduced due to abnormal PSOs. The differences with respect to NV are not due to differences in saccade kinematics, suggesting that anatomic and neuronal variations affect the suspension of the iris and the lens in the patients' eyes.


Asunto(s)
Fijación Ocular , Degeneración Macular , Pupila , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Movimientos Sacádicos , Humanos , Movimientos Sacádicos/fisiología , Retinitis Pigmentosa/fisiopatología , Femenino , Masculino , Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Degeneración Macular/fisiopatología , Anciano , Pupila/fisiología , Cristalino/fisiopatología , Adulto , Agudeza Visual/fisiología
2.
PLoS Biol ; 22(5): e3002614, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743775

RESUMEN

The processing of sensory information, even at early stages, is influenced by the internal state of the animal. Internal states, such as arousal, are often characterized by relating neural activity to a single "level" of arousal, defined by a behavioral indicator such as pupil size. In this study, we expand the understanding of arousal-related modulations in sensory systems by uncovering multiple timescales of pupil dynamics and their relationship to neural activity. Specifically, we observed a robust coupling between spiking activity in the mouse dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus and pupil dynamics across timescales spanning a few seconds to several minutes. Throughout all these timescales, 2 distinct spiking modes-individual tonic spikes and tightly clustered bursts of spikes-preferred opposite phases of pupil dynamics. This multi-scale coupling reveals modulations distinct from those captured by pupil size per se, locomotion, and eye movements. Furthermore, coupling persisted even during viewing of a naturalistic movie, where it contributed to differences in the encoding of visual information. We conclude that dLGN spiking activity is under the simultaneous influence of multiple arousal-related processes associated with pupil dynamics occurring over a broad range of timescales.


Asunto(s)
Potenciales de Acción , Nivel de Alerta , Cuerpos Geniculados , Pupila , Animales , Pupila/fisiología , Cuerpos Geniculados/fisiología , Ratones , Potenciales de Acción/fisiología , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Neuronas/fisiología , Tálamo/fisiología , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo , Vías Visuales/fisiología
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298619, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748676

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for the majority of Uganda's neurosurgical disease burden; however, invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is infrequently used. Noninvasive monitoring could change the care of patients in such a setting through quick detection of elevated ICP. PURPOSE: Given the novelty of pupillometry in Uganda, this mixed methods study assessed the feasibility of pupillometry for noninvasive ICP monitoring for patients with TBI. METHODS: Twenty-two healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda received education on pupillometry, practiced using the device on healthy volunteers, and completed interviews discussing pupillometry and its implementation. Interviews were assessed with qualitative analysis, while quantitative analysis evaluated learning time, measurement time, and accuracy of measurements by participants compared to a trainer's measurements. RESULTS: Most participants (79%) reported a positive perception of pupillometry. Participants described the value of pupillometry in the care of patients during examination, monitoring, and intervention delivery. Commonly discussed concerns included pupillometry's cost, understanding, and maintenance needs. Perceived implementation challenges included device availability and contraindications for use. Participants suggested offering continued education and engaging hospital leadership as implementation strategies. During training, the average learning time was 13.5 minutes (IQR 3.5), and the measurement time was 50.6 seconds (IQR 11.8). Paired t-tests to evaluate accuracy showed no statistically significant difference in comparison measurements. CONCLUSION: Pupillometry was considered acceptable for noninvasive ICP monitoring of patients with TBI, and pupillometer use was shown to be feasible during training. However, key concerns would need to be addressed during implementation to aid device utilization.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Estudios de Factibilidad , Presión Intracraneal , Humanos , Uganda , Masculino , Femenino , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Adulto , Presión Intracraneal/fisiología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/psicología , Personal de Salud , Pupila/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
Cogn Sci ; 48(4): e13446, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655881

