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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(2): 221-226, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rabies is found in many countries of the eastern Mediterranean and is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. The study aims to describe rabies suspected exposures (RSE) and rabies prophylaxis practices in Antalya-Turkey between 2010 and 2013. METHODS: All 2513 RSE cases presenting to a rabies vaccination center in Antalya, southwestern Turkey, were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the RSE cases was 30.04±19.63 years with male predominance (63.6%). The vast majority was from urban areas (91.7%), and a postexposure rabies vaccination program was applied to 79.7% of participants. Dogs were the primary source of RSE cases (61.2%). The 39.2% of animals were under observation, and 9.53% of them died. Forty-two animals (1.7%) were laboratory confirmed rabid; 61.9% of them were cows. The rabid animal rate in the rural area was significantly higher than the urban area (18.2% versus 0.2%; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study includes a large number of RSE cases and prophylaxis practices in southwestern Turkey. Most RSE cases had dog or cat contact. As most RSE cases were in urban areas; more focused efforts should be made for elimination and vaccination of feral dog and cat population in Turkey.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras/complicaciones , Inmunoterapia Activa/métodos , Profilaxis Posexposición , Vacunas Antirrábicas/administración & dosificación , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Mordeduras y Picaduras/epidemiología , Mordeduras y Picaduras/virología , Gatos , Bovinos , Niño , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Salud Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419096

RESUMEN

There is a growing diversity of bat-associated lyssaviruses in the Old World. In August 2017, a dead Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) tested positive for rabies and based on partial sequence analysis, the novel Kotalahti bat lyssavirus (KBLV) was identified. Because the bat was in an autolyzed state, isolation of KBLV was neither successful after three consecutive cell passages on cells nor in mice. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied using Ion Torrent ™ S5 technology coupled with target enrichment via hybridization-based capture (myBaits®) was used to sequence 99% of the genome, comprising of 11,878 nucleotides (nt). KBLV is most closely related to EBLV-2 (78.7% identity), followed by KHUV (79.0%) and BBLV (77.6%), supporting the assignment as phylogroup I lyssavirus. Interestingly, all of these lyssaviruses were also isolated from bat species of the genus Myotis, thus supporting that M. brandtii is likely the reservoir host. All information on antigenic and genetic divergence fulfil the species demarcation criteria by ICTV, so that we recommend KBLV as a novel species within the Lyssavirus genus. Next to sequence analyses, assignment to phylogroup I was functionally corroborated by cross-neutralization of G-deleted RABV, pseudotyped with KBLV-G by sera from RABV vaccinated humans. This suggests that conventional RABV vaccines also confer protection against the novel KBLV.


Asunto(s)
Lyssavirus/genética , Lyssavirus/inmunología , Vacunas Antirrábicas/inmunología , Rabia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/prevención & control , Animales , Quirópteros/virología , Femenino , Genoma Viral , Lyssavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Rabia/veterinaria , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/veterinaria , Vacunación
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008948, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370285

RESUMEN

Domestic dogs are responsible for 99% of all cases of human rabies and thus, mass dog vaccination has been demonstrated to be the most effective approach towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies. Namibia demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by applying government-led strategic rabies vaccination campaigns to reduce both human and dog rabies incidences in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia since 2016. The lessons learnt using paper-based form for data capturing and management of mass dog vaccination campaign during the pilot and roll out phase of the project (2016-2018) led to the implementation of a simple and accurate data collection tool in the second phase (2019-2022) of the rabies elimination program. In this paper, we describe the implementation of such custom-developed vaccination tracking device, i.e. the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) Data Logger (GDL), and the integration of the collected data into a website-based rabies surveillance system (Rabies Epidemiological Bulletin-REB) during 2019 and 2020 campaigns. A total of 10,037 dogs and 520 cats were vaccinated during the 2019 campaign and 13,219 dogs and 1,044 cats during the 2020 campaign. The vaccination data were recorded with the GDL and visualized via REB. Subsequent GIS-analysis using gridded population data revealed a suboptimal vaccination coverage in the great majority of grid cells (82%) with a vaccination coverage below 50%. Spatial regression analysis identified the number of schools, estimated human density, and adult dog population were associated with the vaccination performance. However, there was an inverse correlation to human densities. Nonetheless, the use of the GDL improved data capturing and monitoring capacity of the campaign, enabling the Namibian government to improve strategies for the vaccination of at-risk areas towards achieving adequate vaccination coverage which would effectively break the transmission of rabies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Vacunación Masiva/veterinaria , Vacunas Antirrábicas/administración & dosificación , Rabia/prevención & control , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Femenino , Masculino , Namibia/epidemiología , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/veterinaria , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23657, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327351

