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1.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 87, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951779

RESUMEN

Widespread species often experience significant environmental clines over the area they naturally occupy. We investigated a widespread livebearing fish, the Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) combining genetic, life-history, and environmental data, asking how structured populations are. Sailfin mollies can be found in coastal freshwater and brackish habitats from roughly Tampico, Veracruz in Mexico to Wilmington, North Carolina, in the USA. In addition, they are found inland on the Florida peninsula. Using microsatellite DNA, we genotyped 168 individuals from 18 populations covering most of the natural range of the Sailfin molly. We further determined standard life-history parameters for both males and females for these populations. Finally, we measured biotic and abiotic parameters in the field. We found six distinct genetic clusters based on microsatellite data, with very strong indication of isolation by distance. However, we also found significant numbers of migrants between adjacent populations. Despite genetic structuring we did not find evidence of cryptic speciation. The genetic clusters and the migration patterns do not match paleodrainages. Life histories vary between populations but not in a way that is easy to interpret. We suggest a role of humans in migration in the sailfin molly, for example in the form of a ship channel that connects southern Texas with Louisiana which might be a conduit for fish migration.


Asunto(s)
Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Poecilia , Animales , Poecilia/genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Masculino , Femenino , Fenotipo , Variación Genética/genética , Ecosistema , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e283484, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985072

RESUMEN

The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of dates in the Middle East and North Africa, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled early. As predaceous mites are known to be potential biocontrol agents against several pests, so predation capacity, life table, reproduction, and survival of Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm farms in Qassim Saudi Arabia, were studied under laboratory conditions (25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C and 50 ± 5% RH) against all motile stages of O. afrasiaticus. For both predators, mean developmental time, oviposition period, and longevity were inversely related to temperature from 25 to 35 °C. Various parameters were studied for A. swirskii and N. cucumeris at 25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C, i.e. the female developmental time, 9.37, 7.29, 5.56, and 10.67, 8.38, 6.45 d; oviposition period, 19.77, 16.18, 13.94 and 15.90, 13.84, 10.64 d; longevity, 29.39, 24.79, 20.64 and 25.42, 21.94, 17.39 d; fecundity, 31.91, 37.10, 42.16 and 21.75, 26.84, 30.56 eggs per female, respectively. The maximum daily predation rate for both the predators was recorded at 35 °C during the oviposition period. The total predation of A. swirskii and N. cucumeris female was 370.86, 387.54, 405.83, 232.14, 263.32, 248.85 preys at 25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The maximum reproduction rate of A. swirskii and N. cucumeris (3.02, 2.87 eggs/♀/day) was recorded at 35 °C while the minimum (2.00, 1.36 eggs/♀/day) was recorded at 25 °C. The life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate (Ro) 21.68, 25.94, 29.52 and 18.95, 20.25, 22.78; the mean generation time (T) 24.92, 21.82, 18.24 and 26.30, 23.60, 20.56 d; the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) 0.181, 0.232, 0.248 and 0.170, 0.185, 0.196; the finite rate of increase (λ) 1.365, 1.551, 1.706 and 1.126, 1.324, 1.428 for A. swirskii and N. cucumeris at 25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The results of this study suggested that the two phytoseiid species are promising biological control agents of O. afrasiaticus at a wide range of temperatures.


Asunto(s)
Ácaros , Control Biológico de Vectores , Phoeniceae , Conducta Predatoria , Animales , Femenino , Conducta Predatoria/fisiología , Masculino , Ácaros/fisiología , Phoeniceae/parasitología , Oviposición/fisiología , Tetranychidae/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Longevidad , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida/fisiología , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida
3.
Sci Adv ; 10(23): eadm7273, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848365