RESUMEN

Understanding cognitive effort expended during assessments is essential to improving efficiency, accuracy, and accessibility within these assessments. Pupil dilation is commonly used as a psychophysiological measure of cognitive effort, yet research on its relationship with effort expended specifically during language processing is limited. The present study adds to and expands on this literature by investigating the relationships among pupil dilation, trial difficulty, and accuracy during a vocabulary test. Participants (n = 63, Mage = 19.25) completed a subset of trials from the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test while seated at an eye-tracker monitor. During each trial, four colored images were presented on the monitor while a word was presented via audio recording. Participants verbally indicated which image they thought represented the target word. Words were categorized into Easy, Medium, and Hard difficulty. Pupil dilation during the Medium and Hard trials was significantly greater than during the Easy trials, though the Medium and Hard trials did not significantly differ from each other. Pupil dilation in comparison to trial accuracy presented a more complex pattern, with comparisons between accurate and inaccurate trials differing depending on the timing of the stimulus presentation. These results present further evidence that pupil dilation increases with cognitive effort associated with vocabulary tests, providing insights that could help refine vocabulary assessments and other related tests of language processing.


Asunto(s)
Pupila , Vocabulario , Humanos , Pupila/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Cognición/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Pruebas del Lenguaje
5.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 40(4): 232-239, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621178

RESUMEN

Purpose: To assess over 2 weeks, the effect of 3 different low concentrations of atropine on pupillary diameter and accommodative amplitude in children with myopia. Methods: Fifty-eight children with myopia [spherical equivalent (SE) of -0.50 diopters (D) or worse, astigmatism of less than or equal to 2.00 D] were randomly allocated to 3 groups receiving 0.01%, 0.02%, or 0.03% atropine eye drops, once nightly for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in pupillary diameter and accommodative amplitude with each of the concentrations. Results: Fifty-seven participants (114 eyes), aged between 6 and 12 years, completed the 2-week trial (mean age 9.3 ± 1.7 years and mean SE -3.53 ± 1.79 D). After 2 weeks of use, all the 3 concentrations were found to have a statistically significant effect on both the pupillary diameter and accommodative amplitude. Accommodative amplitude reduced by an average of 5.23 D, 9.28 D, and 9.32 D, and photopic pupil size increased by an average of 0.95 ± 1.05 mm, 1.65 ± 0.93 mm, and 2.16 ± 0.88 mm with 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.03%, respectively. Of the eyes, a total of 5.3% and 5.9% of the eyes on 0.02% and 0.03% atropine had a mean residual accommodative amplitude of <5 D. The percentage of eyes having a pupillary dilation >3 mm were 4.8%, 10.5%, and 23.5% for 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.03% atropine, respectively. Conclusions: Low-dose atropine had an effect on pupillary diameter and accommodative amplitude. With the highest concentration assessed, that is, 0.03% nearly 1 of 4 eyes had pupillary dilation of >3 mm. Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT03699423.


Asunto(s)
Acomodación Ocular , Atropina , Midriáticos , Miopía , Soluciones Oftálmicas , Pupila , Humanos , Atropina/administración & dosificación , Atropina/farmacología , Niño , Miopía/tratamiento farmacológico , Miopía/fisiopatología , Acomodación Ocular/efectos de los fármacos , Pupila/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Femenino , Soluciones Oftálmicas/administración & dosificación , Midriáticos/administración & dosificación , Midriáticos/farmacología , Midriáticos/uso terapéutico , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga
6.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 36(6): 997-1020, 2024 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579256

