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1.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 748-755, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020357

RESUMEN

AIM: The association between oral health and overall health has been broadly documented in the past few years and is supported by a rapidly growing body of evidence. Interventional studies were able to establish a linkage between dental intervention and its influence on medical situations. This study tried to determine whether the overall health of a subject may be correlated to radiographically noticeable dental pathology. There was a need to test a null theory of whether subjects having good oral health state had fewer systemic illnesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective panoramic radiographic study of 400 radiographs of 200 women and 200 men. Subjects were divided into a control group of subjects with no medical history, and a second group with patients who had presented with a medical history. A panoramic radiograph was observed for periapical radiolucency, caries, remaining teeth, remaining root, horizontal, and vertical bone loss. The oral index (OI) was calculated and correlated with the medical status of the patient. RESULTS: Men demonstrated a higher incidence of horizontal bone loss and missing teeth. On the contrary, women showed higher incidences of vertical bone loss, compromised periapical index, and a greater number of root canal treated teeth. Patients having a medical history had a significant percentage of the increased number of periapical lesions, tooth loss, poor quality root canal treatment, and periapical index. Patients with both diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension [HTN (61.3%)], anemia (75%), prostate disease (100%), and disabilities such as hearing impairment and mental retardation (100%) had significantly higher percentages of the bad OI. CONCLUSION: Most patients with medical history demonstrated a significantly poor OI than those with no medical history. The present research contributes to scientific works by probing the relationship between oral health and the overall well-being. Increasing the sample size and interventional studies are needed as an extension of the current research. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Panoramic radiograph is commonly practiced as a screening radiograph in a dental setup. By calculating an OI of each patient based on certain dental conditions, it can help in revealing the burden of medical diseases on oral health and vice versa.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Enfermedades de la Boca , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografía Panorámica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tratamiento del Conducto Radicular
2.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 25(4): 68-74, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965389

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the skill of orthodontists and oral/maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) in providing a prognosis of mandibular third molars spontaneously erupted, through follow-up panoramic analysis. METHODS: 22 orthodontic patients treated without extraction, presenting spontaneously erupted mandibular third molars (n = 44) were analyzed through panoramic serial radiographs. The first panoramic radiograph was obtained just after orthodontic treatment (PR1), in patients aging from 13 to 19 years. A second panoramic radiograph (PR2), was obtained in average two years later. The radiographs were randomly analyzed by 54 specialists, 27 orthodontists and 27 OMFS, to obtain the opinion about the approach to be adopted to these teeth in PR1. Then, another opinion was collected by adding a serial radiograph (PR1+2). RESULTS: The concordance of the answers was moderate for OMFS (Kappa 0.44; p< 0.0001) and significant for orthodontists (Kappa 0.39; p< 0.0001). In the analysis of the first radiograph (PR1) of the spontaneously erupted molars, OMFS indicated extraction in 44.5% of cases, while orthodontists indicated in 42%, with no difference between groups (p= 0.22). In PR1+2 analysis, orthodontists maintained the same level of extraction indication (45.6%, p= 0.08), while surgeons indicated more extractions (63.2%, p< 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontists and OMFS were not able to predict the eruption of the third molars that have erupted spontaneously. Both indicated extractions around half of the third molars. A follow-up analysis, including one more radiograph, did not improve the accuracy of prognosis among orthodontists and worsened for OMFS.


Asunto(s)
Tercer Molar/diagnóstico por imagen , Tercer Molar/cirugía , Diente Impactado/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Diente Molar , Cirujanos Oromaxilofaciales , Ortodoncistas , Radiografía Panorámica , Erupción Dental , Extracción Dental
3.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 35(5): 990-994, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991650