RESUMEN

WeChat in China has been used for public health education and the prevention of diseases. This study introduced a WeChat-based program for rabies prevention and evaluated the users' satisfaction with the program using the technology acceptance model.An online satisfaction questionnaire was used to survey 315 users who had followed the WeChat official account in China, and their satisfaction scores were assessed and analyzed.The users were generally satisfied with the WeChat-based program as an educational and instructional tool with the mean satisfaction score for each item ranging from 3.9 to 4.6 out of a maximum of 5.0 and the total mean satisfaction score of 41.5 out of a maximum of 50.0 (SD = 4.3). Urban users showed more satisfaction than rural users (P = .03). Users who were satisfied also reported that they intended to recommend WeChat to others (P = .00).Findings from the present study indicated that WeChat was considered a useful educational and instructional tool for dog-bite victims among young and urban population. This model of a WeChat-based program for rabies prevention should be expanded to other areas in China.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras/epidemiología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Rabia/prevención & control , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Animales , China , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Características de la Residencia , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 778, 2020 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: International organizations advocate for the elimination of dog-mediated rabies, but there is only limited guidance on interpreting surveillance data for managing elimination programmes. With the regional programme in Latin America approaching elimination of dog-mediated rabies, we aimed to develop a tool to evaluate the programme's performance and generate locally-tailored rabies control programme management guidance to overcome remaining obstacles. METHODS: We developed and validated a robust algorithm to classify progress towards rabies elimination within sub-national administrative units, which we applied to surveillance data from Brazil and Mexico. The method combines criteria that are easy to understand, including logistic regression analysis of case detection time series, assessment of rabies virus variants, and of incursion risk. Subjecting the algorithm to robustness testing, we further employed simulated data sub-sampled at differing levels of case detection to assess the algorithm's performance and sensitivity to surveillance quality. RESULTS: Our tool demonstrated clear epidemiological transitions in Mexico and Brazil: most states progressed rapidly towards elimination, but a few regressed due to incursions and control lapses. In 2015, dog-mediated rabies continued to circulate in the poorest states, with foci remaining in only 1 of 32 states in Mexico, and 2 of 27 in Brazil, posing incursion risks to the wider region. The classification tool was robust in determining epidemiological status irrespective of most levels of surveillance quality. In endemic settings, surveillance would need to detect less than 2.5% of all circulating cases to result in misclassification, whereas in settings where incursions become the main source of cases the threshold detection level for correct classification should not be less than 5%. CONCLUSION: Our tool provides guidance on how to progress effectively towards elimination targets and tailor strategies to local epidemiological situations, while revealing insights into rabies dynamics. Post-campaign assessments of dog vaccination coverage in endemic states, and enhanced surveillance to verify and maintain freedom in states threatened by incursions were identified as priorities to catalyze progress towards elimination. Our finding suggests genomic surveillance should become increasingly valuable during the endgame for discriminating circulating variants and pinpointing sources of incursions.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad/métodos , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/prevención & control , Algoritmos , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Perros , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Vacunación Masiva , México/epidemiología , Rabia/transmisión , Rabia/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cobertura de Vacunación
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239090, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956373