RESUMEN

Although the impact of acoustic challenge on speech processing and memory increases as a person ages, older adults may engage in strategies that help them compensate for these demands. In the current preregistered study, older adults (n = 48) listened to sentences-presented in quiet or in noise-that were high constraint with either expected or unexpected endings or were low constraint with unexpected endings. Pupillometry and EEG were simultaneously recorded, and subsequent sentence recognition and word recall were measured. Like young adults in prior work, we found that noise led to increases in pupil size, delayed and reduced ERP responses, and decreased recall for unexpected words. However, in contrast to prior work in young adults where a larger pupillary response predicted a recovery of the N400 at the cost of poorer memory performance in noise, older adults did not show an associated recovery of the N400 despite decreased memory performance. Instead, we found that in quiet, increases in pupil size were associated with delays in N400 onset latencies and increased recognition memory performance. In conclusion, we found that transient variation in pupil-linked arousal predicted trade-offs between real-time lexical processing and memory that emerged at lower levels of task demand in aging. Moreover, with increased acoustic challenge, older adults still exhibited costs associated with transient increases in arousal without the corresponding benefits.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Electroencefalografía , Pupila , Percepción del Habla , Humanos , Anciano , Masculino , Femenino , Pupila/fisiología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Percepción del Habla/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Persona de Mediana Edad , Memoria/fisiología , Reconocimiento en Psicología/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología
7.
Vision Res ; 219: 108393, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579405

RESUMEN

Recent studies have revealed that pupillary response changes depend on perceptual factors such as subjective brightness caused by optical illusions and luminance. However, the manner in which the perceptual factor that is derived from the glossiness perception of object surfaces affects the pupillary response remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between the glossiness perception and pupillary response through a glossiness rating experiment that included recording the pupil diameter. We prepared general object images (original) and randomized images (shuffled) that comprised the same images with randomized small square regions as stimuli. The image features were controlled by matching the luminance histogram. The observers were asked to rate the perceived glossiness of the stimuli presented for 3,000 ms and the changes in their pupil diameters were recorded. Images with higher glossiness ratings constricted the pupil size more than those with lower glossiness ratings at the peak constriction of the pupillary responses during the stimulus duration. The linear mixed-effects model demonstrated that the glossiness rating, image category (original/shuffled), variance of the luminance histogram, and stimulus area were most effective in predicting the pupillary responses. These results suggest that the illusory brightness obtained by the image regions of high-glossiness objects, such as specular highlights, induce pupil constriction.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Luminosa , Pupila , Humanos , Pupila/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Ilusiones Ópticas/fisiología , Sensibilidad de Contraste/fisiología
8.
Schizophr Res ; 267: 216-222, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569395

RESUMEN

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia robustly predict functional outcomes but remain relatively resistant to available treatments. Better measures of negative symptoms, especially motivational deficits, are needed to better understand these symptoms and improve treatment development. Recent research shows promise in linking behavioral effort tasks to motivational negative symptoms, reward processing deficits, and defeatist attitudes, but few studies account for individual or group (patient v. control) differences in cognitive ability to perform the tasks. Individuals with poorer abilities might be less motivated to perform tasks because they find them more difficult to perform. This study used a personalized digit span task to control task difficulty while measuring task effort via pupillary responses (greater dilation indicates greater cognitive effort) at varying monetary rewards ($1 & $2). Participants with schizophrenia (N = 34) and healthy controls (N = 41) performed a digit span task with personalized max span lengths and easy (max- 2 digits) and overload (max+ 2 digits) conditions. Consistent with many studies, pupillary responses (cognitive effort) increased with greater difficulty until exceeding capacity. A similar pattern of reward responsivity was seen in both groups, such that greater reward increased dilation (effort) comparably for both groups when difficulty was within capacity. Neither patients nor controls exerted increased effort for greater reward when difficulty exceeded capacity. In patients, positive relationships were found between pupil dilation and defeatist performance beliefs if task difficulty was within capacity; a relationship that reversed if the task was too difficult. The findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for cognitive capacity and task difficulty when evaluating motivation and reward sensitivity and illustrate the utility of pupillary responses as an objective measure of effort in schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Pupila , Recompensa , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Femenino , Adulto , Pupila/fisiología , Motivación/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Psicología del Esquizofrénico
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9221, 2024 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649681