RESUMEN

By analyzing 15,000 samples from 348 mammalian species, we derive DNA methylation (DNAm) predictors of maximum life span (R = 0.89), gestation time (R = 0.96), and age at sexual maturity (R = 0.85). Our maximum life-span predictor indicates a potential innate longevity advantage for females over males in 17 mammalian species including humans. The DNAm maximum life-span predictions are not affected by caloric restriction or partial reprogramming. Genetic disruptions in the somatotropic axis such as growth hormone receptors have an impact on DNAm maximum life span only in select tissues. Cancer mortality rates show no correlation with our epigenetic estimates of life-history traits. The DNAm maximum life-span predictor does not detect variation in life span between individuals of the same species, such as between the breeds of dogs. Maximum life span is determined in part by an epigenetic signature that is an intrinsic species property and is distinct from the signatures that relate to individual mortality risk.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Epigénesis Genética , Longevidad , Mamíferos , Animales , Longevidad/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Especificidad de la Especie
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 251, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salinity, exacerbated by rising sea levels, is a critical environmental cue affecting freshwater ecosystems. Predicting ecosystem structure in response to such changes and their implications for the geographical distribution of arthropod disease vectors requires further insights into the plasticity and adaptability of lower trophic level species in freshwater systems. Our study investigated whether populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens, typically considered sensitive to salt, have adapted due to gradual exposure. METHODS: Mesocosm experiments were conducted to evaluate responses in life history traits to increasing levels of salinity in three populations along a gradient perpendicular to the North Sea coast. Salt concentrations up to the brackish-marine transition zone (8 g/l chloride) were used, upon which no survival was expected. To determine how this process affects oviposition, a colonization experiment was performed by exposing the coastal population to the same concentrations. RESULTS: While concentrations up to the currently described median lethal dose (LD50) (4 g/l) were surprisingly favored during egg laying, even the treatment with the highest salt concentration was incidentally colonized. Differences in development rates among populations were observed, but the influence of salinity was evident only at 4 g/l and higher, resulting in only a 1-day delay. Mortality rates were lower than expected, reaching only 20% for coastal and inland populations and 41% for the intermediate population at the highest salinity. Sex ratios remained unaffected across the tested range. CONCLUSIONS: The high tolerance to salinity for all key life history parameters across populations suggests that Cx. pipiens is unlikely to shift its distribution in the foreseeable future, with potential implications for the disease risk of associated pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Culex , Oviposición , Salinidad , Animales , Culex/fisiología , Culex/efectos de los fármacos , Culex/crecimiento & desarrollo , Femenino , Masculino , Ecosistema , Tolerancia a la Sal , Agua Dulce , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Dosificación Letal Mediana , Cloruro de Sodio/farmacología
5.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38909607

RESUMEN

The antlion genera Gatzara and Nepsalus (Myrmeleontidae: Dendroleontinae) inhabit mountain forests and are characterised by camouflaging larvae. Both genera remain poorly known despite recent findings on systematics and distribution. We report the discovery of new specimens and the previously unknown larvae of the rare species Gatzara jubilaea Navás, 1915, Nepsalus insolitus (Walker, 1860) and N. decorosus (Yang, 1988). These provide new evidence regarding the affinities of these species, and updated knowledge of the distribution, larval morphology and biology. Moreover, a new species of Nepsalus , N. maclachlani Badano, Zheng & Liu, sp. nov. is described from Sri Lanka based on historical museum collections. The discovery of the immature stages of Gatzara shows that the larvae of this genus share the same specialised ecological characteristics and habits as those of Nepsalus but are less morphologically derived. We also reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of this lineage, estimating the divergence time and biogeographical history by adding the new samples. The evolution of the Gatzara + Nepsalus lineage is associated with two major mountain ranges on the southern Tibetan Plateau, i.e. the Himalayas and the Hengduan Mountains. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:68E68211-DFC1-4D98-997B-8A23BA8F9B69.