RESUMEN

In rabies endemic areas, appropriate management of dog bites is critical in human rabies prevention. Victims must immediately wash bite wound for 15 minutes with water, soap, and a disinfectant before seeking medical care. This study investigated the epidemiology of dog bites and the determinants of compliance to these pre-clinical guidelines requirements among dog bite victims from high rabies-burden areas of Wakiso and Kampala, Uganda. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods study design was used. Quantitative data were collected from 376 dog-bite patients at two healthcare facilities. Qualitative data were also collected through 13 in-depth interviews with patients, healthcare workers, herbalists, and veterinarians. Qualitative data were analyzed using a deductive thematic approach. Generalized linear models were used to determine factors associated with compliance. Nearly half (190, 51%) of the patients were from Wakiso District and 293 (77.9%) had grade II wounds. Most of the wounds (171, 45.5%) were on the legs. Two-thirds of the bites occurred in public places. Only 70 (19%) of the bite patients had complied with pre-clinical guidelines. Nearly half of the patients had applied substances that were not recommended e.g. herbs (47/193), antiseptics (46/193), "black stone" (25/193), and unknown creams (10/193). Factors negatively associated with compliance included: being aged 15 years or older, adjPR = 0.70 (0.47-0.92) and knowing the dog owner, adjPR = 0.65 (0.36-0.93). However, attainment of secondary or higher education, adjPR = 1.76 (1.24-3.79), being in employment, adjPR = 1.48 (1.09-2.31), perception that the dog was sick, adjPR = 1.47 (1.02-2.72) and knowledge about the dog's subsequent victim(s) adjPR = 0.35 (0.17-0.70) were positively associated with compliance. High occurrence of dog bites in public places by free-roaming dogs suggests the need for deliberate promotion of responsible dog ownership. Additionally, targeted health education may be required to improve the low compliance to pre-clinical guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras/epidemiología , Mordeduras y Picaduras/terapia , Perros , Rabia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Mordeduras y Picaduras/prevención & control , Perros/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1281-1288, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913169

RESUMEN

Aims: This study aimed to obtain data on the knowledge, behavior, and immunization status of veterinary students about rabies. Methods and Materials: The population of this descriptive study consisted of all the 770 students of a veterinary faculty (response rate 85.7%; n = 660). A survey was conducted querying the knowledge and behaviors of the participants about rabies. Results: Of the surveyed students 28.6% (n = 189) stated that they were exposed to animal bites at least once, and 50.3% (n = 95) of these students stated that they were vaccinated following the exposure. Of the participants, 23.6% (n = 156) indicated that they received protective rabies treatment (prophylactic vaccination). About 32.9% (n = 217) of the students taking part in the study had pets at home. Around 70.7% (n = 153) of these students stated that their animals were vaccinated against rabies. A significant relationship was found between having a pet and being bitten by an animal (P < 0.001). 50.5% (n = 333) of the students who participated in the study were competent in knowledge, while 48.3% were competent in behavior. Students competent in knowledge or behavior were considerably more in the clinical classes compared to preclinical classes. A significant relationship in favor of men was found between the sexes concerning both knowledge and behavior levels. Conclusions: The study revealed deficiencies in the students' awareness levels regarding rabies. Ascertaining a sufficient amount of theory and practice courses on rabies in the veterinary faculty curriculum, starting from earlier classes will contribute to the knowledge and behaviors of the students.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacunas Antirrábicas/administración & dosificación , Rabia/prevención & control , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Animales , Mordeduras y Picaduras , Perros , Educación en Veterinaria , Docentes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Rabia/veterinaria , Facultades de Medicina Veterinaria , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236278, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841247

RESUMEN

Rabies is a lethal viral disease and dogs are the major disease reservoir in the Philippines. Spatio-temporal variations in environmental factors are known to affect disease dynamics. Some rabies-affected countries considered investigating the role of weather components in driving rabies cases and it has helped them to strategize their control efforts. In this study, cointegration analysis was conducted between the monthly reported rabies cases and the weather components, such as temperature and precipitation, to verify the effect of weather components on rabies incidence in Davao City, Philippines. With the Engle-Granger cointegration tests, we found that rabies cases are cointegrated into each of the weather components. It was further validated, using the Granger causality test, that each weather component predicts the rabies cases and not vice versa. Moreover, we performed the Johansen cointegration test to show that the weather components simultaneously affect the number of rabies cases, which allowed us to estimate a vector-error correction model for rabies incidence as a function of temperature and precipitation. Our analyses showed that canine rabies in Davao City was weather-sensitive, which implies that rabies incidence could be projected using established long-run relationship among reported rabies cases, temperature, and precipitation. This study also provides empirical evidence that can guide local health officials in formulating preventive strategies for rabies control and eradication based on weather patterns.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Perros/virología , Seguimiento de Parámetros Ecológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Rabia/epidemiología , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Animales , Causalidad , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Predicción/métodos , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Estadísticos , Filipinas/epidemiología , Rabia/prevención & control , Rabia/virología , Virus de la Rabia , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008497, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845886