RESUMEN

Technological advances in head-mounted displays (HMDs) facilitate the acquisition of physiological data of the user, such as gaze, pupil size, or heart rate. Still, interactions with such systems can be prone to errors, including unintended behavior or unexpected changes in the presented virtual environments. In this study, we investigated if multimodal physiological data can be used to decode error processing, which has been studied, to date, with brain signals only. We examined the feasibility of decoding errors solely with pupil size data and proposed a hybrid decoding approach combining electroencephalographic (EEG) and pupillometric signals. Moreover, we analyzed if hybrid approaches can improve existing EEG-based classification approaches and focused on setups that offer increased usability for practical applications, such as the presented game-like virtual reality flight simulation. Our results indicate that classifiers trained with pupil size data can decode errors above chance. Moreover, hybrid approaches yielded improved performance compared to EEG-based decoders in setups with a reduced number of channels, which is crucial for many out-of-the-lab scenarios. These findings contribute to the development of hybrid brain-computer interfaces, particularly in combination with wearable devices, which allow for easy acquisition of additional physiological data.


Asunto(s)
Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Electroencefalografía , Pupila , Realidad Virtual , Humanos , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Adulto , Masculino , Pupila/fisiología , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Simulación por Computador , Encéfalo/fisiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3141, 2024 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653975

RESUMEN

Brightness illusions are a powerful tool in studying vision, yet their neural correlates are poorly understood. Based on a human paradigm, we presented illusory drifting gratings to mice. Primary visual cortex (V1) neurons responded to illusory gratings, matching their direction selectivity for real gratings, and they tracked the spatial phase offset between illusory and real gratings. Illusion responses were delayed compared to real gratings, in line with the theory that processing illusions requires feedback from higher visual areas (HVAs). We provide support for this theory by showing a reduced V1 response to illusions, but not real gratings, following HVAs optogenetic inhibition. Finally, we used the pupil response (PR) as an indirect perceptual report and showed that the mouse PR matches the human PR to perceived luminance changes. Our findings resolve debates over whether V1 neurons are involved in processing illusions and highlight the involvement of feedback from HVAs.


Asunto(s)
Neuronas , Optogenética , Estimulación Luminosa , Corteza Visual Primaria , Animales , Neuronas/fisiología , Corteza Visual Primaria/fisiología , Ratones , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Ilusiones/fisiología , Ilusiones Ópticas/fisiología , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Pupila/fisiología , Corteza Visual/fisiología , Corteza Visual/citología
11.
Brain Stimul ; 17(2): 460-468, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Working memory is essential to a wide range of cognitive functions and activities. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is a promising method to improve working memory performance. However, the feasibility and scalability of electrical stimulation are constrained by several limitations, such as auricular discomfort and inconsistent electrical contact. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a novel and practical method, vibrotactile taVNS, to improve working memory. Further, we investigated its effects on arousal, measured by skin conductance and pupil diameter. METHOD: This study included 20 healthy participants. Behavioral response, skin conductance, and eye tracking data were concurrently recorded while the participants performed N-back tasks under three conditions: vibrotactile taVNS delivered to the cymba concha, earlobe (sham control), and no stimulation (baseline control). RESULTS: In 4-back tasks, which demand maximal working memory capacity, active vibrotactile taVNS significantly improved the performance metric d' compared to the baseline but not to the sham. Moreover, we found that the reduction rate of d' with increasing task difficulty was significantly smaller during vibrotactile taVNS sessions than in both baseline and sham conditions. Arousal, measured as skin conductance and pupil diameter, declined over the course of the tasks. Vibrotactile taVNS rescued this arousal decline, leading to arousal levels corresponding to optimal working memory levels. Moreover, pupil diameter and skin conductance level were higher during high-cognitive-load tasks when vibrotactile taVNS was delivered to the concha compared to baseline and sham. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that vibrotactile taVNS modulates the arousal pathway and could be a potential intervention for enhancing working memory.