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The SAC Assessment Tool is a clinical decision support system based on the foundations of the SAC Classification System in Implant Dentistry developed by the International Team for Implantology in 2009. It objectively classifies a patient's rehabilitation with dental implants as straightforward, advanced, or complex, from both a surgical and restorative perspective. The aim of this research was to test the agreement between observers with different qualification levels and clinical experience when using this clinical decision support system as a method that mitigates risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients were randomly selected from clinical records, and diagnostic casts, intraoral and extraoral images, and panoramic radiographs were obtained. All data were analyzed with and without the SAC Assessment Tool by a dentist with advanced training and clinical experience in implant dentistry (control dentist) and compared with three colleagues (dentists 1, 2, and 3) with fewer qualifications and less clinical experience. All data were analyzed using statistical agreement tests (Fless kappa), interclass correlation, and agreement rate. The level of significance (α) was set at .05. RESULTS: All patients included in this research presented 104 edentulous areas, which were subjected to surgical evaluation for possible placement of dental implants. Concerning the degree of risk evaluation for dental implant treatment, the results of this study found that the agreement rate of the control dentist without SAC and control dentist with SAC was excellent (81.7%); the agreement rate of the control dentist and dentists 1, 2, and 3 with the use of SAC was satisfactory (67.3% to 76.0%); the variable that presented a lower agreement rate (34.6%) was the comparison between dentists 1, 2, and 3 without use of the SAC Assessment Tool. CONCLUSION: The SAC classification seems to be a useful tool to assist dentists with less experience in implant dentistry with defining the complexity of the treatment and hence with patient selection. It helps in the collection and homogenization of important clinical data to assess the risk of implant-based rehabilitations, thus contributing to an increase in the agreement rate.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Boca Edéntula , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Humanos , Radiografía Panorámica
4.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 773-782, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895661

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the mandibular cortical width (MCW) and morphology of the mandibular inferior cortex (MIC) on panoramic views from a large sample of males and females in various age groups by using an automated morphometric grading system for assisting osteoporosis screening. Furthermore, possible predictors and concrete cut-off values to identify the risk for osteoporosis were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCW, MIC, tooth loss (TL), and alveolar bone loss (ABL) were retrospectively evaluated in 700 panoramic images from dental patients in Hong Kong using commercially available software. To estimate possible predictors for identifying the risk of osteoporosis, age, TL, and ABL were evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for each gender separately. RESULTS: The age groups 60s (sixties), 70s and 80s showed statistically significant gender differences. For example, a smaller MCW and more MIC Class 3 were found in females. Furthermore, females exhibited a statistically significant increase in TL in the age groups 50 years and above. In males, age, TL or ABL did not correlate with MCW, whereas in females it statistically significantly did. Meanwhile, the correlation between ABL and MCW and MIC was weak for both genders. Concrete cut-off values to identify patients at risk of osteoporosis were 60.15 years and 3.5 missing teeth in females, and 72.55 years in males. CONCLUSION: Age and tooth loss were related to MCW and MIC in the population investigated. An age of ≥60 as well as more than 3.5 teeth lost seem to be indicators for a risk of osteoporosis in Chinese females based on panoramic views using artificial-intelligence-based software.


Asunto(s)
Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica , Osteoporosis , Pérdida de Diente , Absorciometría de Fotón , Densidad Ósea , Femenino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula , Radiografía Panorámica , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21756, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872069

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw decreases quality of life of patients with cancer. The debate about it continues regarding the risk factors, etiology, and treatment methods, and so on. Also, spontaneous regeneration of the mandible is clinically rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 67-year-old woman presented to the authors' department complaining of pain, swelling, and pus discharge from a fistula. She previously had breast cancer bone metastases and had received antiresorptive intravenous bisphosphonate. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. INTERVENTIONS: She received conservative therapy with antibiotics and surgical therapy as sequestrectomy under general anesthesia; however, the lesion did not heal. Thirty months after the MRONJ diagnosis, when she was 70 years' old, she underwent a left hemimandibulectomy without reconstruction under general anesthesia. OUTCOMES: Spontaneous regeneration of the mandible was observed by follow-up imaging examinations. The patient has no current subjective or objective symptoms. LESSONS: This is the first case report of the spontaneous mandibular regeneration after surgery for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Additionally, this case was the oldest patient among the published mandibular regeneration cases.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/cirugía , Regeneración Ósea , Mandíbula , Osteotomía Mandibular , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Radiografía Panorámica
6.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 408-413, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769275