RESUMEN

Current recommendations for the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies focus on mass dog vaccination as the most feasible and cost-effective strategy. However, attempts to control rabies are often combined with canine surgical sterilisation programmes. The added value of sterilisation is widely debated. A systematic review was undertaken to compare the outcomes and impact of vaccination and sterilisation programmes with vaccination only programmes. A systematic search of three electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Medline and Global Health) and grey literature was performed. From 8696 abstracts found, 5554 unique studies were identified, and 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight described vaccination only programmes and eight described vaccination and sterilisation programmes. Indicators of impact measured were dog bites and/or doses of post-exposure prophylaxis administered; numbers of dog and/or human rabies cases; dog population demographic changes; changes in health and welfare of dogs, and indicators related to human behaviour change. The studies were contextually very diverse, programmes being implemented were complex, and there was variation in measurement and reporting of key indicators. Therefore, it was difficult to compare the two types of intervention, and impossible to make an evaluation of the role of sterilisation, using this evidence. Given the large number of vaccination and sterilisation programmes conducted globally, the lack of studies available for review highlights a gap in data collection or reporting, essential for impact assessment. There are several knowledge gaps concerning the impact of the sterilisation component alone, as well as subsequent effects on rabies transmission and control. Prospective studies comparing the outcomes and impact of the two interventions would be required in order to establish any additional contribution of sterilisation, as well as the underlying mechanisms driving any changes. In the absence of such evidence, the priority for rabies control objectives should be implementation of mass vaccination, as currently recommended by the World Health Organisation.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Rabia/veterinaria , Esterilización Reproductiva/veterinaria , Animales , Perros , Humanos , Rabia/prevención & control , Vacunas Antirrábicas/administración & dosificación , Zoonosis
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1293, 2020 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847503

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of rabies disease in rural and urban communities of Pakistan. It also identified malpractices after suspected dog bite that might pose a risk for humans contracting rabies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 1466) on people having different age groups and educational levels in four different geographic regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces in Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of people were assessed using a structured questionnaire. We used a bivariate and multivariate analysis to study the association between rabies related mortalities in near or extended family members and different risk behaviors. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the majority of the juvenile population (less than 18 years of age) were not aware of the clinical signs of rabies in animals. 75% of the total respondents were not vaccinated against rabies, 60% did not seek a doctor's advice after a suspected animal bite, and 55% had inadequate health care facilities for rabies patients in local hospitals. Respondents that had pets at home had not vaccinated (38%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.58) themselves against rabies due to lack of knowledge and awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies (51%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.25). They also tend to not visit doctor after suspected bite (52%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.97), which may had resulted in more deaths (65%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.73) of someone in their near or extended family due to rabies. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge about the nature of rabies disease and prophylaxis has contributed to increase of rabies related deaths. Inadequate health care facilities and poor attitude of not seeking medical attention after suspected dog bite are the major reasons of rabies related deaths. These findings could help in devising a targeted management strategy and awareness program to control and reduce the incidence of human rabies related deaths in Pakistan.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Rabia/prevención & control , Rabia/veterinaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Mordeduras y Picaduras/terapia , Estudios Transversales , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/mortalidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(29): 956-959, 2020 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701943

RESUMEN

On November 7, 2018, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) reported the first confirmed human rabies death in the state since 1944 (1). The case occurred in a person who had been treated over a period of 19 days at four health care facilities and an emergency medical transport service across three counties and two states. Human rabies is preventable through preexposure or postexposure vaccination but is invariably fatal upon symptom onset. Timely identification of persons who might have been exposed to rabies virus is therefore crucial to administer postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Because of the large number of health care workers who had been involved in the patient's care, a standardized online risk assessment survey was developed by UDOH based on Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations (2). This online tool was evaluated for accuracy, acceptability, and administrative obligation by reviewing the results from the tool and conducting focus group discussions and a follow-up survey. Among 90 health care workers initially identified by the online risk assessment as being potentially exposed to infectious material, 74 were classified as exposed. All 74 health care workers received PEP following consultation with occupational health staff members, indicating a positive predictive value of the assessment tool of 82%. In a follow-up survey, 42 (76%) of the 55 respondents reported that they were satisfied with the assessment process. In focus group discussions, participants suggested that the survey could be improved by providing additional information about rabies exposures because many of them were unfamiliar with human-to-human rabies transmission. This evaluation highlighted the importance of adopting clear communication strategies, demonstrated the benefits of using an online risk assessment during a mass rabies exposure, and provided specific feedback for CDC to improve resources available for states and health care facilities after mass rabies exposures.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Internet , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Rabia/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Satisfacción del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Profilaxis Posexposición/estadística & datos numéricos , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/transmisión , Utah/epidemiología
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008260, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614827