Asunto(s)
Memoria a Corto Plazo , Humanos , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Estimulación del Nervio Vago/métodos , Vibración , Pupila/fisiología , Respuesta Galvánica de la Piel/fisiología , Nervio Vago/fisiología
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37852, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608060

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from the use of antidepressants, their interactions with other serotonergic medications, or poisoning. It presents with a triad of psychiatric, dysautonomic, and neurological symptoms and is sometimes fatal. While cyproheptadine is a specific treatment option, the optimal duration of its administration remains unclear. The purpose of this report is to quantitatively assess the endpoints of serotonin syndrome treatment. Based on the hypothesis that neurological pupil index (NPi) on a digital pupil recorder would correlate with the severity of the serotonin syndrome, we administered cyproheptadine using NPi as an indicator. PATIENT CONCERNS: A patient with a history of depression was brought to our hospital after he overdosed on 251 tablets of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors. DIAGNOSES: On day 3, the patient was diagnosed with serotonin syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Cyproheptadine syrup was administered at 4 mg every 4 hours. The NPi of the automated pupillometer was simultaneously measured. On day 5, the NPi exceeded 3.0 cyproheptadine was discontinued. OUTCOMES: The patient was discharged on day 7. LESSONS: The lack of considerable improvement during the treatment period suggests that the patient may have improved on his own. In this case, the relationship between NPi and the severity of serotonin syndrome could not be determined.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo , Síndrome de la Serotonina , Masculino , Humanos , Síndrome de la Serotonina/diagnóstico , Síndrome de la Serotonina/tratamiento farmacológico , Pupila , Serotonina , Ciproheptadina/uso terapéutico
13.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165241245240, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613337

RESUMEN

Listening to speech in noise can require substantial mental effort, even among younger normal-hearing adults. The task-evoked pupil response (TEPR) has been shown to track the increased effort exerted to recognize words or sentences in increasing noise. However, few studies have examined the trajectory of listening effort across longer, more natural, stretches of speech, or the extent to which expectations about upcoming listening difficulty modulate the TEPR. Seventeen younger normal-hearing adults listened to 60-s-long audiobook passages, repeated three times in a row, at two different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) while pupil size was recorded. There was a significant interaction between SNR, repetition, and baseline pupil size on sustained listening effort. At lower baseline pupil sizes, potentially reflecting lower attention mobilization, TEPRs were more sustained in the harder SNR condition, particularly when attention mobilization remained low by the third presentation. At intermediate baseline pupil sizes, differences between conditions were largely absent, suggesting these listeners had optimally mobilized their attention for both SNRs. Lastly, at higher baseline pupil sizes, potentially reflecting overmobilization of attention, the effect of SNR was initially reversed for the second and third presentations: participants initially appeared to disengage in the harder SNR condition, resulting in reduced TEPRs that recovered in the second half of the story. Together, these findings suggest that the unfolding of listening effort over time depends critically on the extent to which individuals have successfully mobilized their attention in anticipation of difficult listening conditions.


Asunto(s)
Esfuerzo de Escucha , Pupila , Adulto , Humanos , Relación Señal-Ruido , Habla
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8739, 2024 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627572

RESUMEN

Inspired by recent findings in the visual domain, we investigated whether the stimulus-evoked pupil dilation reflects temporal statistical regularities in sequences of auditory stimuli. We conducted two preregistered pupillometry experiments (experiment 1, n = 30, 21 females; experiment 2, n = 31, 22 females). In both experiments, human participants listened to sequences of spoken vowels in two conditions. In the first condition, the stimuli were presented in a random order and, in the second condition, the same stimuli were presented in a sequence structured in pairs. The second experiment replicated the first experiment with a modified timing and number of stimuli presented and without participants being informed about any sequence structure. The sound-evoked pupil dilation during a subsequent familiarity task indicated that participants learned the auditory vowel pairs of the structured condition. However, pupil diameter during the structured sequence did not differ according to the statistical regularity of the pair structure. This contrasts with similar visual studies, emphasizing the susceptibility of pupil effects during statistically structured sequences to experimental design settings in the auditory domain. In sum, our findings suggest that pupil diameter may serve as an indicator of sound pair familiarity but does not invariably respond to task-irrelevant transition probabilities of auditory sequences.