RESUMEN

Aim: The aim of this study was to find a correlation between the permanent maxillary canine eruption and the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI). Materials and Methods: 145 subjects (73 male and 72 female) in the age of 7-14 years were examined radiographically with lateral cephalographs and orthopantomographs. The CVM patterns were evaluated on the lateral cephalograph using the classification of Hassel and Farman. The stage of the permanent maxillary canine eruption has been investigated on the orthopantomographs depending on its vertical height in relation to the adjacent incisor. Descriptive statistics were obtained for both CVMI stages and canine eruption grading. Spearman rank correlation test was used to determine the correlation between both methods. The minimum level of significance was considered less than 0.05 (P < 0.05). Results: Results showed a strong correlation between CVMI and the grading of the maxillary canine eruption in both female and male and the (r) value estimated was 0.862 and 0.758, respectively. Over 90% of deceleration stage of CVMI in both genders show canine eruption (pubertal growth spurt) about 91.66% for female and 95.65% for male and a small percentage of delay eruption 8.33% and 4.35% in female and male gender, respectively, with a predilection to the female gender. Conclusions: A significant correlation between the permanent maxillary canine eruption stages and skeletal maturity was found. The eruption of maxillary canine occurs before the end of pubertal growth. Any delay in the eruption of maxillary canine after the deceleration stage of CVMI, suggesting a chance of impaction.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto , Erupción Dental , Cefalometría , Diente Canino/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Masculino , Maxilar , Radiografía Panorámica
7.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 444-448, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769281

RESUMEN

Background: Mandible is a dimorphic, dense compact bone that makes it very durable and well preserved in mass disasters for personnel identification. Mandibular ramus morphometric measurements can be used for gender determination using orthopantomogram (OPG) or on dry mandibles. Aim: To determine gender from morphometric analysis of mandibular ramus of 200 digital OPG of patients from Sriganganagar population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on randomly selected digital OPG of 200 patients of both genders between the ages of 21 and 70 years taken using CS8000C machine from daily OPD. Morphometric analysis of mandibular ramus (maximum ramus breadth, minimum ramus breadth, condylar height, projective height of ramus, and coronoid height) was done twice by single maxillofacial radiologist independently at an interval of 1 day and mean of both the values were considered. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS Software version 20 using independent t-test and discriminant function analysis. Results: Out of total 200 subjects, 37% were male and 63% were female. Mean of minimum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, and projected ramus height was noted significantly more among males while maximum ramus breadth was noted slightly higher in females. The overall accuracy for determining sex from mandibular ramus was found to be 77.6%, whereas for determining male and female, the accuracy was 78.4% and 76.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus can be used for sexual dimorphism by morphometric analysis done on OPG among Sriganganagar population.


Asunto(s)
Mandíbula , Caracteres Sexuales , Adulto , Anciano , Recolección de Datos , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Radiografía Panorámica , Adulto Joven
8.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 457-464, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769283

RESUMEN

Aim: Mandibular cortical index has proven to be inversely correlated to bone densitometry; however, trabecular bone pattern has not been widely studied. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: (1) to analyze the correlations between three different sites of peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with the mandibular cortical index and the trabecular bone pattern classification; (2) to assess the correlation between the mandibular cortical index and the trabecular bone pattern; (3) to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the mandibular cortical index and the trabecular bone pattern using panoramic radiographs in a sample of Brazilian men. Additionally, peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry findings in men were described. Materials and Methods: There are about 44 men who had previously undergone panoramic radiography and bone densitometry were evaluated. Mandibular cortical index and trabecular bone pattern classifications were performed. The median T-scores of the men were analyzed. Spearman's test was performed to assess correlations. Results: An inverse correlation was found between mandibular cortical index and proximal bone densitometry site. No correlation was found between mandibular cortical index and trabecular bone pattern or between peripheral densitometry and trabecular bone pattern. Greater accuracy was observed in mandibular cortical index when compared to trabecular bone pattern. Mandibular cortical index evaluations by panoramic radiographs are a useful screening tool for low bone mineral density, but trabecular bone pattern cannot be applied to screen patients for osteoporosis risk. Mandibular cortical index has an inverse correlation with proximal sites of forearm densitometry.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Mandíbula , Absorciometría de Fotón , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografía Panorámica
9.
Orv Hetil ; 161(28): 1166-1174, 2020 07.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609624