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An estimated 59,000 people die from rabies annually, with 99% of those deaths attributable to bites from domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). This preventable Neglected Tropical Disease has a large impact across continental Africa, especially for rural populations living in close contact with livestock and wildlife. Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs are effective at eliminating rabies but require large amounts of resources, planning, and political will to implement. Grassroots campaigns provide an alternative method to successful implementation of rabies control but remain understudied in their effectiveness to eliminate the disease from larger regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on the development, implementation, and effectiveness of a grassroots mass dog rabies vaccination campaign in Kenya, the Laikipia Rabies Vaccination Campaign. During 2015-2017, a total of 13,155 domestic dogs were vaccinated against rabies in 17 communities covering approximately 1500 km2. Based on an estimated population size of 34,275 domestic dogs, percent coverages increased across years, from 2% in 2015 to 24% in 2017, with only 3 of 38 community-years of vaccination exceeding the 70% target. The average cost of vaccinating an animal was $3.44 USD with in-kind contributions and $7.44 USD without in-kind contributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evolution of the Laikipia Rabies Vaccination Campaign from a localized volunteer-effort to a large-scale program attempting to eliminate rabies at the landscape scale provides a unique opportunity to examine successes, failures, and challenges facing grassroots campaigns. Success, in the form of vaccinating more dogs across the study area, was relatively straightforward to achieve. However, lack of effective post-vaccination monitoring and education programs, limited funding, and working in diverse community types appeared to hinder achievement of 70% coverage levels. These results indicate that grassroots campaigns will inevitably be faced with a philosophical question regarding the value of local impacts versus their contributions to a larger effort to eliminate rabies at the regional, country, or global scale.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación Masiva/veterinaria , Rabia/prevención & control , Animales , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Perros , Humanos , Kenia , Vacunación Masiva/economía , Densidad de Población , Voluntarios
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008459, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667913

RESUMEN

Rabies, caused by RNA viruses in the Genus Lyssavirus, is the most fatal of all infectious diseases. This neglected zoonosis remains a major public health problem in developing countries, causing the death of an estimated 25,000-159,000 people each year, with more than half of them in children. The high incidence of human rabies in spite of effective vaccines is mainly linked to the lack of compliance with the complicated administration schedule, inadequacies of the community public health system for local administration by the parenteral route and the overall costs of the vaccine. The goal of our work was the development of a simple, affordable and effective vaccine strategy to prevent human rabies virus infection. This next generation vaccine is based on a replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus vector belonging to group C, ChAd155-RG, which encodes the rabies glycoprotein (G). We demonstrate here that a single dose of this vaccine induces protective efficacy in a murine model of rabies challenge and elicits strong and durable neutralizing antibody responses in vaccinated non-human primates. Importantly, we demonstrate that one dose of a commercial rabies vaccine effectively boosts the neutralizing antibody responses induced by ChAd155-RG in vaccinated monkeys, showing the compatibility of the novel vectored vaccine with the current post-exposure prophylaxis in the event of rabies virus exposure. Finally, we demonstrate that antibodies induced by ChAd155-RG can also neutralize European bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) found in bat reservoirs.