Asunto(s)
Pupila , Sonido , Femenino , Humanos , Pupila/fisiología , Reconocimiento en Psicología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología
15.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(4): 23, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630470

RESUMEN

Purpose: The common protocol of full-field stimulus threshold (FST) testing recommends pupil dilation. The aim of this study is to investigate the difference between FST measurements with dilated and nondilated pupils in healthy subjects and patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Twenty healthy subjects and 20 RP patients were selected. One pupil of each subject was dilated; the other eye was measured in physiological width of the pupil. The FST was conducted using Diagnosys Espion E2/E3 with white, blue, and red stimuli. Statistical analysis was conducted with a mixed-model analysis of variance and a paired t-test. Results: The statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between measurements of dilated and nondilated pupils with the following: blue stimuli for all subjects and groups except those with highly progressed RP; white stimuli for all tested subjects in total, for RP patients with better-preserved visual field (VF), and rod-mediated FST response; and red stimuli for RP patients with better-preserved VF and rod-mediated FST response. On average, the difference between the FST values for RP patients were -3.2 ± 3 dB for blue, -2.3 ± 2.9 dB for white, and -0.83 ± 3 dB for red stimuli. The correlation between the FST values of dilated and nondilated pupils with all three stimuli was linear. Conclusions: Current recommendations are to perform FST with dilated pupils. However, based on this study's findings, pupil dilation can be omitted for clinical diagnostics or rough follow-ups. Translational Relevance: Our data provide useful information for the clinical use of FST.


Asunto(s)
Pupila , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Humanos , Voluntarios Sanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Retinitis Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Campos Visuales
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7843, 2024 04 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570565

RESUMEN

Previous work has shown divergent pupil dilation (PD) and gaze behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may relate to the development of social difficulties in early life. Here, we investigated temporal dynamics of both phenotypes during naturalistic videos of a person displaying facial emotion expressions in 61 autistic and 61 non-autistic preschoolers. PD was segmented into three serial time components derived from a principal component analysis. Growth curve analysis was applied to analyze changes in looking time on eye and mouth regions over time. Groups did not differ in PD time components. Growth curve analysis revealed initially shorter looking times on the eyes and longer looking times on the mouth in autistic versus non-autistic preschoolers. However, a reversion of this pattern was observed over time, suggesting a delayed compensatory increase in eye attention during prolonged viewing periods in autistic children. Positive and negative associations of PD components and gaze behavior over time indicated a dynamic temporal relationship during emotion viewing. Our findings emphasize the need to apply time-sensitive measures in ecologically valid research, which may index etiological mechanisms of social difficulties in ASD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Niño , Humanos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Pupila , Emociones , Atención , Fijación Ocular
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(8)2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676162

RESUMEN

Pupil size is a significant biosignal for human behavior monitoring and can reveal much underlying information. This study explored the effects of task load, task familiarity, and gaze position on pupil response during learning a visual tracking task. We hypothesized that pupil size would increase with task load, up to a certain level before decreasing, decrease with task familiarity, and increase more when focusing on areas preceding the target than other areas. Fifteen participants were recruited for an arrow tracking learning task with incremental task load. Pupil size data were collected using a Tobii Pro Nano eye tracker. A 2 × 3 × 5 three-way factorial repeated measures ANOVA was conducted using R (version 4.2.1) to evaluate the main and interactive effects of key variables on adjusted pupil size. The association between individuals' cognitive load, assessed by NASA-TLX, and pupil size was further analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model. We found that task repetition resulted in a reduction in pupil size; however, this effect was found to diminish as the task load increased. The main effect of task load approached statistical significance, but different trends were observed in trial 1 and trial 2. No significant difference in pupil size was detected among the three gaze positions. The relationship between pupil size and cognitive load overall followed an inverted U curve. Our study showed how pupil size changes as a function of task load, task familiarity, and gaze scanning. This finding provides sensory evidence that could improve educational outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Tecnología de Seguimiento Ocular , Pupila , Humanos , Pupila/fisiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(8)2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676165