Asunto(s)
Larva , Filogenia , Animales , Sri Lanka , Larva/anatomía & histología , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Especificidad de la Especie , Distribución Animal , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida
6.
Curr Protoc ; 4(6): e1064, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837737

RESUMEN

Caloric restriction has been found to extend the lifespan of many organisms including mammals and other vertebrates. With lifespans exceeding months to years, age-related experiments involving fish and mammals can be overtly costly, both in terms of time and funding. The freshwater crustacean, Daphnia, has a relatively short lifespan (∼50 to 100 days), which makes it a cost-effective alternative animal model for longevity and aging studies. Besides age-specific mortality, there are a suite of physiological responses connected to "healthspan" that can be tracked as these animals age including growth, reproduction, and metabolic rates. These responses can be complemented by assessment of molecular and cellular processes connected to aging and health. Lifespan and metabolism of this model organism is responsive to long studied modulators of aging, such as rearing temperature and nutritional manipulation, but also pharmacological agents that target aging, e.g., rapamycin, which adds to its usefulness as a model organism. Here we describe how to culture Daphnia for aging experiments including maintaining laboratory populations of Daphnia mothers, growing algal food, and manipulating nutrition of these animals. In addition, we provide methods for tracking common physiological and longevity responses of Daphnia. This protocol provides researchers planning to use this model organism with methods to establish and maintain Daphnia populations and to standardize their experimental approaches. © 2024 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Culturing algae for Daphnia food Basic Protocol 2: General methods for culturing Daphnia Basic Protocol 3: Standardizing and controlling nutrition for experimental Daphnia Basic Protocol 4: Monitoring Daphnia lifespan Basic Protocol 5: Evaluating Daphnia health: Heart rate and respiration, body mass and growth rates, and reproduction.


Asunto(s)
Daphnia , Longevidad , Animales , Daphnia/fisiología , Daphnia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Reproducción/fisiología , Envejecimiento/fisiología
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305950, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38905300

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic pressures threaten biodiversity, necessitating conservation actions founded on robust ecological models. However, prevailing models inadequately capture the spatiotemporal variation in environmental pressures faced by species with high mobility or complex life histories, as data are often aggregated across species' life histories or spatial distributions. We highlight the limitations of static models for dynamic species and incorporate life history variation and spatial distributions for species and stressors into a trait-based vulnerability and impact model. We use green sea turtles in the Greater Caribbean Region to demonstrate how vulnerability and anthropogenic impact for a dynamic species change across four life stages. By incorporating life stages into a trait-based vulnerability model, we observed life stage-specific vulnerabilities that were otherwise unnoticed when using an aggregated trait value set. Early life stages were more vulnerable to some stressors, such as inorganic pollution or marine heat waves, and less vulnerable to others, such as bycatch. Incorporating spatial distributions of stressors and life stages revealed impacts differ for each life stage across spatial areas, emphasizing the importance of stage-specific conservation measures. Our approach showcases the importance of incorporating dynamic processes into ecological models and will enable better and more targeted conservation actions for species with complex life histories and high mobility.


Asunto(s)
Tortugas , Animales , Tortugas/fisiología , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Región del Caribe , Modelos Biológicos , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Ecosistema
8.
Biol Lett ; 20(6): 20230601, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863347

RESUMEN

Glycation reactions play a key role in the senescence process and are involved in numerous age-related pathologies, such as diabetes complications or Alzheimer's disease. As a result, past studies on glycation have mostly focused on human and laboratory animal models for medical purposes. Very little is known about glycation and its link to senescence in wild animal species. Yet, despite feeding on high-sugar diets, several bat and bird species are long-lived and seem to escape the toxic effects of high glycaemia. The study of these models could open new avenues both for understanding the mechanisms that coevolved with glycation resistance and for treating the damaging effects of glycations in humans. Our understanding of glycaemia's correlation to proxies of animals' pace of life is emerging in few wild species; however, virtually nothing is known about their resistance to glycation, nor on the relationship between glycation, species' life-history traits and individual fitness. Our review summarizes the scarce current knowledge on the links between glycation and life-history traits in non-conventional animal models, highlighting the predominance of avian research. We also investigate some key molecular and physiological parameters involved in glycation regulation, which hold promise for future research on fitness and senescence of individuals.