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the occlusal support, and mandibular third molars on mandibular angle and condylar fractures. METHOD AND RESULTS: Patients with unilateral and isolated angle or condylar fractures were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Data was collected from patient records and panoramic x-rays. The predictor variables included the type of occlusal support and the presence or absence of third molars. The outcome variable was angle or condylar fracture, while other predictor variables included demographic factors. Bivariate (χ2 test) and logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between variables and the outcome. 43 angle (mean age: 29.9 ± 12.8 years; 98.4% male) and 37 condylar (mean age: 46.8 ± 20.2 years; 62.2% male) fracture cases were included in this study. Bilateral occlusal support was present in 81.4% of angle fracture group and in 51.3% of condylar fracture group (p<0.001). In the case of bilateral occlusal support, an odds ratio (OR) of 4.2 was found for angle fractures (p<0.006). A third molar was present in 86% of the angle fracture group and in 43.2% of the condylar fracture group (p<0.001). The presence of a third molar exhibited an odds ratio of 8.1 for the angle fractures (p<0.001). When bilateral occlusal support and third molar were present simultaneously, the risk was 15.9 times higher for an angle fracture (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The presence of occlusal support and/or third molars was significantly associated with angle fractures, however, the absence of occlusal support and/or third molars significantly correlated with condylar fractures. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(28): 1166-1174.


Asunto(s)
Oclusión Dental , Mandíbula , Cóndilo Mandibular/lesiones , Fracturas Mandibulares/etiología , Tercer Molar/anatomía & histología , Diente Impactado/complicaciones , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Fracturas Mandibulares/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tercer Molar/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiografía Panorámica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Corona del Diente/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto Joven
10.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(2): 183-186, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626883

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine the age medians for crown and root length completion stages of permanent teeth (except for the third molars) and to study gender differences in crown and root length completion stages by radiographic examinations. METHODS: The development of permanent teeth (except for the third molars) was evaluated from 3304 panoramic radiographs of children aged between 3 and 18 years by Haavikko's method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 software package. Age medians for crown and root length completion stages of permanent teeth were calculated. Gender differences were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in crown completion stages of central incisor and first molar, of which P values were 0.143 (for maxillary central incisor), 0.122 (for maxillary first molar), 0.191 (for mandibular central incisor) and 0.558 (for mandibular first molar), while girls were found to be ahead of boys for crown completion stages of other teeth. In maxilla, girls were found to be ahead of boys for root length completion stages except for lateral incisor, second premolar and second molar, of which P values were 0.057, 0.130 and 0.294; in mandible, except for second premolar and second molar, girls were observed to be ahead of boys for root length completion stages, of which P values were 0.428 and 0.057. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that girls are advanced than boys for crown and root length completion stages in most teeth. There is a similarity in gender differences for crown and root length completion stages between maxilla and mandible.


Asunto(s)
Dentición Permanente , Corona del Diente , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Coronas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxilar , Diente Molar , Radiografía Panorámica
12.
Br Dent J ; 229(2): 105-109, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710056