RESUMEN

In this paper, the implementation of a new pupil detection system based on artificial intelligence techniques suitable for real-time and real-word applications is presented. The proposed AI-based pupil detection system uses a classifier implemented with slim-type neural networks, with its classes being defined according to the possible positions of the pupil within the eye image. In order to reduce the complexity of the neural network, a new parallel architecture is used in which two independent classifiers deliver the pupil center coordinates. The training, testing, and validation of the proposed system were performed using almost 40,000 eye images with a resolution of 320 × 240 pixels and coming from 20 different databases, with a high degree of generality. The experimental results show a detection rate of 96.29% at five pixels with a standard deviation of 3.38 pixels for all eye images from all databases and a processing speed of 100 frames/s. These results indicate both high accuracy and high processing speed, and they allow us to use the proposed solution for different real-time applications in variable and non-uniform lighting conditions, in fields such as assistive technology to communicate with neuromotor-disabled patients by using eye typing, in computer gaming, and in the automotive industry for increasing traffic safety by monitoring the driver's cognitive state.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Pupila , Humanos , Pupila/fisiología , Algoritmos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Bases de Datos Factuales
19.
Cell Rep ; 43(4): 114081, 2024 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581682

RESUMEN

Narratives can synchronize neural and physiological signals between individuals, but the relationship between these signals, and the underlying mechanism, is unclear. We hypothesized a top-down effect of cognition on arousal and predicted that auditory narratives will drive not only brain signals but also peripheral physiological signals. We find that auditory narratives entrained gaze variation, saccade initiation, pupil size, and heart rate. This is consistent with a top-down effect of cognition on autonomic function. We also hypothesized a bottom-up effect, whereby autonomic physiology affects arousal. Controlled breathing affected pupil size, and heart rate was entrained by controlled saccades. Additionally, fluctuations in heart rate preceded fluctuations of pupil size and brain signals. Gaze variation, pupil size, and heart rate were all associated with anterior-central brain signals. Together, these results suggest bidirectional causal effects between peripheral autonomic function and central brain circuits involved in the control of arousal.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Encéfalo/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Adulto , Pupila/fisiología , Adulto Joven , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Movimientos Sacádicos/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9418, 2024 04 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658628

RESUMEN

Pupil contagion refers to the observer's pupil-diameter changes in response to changes in the pupil diameter of others. Recent studies on the other-race effect on pupil contagion have mainly focused on using eye region images as stimuli, revealing the effect in adults but not in infants. To address this research gap, the current study used whole-face images as stimuli to assess the pupil-diameter response of 5-6-month-old and 7-8-month-old infants to changes in the pupil-diameter of both upright and inverted unfamiliar-race faces. The study initially hypothesized that there would be no pupil contagion in either upright or inverted unfamiliar-race faces, based on our previous finding of pupil contagion occurring only in familiar-race faces among 5-6-month-old infants. Notably, the current results indicated that 5-6-month-old infants exhibited pupil contagion in both upright and inverted unfamiliar-race faces, while 7-8-month-old infants showed this effect only in upright unfamiliar-race faces. These results demonstrate that the face inversion effect of pupil contagion does not occur in 5-6-month-old infants, thereby suggesting the presence of the other-race effect in pupil contagion among this age group. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of the other-race effect on infants' pupil contagion using face stimuli.


Asunto(s)
Pupila , Humanos , Pupila/fisiología , Lactante , Masculino , Femenino , Estimulación Luminosa , Reconocimiento Facial/fisiología
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