Asunto(s)
Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Modelos Animales , Glicosilación , Envejecimiento , Productos Finales de Glicación Avanzada/metabolismo
9.
Am Nat ; 204(1): 30-42, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857347

RESUMEN

AbstractPatterns in the correlated evolution of parental care and life history traits are long established but controversial. Although parental care is related to large egg size in many taxa, conflicting results have also been reported. To test the evolutionary relationships between parental care and life history traits, we performed phylogenetic comparative analyses using shield bugs (Heteroptera: Acanthosomatidae), in which maternal guarding of eggs and young has repeatedly evolved. Our analyses revealed that female body size affected reproductive resource allocation. Contrary to the expectations of current theories, the acquisition of maternal care was associated with small eggs, large clutches, and large egg resource allocation. There was a greater trade-off between egg size and clutch size in caring species than in noncaring species. Egg and hatchling developmental rates were not correlated with egg size but were slower in caring species than in noncaring species. Analyses of evolutionary transitions suggest that the establishment of large clutches, small eggs, and large egg resource allocation preceded the evolution of maternal care. To our knowledge, this is the first study clarifying the evolution of parental care linked with small eggs in invertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Tamaño de la Nidada , Heterópteros , Conducta Materna , Filogenia , Animales , Heterópteros/crecimiento & desarrollo , Heterópteros/fisiología , Femenino , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Tamaño Corporal , Óvulo/crecimiento & desarrollo
10.
Ecol Lett ; 27(5): e14434, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716556

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic habitat modification can indirectly effect reproduction and survival in social species by changing the group structure and social interactions. We assessed the impact of habitat modification on the fitness and life history traits of a cooperative breeder, the Arabian babbler (Argya squamiceps). We collected spatial, reproductive and social data on 572 individuals belonging to 21 social groups over 6 years and combined it with remote sensing to characterize group territories in an arid landscape. In modified resource-rich habitats, groups bred more and had greater productivity, but individuals lived shorter lives than in natural habitats. Habitat modification favoured a faster pace-of-life with lower dispersal and dominance acquisition ages, which might be driven by higher mortality providing opportunities for the dominant breeding positions. Thus, habitat modification might indirectly impact fitness through changes in social structures. This study shows that trade-offs in novel anthropogenic opportunities might offset survival costs by increased productivity.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Reproducción , Passeriformes/fisiología , Aptitud Genética , Efectos Antropogénicos
11.
Environ Pollut ; 355: 124186, 2024 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772512

RESUMEN

Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic organic compound widely used in the production of plastics, is recognized as an emerging contaminant because of its toxicity and the potential risks associated with bioaccumulation in organisms. Despite potential environmental hazards, there is a lack of studies examining BPA toxicity mechanisms and its potential impact on various trophic levels, with even fewer exploring whether global stressors such as temperature can affect the toxicity of BPA in organisms. Our aim was to assess the combined impact of BPA and varying temperature regimes on life-history traits in Daphnia magna. Our results revealed a significant impact of BPA on the growth, reproduction, and accumulated moulting of D. magna, with adverse effects primarily associated with the assimilation of BPA in algae rather than the BPA present in the medium, pointing to a trophic transfer mechanism. The interactive effect between BPA and temperature demonstrated a slight stimulatory effect of low BPA level on D. magna growth rate under warming constant conditions, but an inhibitory under warming fluctuating temperatures. Additionally, a BPA threshold was identified, below which growth became temperature-dependent. This study emphasizes the crucial role of considering temperature in predicting how toxins may affect Daphnia within aquatic food webs.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Daphnia , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Fenoles , Reproducción , Temperatura , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Daphnia/efectos de los fármacos , Daphnia/fisiología , Daphnia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/toxicidad , Fenoles/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Cadena Alimentaria , Daphnia magna
12.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(3): 1152-1163, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691142