RESUMEN

Due to the coronavirus pandemic, all routine dental care in the UK ceased on 25 March 2020. Liverpool University Dental Hospital (LUDH) responded by commencing an emergency dental service on the same date. Clinicians were redeployed within the Hospital to meet the needs of the service, including staffing of the radiology department. LUDH followed Royal College recommendations by taking extraoral radiographs in preference to intraoral radiographs due to the risk of inducing an aerosol. Issues were identified with clinical diagnosis from sectional panoramic radiographs, which led to the introduction of extraoral bitewings being taken as an alternative. A quality assurance audit found that these images provided a substantially lower radiation dose and produced excellent quality images with improved diagnostic accuracy. This article aims to summarise how our radiography practices changed in response to the coronavirus and how the lessons that we have learnt provide an opportunity to modify and improve future practice, beyond the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Radiografía Dental , Radiografía Panorámica
13.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 249-256, June 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090682

RESUMEN

The odontogenic keratocyst is a lesion with specific clinical and histopathological aspects. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2017 reclassified it from a tumor to a cyst. It is characterized as a cyst of epithelial development of the jaws, arising from the remains of the dental blade. It represents 3 % to 11 % of all odontogenic cysts and 7 to 11 % of cysts of the gnatic bones. It stands out for its aggressive nature and high relapsing potential. Most of the cases are diagnosed in individuals between 10 and 40 years old, with a mild preference for the masculine gender, occurring more in the mandible. Radiographically, it is radiolucent and well delimited, predominantly unilocular, and may cause displacement of adjacent teeth. The present study aims to report a clinical case of a female 25 years old patient, presenting an intra-osseous lesion in the maxilla (posterior, left side), asymptomatic, with a slight increase in intraoral buccal volume, containing the tooth 28, with a diagnostic hypothesis of Odontogenic Keratocyst. The patient was submitted to the surgical decompression treatment, with cystic fluid puncture, biopsy of the lesion and posterior anatomopathological examination. The enucleation of the tumor was performed using LeFort I osteotomy of maxilla and reconstruction with titanium mesh. There is radiographic evidence of bone repair and lesion reduction. The patient is in periodic follow-up of 4 years and does not present clinical and radiographic signs of relapse. Due to the aggressiveness of the odontogenic keratocyst, the relapse rate is high. The knowledge of the techniques recommended for the treatment of Odontogenic Keratocysts and the clinical and radiographic follow-up of the patient demonstrate a gradual decrease of the lumen of the lesion and suggest local bone neoformation, favoring the prognosis of the case.


El queratoquiste odontogénico es una lesión con aspectos clínicos e histopatológicos específicos. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en 2017 lo reclasificó de un tumor a un quiste. Se caracteriza como un quiste de desarrollo epitelial de las mandíbulas, que surge de los restos de la lámina dental. Representa del 3 % al 11 % de todos los quistes odontogénicos y del 7 al 11 % de los quistes de los huesos gnáticos. Se destaca por su naturaleza agresiva y su alto potencial de recaídas. La mayoría de los casos se diagnostican en individuos de entre 10 y 40 años, con una leve preferencia por el sexo masculino, que ocurre más en la mandíbula. Radiográficamente, es radiotransparente y bien delimitado, predominantemente unilocular, y puede causar el desplazamiento de los dientes adyacentes. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo reportar el caso clínico de una paciente de 25 años, que presenta una lesión intraósea en el maxilar (posterior, lado izquierdo), asintomática, con un ligero aumento en el volumen bucal intraoral, que contiene el diente 28, con una hipótesis diagnóstica de queratoquiste odontogénico. El paciente fue sometido al tratamiento quirúrgico de descompresión, con punción de líquido quístico, biopsia de la lesión y examen anatomopatológico posterior. La enucleación del tumor se realizó con osteotomía LeFort I de maxilar y reconstrucción con malla de titanio. Existe evidencia radiográfica de reparación ósea y reducción de la lesión. El paciente se encuentra en seguimiento periódico de 4 años y no presenta signos clínicos ni radiográficos de recaída. Debido a la agresividad del queratoquiste odontogénico, la tasa de recaída es alta. El conocimiento de las técnicas recomendadas para el tratamiento de los queratoquistes odontogénicos, y el seguimiento clínico y radiográfico del paciente, demuestran una disminución gradual del lumen de la lesión y sugieren neoformación ósea local, favoreciendo el pronóstico del caso.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Enfermedades Maxilares/cirugía , Quistes Odontogénicos/cirugía , Osteotomía Le Fort , Radiografía Panorámica , Enfermedades Maxilares/diagnóstico por imagen , Quistes Odontogénicos/diagnóstico por imagen , Descompresión Quirúrgica
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 714-719, June 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098310