Asunto(s)
Adenovirus de los Simios/genética , Vacunas Antirrábicas/inmunología , Rabia/prevención & control , Animales , Antígenos Virales , Femenino , Vectores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Ratones , Pan troglodytes/virología , Profilaxis Posexposición , Conejos , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Virus de la Rabia/inmunología , Serogrupo , Vacunación , Vacunas Sintéticas/inmunología , Zoonosis
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008478, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692739

RESUMEN

A canine rabies epidemic started in early 2015 in Arequipa, Peru and the rabies virus continues to circulate in the dog population. Some city residents who suffer dog bites do not seek care or do not complete indicated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens, increasing the risk of human rabies. The objectives of our study are to qualitatively assess knowledge about rabies, and preventive practices, such as rabies vaccine administration, following a dog bite. We conduct eight focus group discussions in peri-urban and urban communities with 70 total participants. In our results, we observe low awareness of rabies severity and fatality, and different practices following a dog bite, depending on the community type: for example, whereas participants in the urban communities report cleaning the wound with hydrogen peroxide rather than soap and water, participants in peri-urban areas cover the wound with herbs and hair from the dog that bit them. Misconceptions about rabies vaccines and mistreatment at health centers also commonly prevent initiating or completing PEP. We identify important behavioral and structural barriers and knowledge gaps that limit evidence-based preventive strategies against rabies and may threaten successful prevention of dog-mediated human rabies in this setting.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Profilaxis Posexposición , Vacunas Antirrábicas/inmunología , Rabia/veterinaria , Animales , Mordeduras y Picaduras/complicaciones , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Perros , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Perú/epidemiología , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/prevención & control , Vacunas Antirrábicas/administración & dosificación , Población Urbana , Heridas y Traumatismos/terapia
18.
Acta Virol ; 64(2): 216-225, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551789

RESUMEN

Currently, Slovakia is a rabies-free country, but the epizootiological situation of rabies was not always favorable. The main reservoir species of rabies virus in the first half of the last century was the domestic dog. Since 1906, hundreds of cases were reported, of which approximately 90% were infected dogs. The disease had a typical urban character. Since 1929, the number of rabid domestic animals decreased due to the implementation of dog vaccination campaigns in particular parts of Slovakia. From the second half of 1950s, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have become an important reservoir of the RABV. In this time period urban rabies in Slovakia changed into sylvatic form. One effective method of prevention and control of wildlife rabies is an oral rabies vaccination of red foxes. It is carried out in Slovakia since 1993. A detailed development of the rabies epizootiological situation on the territory of the Slovak Republic until the application of oral antirabies immunisation of foxes and the current situation after its performance is the main object of this review. Keywords: rabies; Lyssavirus; red fox; incidence; oral vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Antirrábicas , Virus de la Rabia , Rabia , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Perros/virología , Zorros/virología , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/prevención & control , Rabia/veterinaria , Eslovaquia/epidemiología , Vacunación/veterinaria
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 62, 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal but preventable viral disease, which causes an estimated 59 000 human deaths globally every year. The vast majority of human rabies cases are attributable to bites from infected domestic dogs and consequently control of rabies in the dog population through mass vaccination campaigns is considered the most effective method of eliminating the disease. Achieving the WHO target of 70% vaccination coverage has proven challenging in low-resource settings such as Sub Saharan Africa, and lack of public awareness about rabies vaccination campaigns is a major barrier to their success. In this study we surveyed communities in three districts in Southern Malawi to assess the extent of and socio-economic factors associated with mobile phone ownership and explore the attitudes of communities towards the use of short message service (SMS) to inform them of upcoming rabies vaccination clinics. METHODS: This study was carried out between 1 October-3 December 2018 during the post-vaccination assessment of the annual dog rabies campaign in Blantyre, Zomba and Chiradzulu districts, Malawi. 1882 questionnaires were administered to households in 90 vaccination zones. The surveys gathered data on mobile phone ownership and use, and barriers to mobile phone access. A multivariable regression model was used to understand factors related to mobile phone ownership. RESULTS: Most survey respondents owned or had use of a mobile phone, however there was evidence of an inequality of access, with higher education level, living in Blantyre district and being male positively associated with mobile phone ownership. The principal barrier to mobile phone ownership was the cost of the phone itself. Basic feature phones were most common and few owned smartphones. SMS was commonly used and the main reason for not using SMS was illiteracy. Attitudes to receiving SMS reminders about future rabies vaccination campaigns were positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a majority of those surveyed have the use of a mobile phone and most mobile phone owners indicated they would like to receive SMS messages about future rabies vaccination campaigns. This study provides insight into the feasibility of distributing information about rabies vaccination campaigns using mobile phones in Malawi.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Teléfono Celular/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Propiedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Rabia/prevención & control , Factores Socioeconómicos , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
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