RESUMEN

The morphological variations of the mental foramen (MF) and mandibular foramen (MBF) have been studied for several years, and the prevalence and morphometric characteristics of double and triple foramina have been reported. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of variations in the MF and MBF, and to carry out a morphometric analysis of a Chilean population using digital panoramic radiographs. The study included 927 radiographs; the observed prevalence of double MF was 2.58 %, while the prevalence of double MBF was 1.51 %. No cases of triple foramina were found. In men, double MF was found more frequently in the left hemiarch (64.28 % of cases), while in women it was more frequent in the right hemiarch (80 %). Double MBF was found more frequently in the right hemiarch in women (80 % of cases), while the distribution between left and right in men was even. The mean area, width and height of the double MF were 5.46 mm2, 2.77 mm and 2.57 mm respectively. The means of the same morphometric measurements in double MBF were 6.37 mm2, 2.27 mm and 3.19 mm respectively. In both foramina, statistically significant differences were only found between the height of the foramen and the age of the subjects, with the observation that the greater the subject's age, the smaller the height. Dental surgeons must take these anatomical variants into consideration in clinical and surgical actions; timely diagnosis by radiograph is important to avoid possible complications.


Las variaciones morfológicas del foramen mental (FM) y mandibular (FMB) han sido estudiadas durante varios años, reportándose su prevalencia y las características morfométricas de forámenes dobles y triples. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la prevalencia de variaciones de los FM y FMB y realizar un análisis morfométrico a través de radiografías panorámicas digitales de una muestra de población chilena. En el estudio se incluyeron 927 radiografías y se observó una prevalencia de FM doble de 2,58 %, mientras que la prevalencia de FMB doble fue de 1,51 %. No se encontraron casos de forámenes triples. En hombres, el FM doble se encontró mayoritariamente en la hemiarcada izquierda (64,28 % de los casos), mientras que en mujeres fue en la hemiarcada derecha (80% de los casos). Para el caso de los FMB dobles, en mujeres se presentó mayoritariamente en la hemiarcada derecha (80 % de los casos), mientras que en hombres fue equitativo en ambos lados. El promedio del área, ancho y alto de los FM dobles fue de 5,46 mm2, 2,77 mm y 2,57 mm, respectivamente. Asimismo, los promedios de estas medidas morfométricas para el FMB doble fueron 6,37 mm2, 2,27 mm y 3,19 mm, respectivamente. Para ambos forámenes sólo se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el alto y la edad de los sujetos, observando que, a mayor edad menor era el alto del foramen. Los cirujanos dentistas deben tener en consideración estas variantes anatómicas para la realización de distintas acciones clínicas y quirúrgicas, su diagnóstico radiográfico oportuno es importante para prevenir posibles complicaciones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Variación Anatómica , Foramen Mental/anatomía & histología , Foramen Mental/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiografía Panorámica , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Distribución por Edad y Sexo
15.
J Oral Sci ; 62(3): 303-307, 2020 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522912

RESUMEN

The present study used an aluminum phantom to calculate accurate vertical magnification values around the mental foramen on panoramic radiography (PR) and compared corrected PR (Cor-PR) thickness measurements of the aluminum phantom and mandibular cortical width (MCW) of the human head with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements at two fields of view (FOVs). The calculated vertical magnification value for PR around the mental foramen was 1.37. Measurements of the aluminum phantom significantly differed between Cor-PR and CBCT with an FOV of 100 mm and between CBCT with FOVs of 40 and 100 mm; however, MCW measurements did not significantly differ among the three methods. There was a very strong correlation between Cor-PR and CBCT with an FOV of 40 mm and between CBCT with FOVs of 40 mm and 100 mm, and intraobserver and interobserver agreement was good-to-excellent for all methods. These results suggest that Cor-PR and CBCT with small and large FOVs are acceptable for measuring MCW.


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Mandíbula , Humanos , Foramen Mental , Radiografía Panorámica , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20787, 2020 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590758

RESUMEN

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a particular type of deep learning architecture, are positioned to become one of the most transformative technologies for medical applications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of deep CNN algorithm for the identification and classification of dental implant systems.A total of 5390 panoramic and 5380 periapical radiographic images from 3 types of dental implant systems, with similar shape and internal conical connection, were randomly divided into training and validation dataset (80%) and a test dataset (20%). We performed image preprocessing and transfer learning techniques, based on fine-tuned and pre-trained deep CNN architecture (GoogLeNet Inception-v3). The test dataset was used to assess the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic curve, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and confusion matrix compared between deep CNN and periodontal specialist.We found that the deep CNN architecture (AUC = 0.971, 95% confidence interval 0.963-0.978) and board-certified periodontist (AUC = 0.925, 95% confidence interval 0.913-0.935) showed reliable classification accuracies.This study demonstrated that deep CNN architecture is useful for the identification and classification of dental implant systems using panoramic and periapical radiographic images.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Implantes Dentales , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Radiografía Dental/métodos , Aprendizaje Profundo , Implantes Dentales/clasificación , Implantes Dentales/normas , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Radiografía Panorámica/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 21(4): 463-508, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557182

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of all radioprotective measures in underage patients who undergo a dental radiodiagnostic examination. METHODS: A systematic review was performed including randomised controlled trials (RCTs), or cluster trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies and comparative in vitro research. These studies examined the healthy underage human population (below 18 years) undergoing a dental radiodiagnostic examination. All radioprotective measures were included except for justification as an intervention. The primary outcomes were in vivo mortality and morbidity. Some surrogate or indirect outcomes such as in vitro effective dose and organ absorbed doses were also accepted. Secondary outcomes with regards to image quality and therapeutic value were also analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers were eligible for implementation. Fifteen studies underwent narrative synthesis. Regression analysis was performed on three studies. CONCLUSION: The following radioprotective measures can reduce the exposure dose. For lateral cephalometry: collimation, filtration, the fastest receptor type and circumstantial thyroid shielding. For oblique lateral radiographs: the shortest exposure time, a smaller horizontal angulation, a longer focus to skin distance. For intraoral radiography: rectangular collimation, the fastest image receptor speed and thyroid shielding when the thyroid gland is in line of or very close to the primary beam. For panoramic radiographs: collimation, the fastest receptor type and the use of automatic exposure control (AEC) or manual adjustment of intensity. For cone-beam computed tomography: collimation, the largest voxels size in relation to the treatment need, change in image settings such as ultra-low dose settings, shorter exposure time, a lower amount of projections, lower beam intensity, reduction of the potential, use of a thyroid shield except in two situations and the use of AEC. All of the changes in exposure parameters should be performed while maintaining a sufficient therapeutic value on an individual and indication-based level.


Asunto(s)
Protección Radiológica , Radiografía Dental , Cefalometría , Niño , Humanos , Dosis de Radiación , Radiografía Panorámica
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 805-810, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525115

RESUMEN

Background: Hypodontia and hyperdontia may occur with other dental anomalies such as microdontia, taurodontism, talon cusp, macrodontia and germination. Aims: The aim of this study to evaluate the relationship between hypodontia and hyperdontia with taurodontism, macrodontia and microdontia. Subjects and Methods: In this retrospective study, 2,348 Turkish patients aged 7 to 12 years and treated between 01.01.2017 and 01.01.2018 in Bahcelievler Oral and Dental Health Hospital were evaluated. Data were collected and differences in the distribution of hypodontia and hyperdontia including other dental anomalies were analysed. Results: Of the total sample of 2,348 patients, 1,126 (48%) were girls, 1,222 (52%) were boys. Hypodontia was found in 177 children (93 girls (53%), 84 boys (47%)). The prevalence of hypodontia and hyperdontia were 7.5% and 0.9%. Taurodontism is the most common dental anomalies in hypodontia patients (39%) followed by microdontia (10%). Taurodontism was more prevalent in girls (42%) than in boys (36.5%). Microdontia was found in 10 patients and macrodontia was observed in 9 hypodontia patients. Hyperdontia was found in 21 children [8 girls (38%), 13 boys (62%)]. The most common supernumerary tooth found was mesiodens (85%) and it's more prevalent in boys (67%) than in girls (33%). Taurodontism is the most common dental anomaly (48%) following macrodontia (19%) and were found to be much more prevalent in boys (53%) (23%) than in girls (37.5%) (12.5%). Microdontia was found in only 1 boy (%7.7) in hyperdontia patients. Conclusion: Hypodontia and hyperdontia with taurodontism, microdontia, and macrodontia need much more complex treatment plan. All cases should be evaluated using interdisciplinary approach for appropriate treatment choice. This helps in longterm and effective treatment planning according to a child's individual requirements.


Asunto(s)
Anodoncia/epidemiología , Cavidad Pulpar/anomalías , Anomalías Dentarias/epidemiología , Diente Supernumerario/epidemiología , Adolescente , Anodoncia/diagnóstico por imagen , Niño , Preescolar , Cavidad Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Bucal , Prevalencia , Radiografía Panorámica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anomalías Dentarias/diagnóstico por imagen , Diente Supernumerario/diagnóstico por imagen , Turquia/epidemiología
19.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(3): 168-173, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552450

RESUMEN

Objective: To apply the technique of deep learning on a small dataset of panoramic images for the detection and segmentation of the mental foramen (MF). Study design: In this study we used in-house dataset created within the School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University. The dataset contained randomly chosen and anonymized 112 digital panoramic X-ray images and corresponding segmentations of MF. In order to solve the task of segmentation of the MF we used a single fully convolution neural network, that was based on U-net as well as a cascade architecture. 70% of the data were randomly chosen for training, 15% for validation and accuracy was tested on 15%. The model was trained using NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 GPU. The SPSS software, version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Tel Aviv University. Results: The best results of the dice similarity coefficient ( DSC), precision, recall, MF-wise true positive rate (MFTPR) and MF-wise false positive rate (MFFPR) in single networks were 49.51%, 71.13%, 68.24%, 87.81% and 14.08%, respectively. The cascade of networks has shown better results than simple networks in recall and MFTPR, which were 88.83%, 93.75%, respectively, while DSC and precision achieved the lowest values, 31.77% and 23.92%, respectively. Conclusions: Currently, the U-net, one of the most used neural network architectures for biomedical application, was effectively used in this study. Methods based on deep learning are extremely important for automatic detection and segmentation in radiology and require further development.


Asunto(s)
Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Foramen Mental , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Radiografía Dental Digital , Radiografía Panorámica
20.
J Orthod ; 47(3): 245-250, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493128

RESUMEN

For all orthodontic patients, a detailed clinical examination is essential to obtain the correct diagnosis before the formulation of an orthodontic treatment plan. Additional information may be required from radiographs in order to supplement this clinical examination. While orthodontists principally prescribe dental panoramic tomographs for orthodontic patients to confirm the presence, position and morphology of unerupted teeth, the absence or presence of disease within the supporting structures may be overlooked. This case report presents one such instance where the pre-orthodontic radiographic examination of a young male patient revealed the presence of an asymptomatic odontogenic keratocyst in the right posterior body of the mandible.This case report discusses how this incidental finding was diagnosed, managed and how its surgical treatment subsequently affected the orthodontic management of the patient. Furthermore, this case highlights the importance of undertaking a thorough and systematic approach when analysing any prescribed radiographs, in order to reduce the risk of overlooking any evidence of underlying disease.


Asunto(s)
Quistes Odontogénicos , Diente no Erupcionado , Humanos , Hallazgos Incidentales , Masculino , Ortodoncistas , Radiografía Panorámica
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