RESUMEN

The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is an important pest of cultivated grapes in eastern North America. Damage is caused directly by larval feeding of grape clusters and indirectly by increasing fruit susceptibility to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Despite the impact of grape berry moth on grapes being widely recognized, there is a lack of understanding of the influence that different grape cultivars may have on grape berry moth development, reproduction, and population dynamics. In this study, we constructed age-stage 2-sex life tables for grape berry moth fed on 5 grape cultivars: Concord, Niagara, Riesling, Chambourcin, and Vidal, to examine the effects of diet on insect population development, survival, reproduction, and demographic parameters such as net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and mean generation time. Our findings reveal that grape cultivar significantly influenced the neonate wandering period, larval developmental time, adult and female longevity, pupal weight, adult preoviposition period, oviposition period, mean generation time, age-stage-specific life expectancy, and reproductive value of P. viteana. However, diet type did not affect grape berry moth total fecundity or other demographic parameters. The highest female reproductive value was observed at 30-40 days of age, indicating that control tactics implemented during this time frame would have the greatest impact on reducing population increase. This study provides critical information on the effects of different grape cultivars on grape berry moth development, reproduction, and demography. These insights could lead to the development of management strategies that improve pest control and reduce economic losses in vineyards.


Asunto(s)
Larva , Tablas de Vida , Mariposas Nocturnas , Pupa , Vitis , Animales , Mariposas Nocturnas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mariposas Nocturnas/fisiología , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Pupa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Longevidad , Dieta , Reproducción , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302945, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776326

RESUMEN

Understanding past coastal variability is valuable for contextualizing modern changes in coastal settings, yet existing Holocene paleoceanographic records for the North American Pacific Coast commonly originate from offshore marine sediments and may not represent the dynamic coastal environment. A potential archive of eastern Pacific Coast environmental variability is the intertidal mussel species Mytilus californianus. Archaeologists have collected copious stable isotopic (δ18O and δ13C) data from M. californianus shells to study human history at California's Channel Islands. When analyzed together, these isotopic data provide windows into 9000 years of Holocene isotopic variability and M. californianus life history. Here we synthesize over 6000 δ18O and δ13C data points from 13 published studies to investigate M. californianus shell isotopic variability across ontogenetic, geographic, seasonal, and millennial scales. Our analyses show that M. californianus may grow and record environmental information more irregularly than expected due to the competing influences of calcification, ontogeny, metabolism, and habitat. Stable isotope profiles with five or more subsamples per shell recorded environmental information ranging from seasonal to millennial scales, depending on the number of shells analyzed and the resolution of isotopic subsampling. Individual shell profiles contained seasonal cycles and an accurate inferred annual temperature range of ~ 5°C, although ontogenetic growth reduction obscured seasonal signals as organisms aged. Collectively, the mussel shell record reflected millennial-scale climate variability and an overall 0.52‰ depletion in δ18Oshell from 8800 BP to the present. The archive also revealed local-scale oceanographic variability in the form of a warmer coastal mainland δ18Oshell signal (-0.32‰) compared to a cooler offshore islands δ18Oshell signal (0.33‰). While M. californianus is a promising coastal archive, we emphasize the need for high-resolution subsampling from multiple individuals to disentangle impacts of calcification, metabolism, ontogeny, and habitat and more accurately infer environmental and biological patterns recorded by an intertidal species.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Carbono , Mytilus , Isótopos de Oxígeno , Estaciones del Año , Animales , Mytilus/metabolismo , Mytilus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Clima , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Ecosistema , California , Exoesqueleto/química , Exoesqueleto/crecimiento & desarrollo , Exoesqueleto/metabolismo
14.
Am Nat ; 203(6): 681-694, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781530

RESUMEN

AbstractTrade-offs are central to life history theory and play a role in driving life history diversity. They arise from a finite amount of resources that need to be allocated among different functions by an organism. Yet covariation of demographic rates among individuals frequently do not reflect allocation trade-offs because of variation in resource acquisition. The covariation of traits among individuals can thus vary with the environment and often increases in benign environments. Surprisingly, little is known about how such context-dependent expression of trade-offs among individuals affect population dynamics across species with different life histories. To study their influence on population stability, we develop an individual-based simulation where covariation in demographic rates varies with the environment. We use it to simulate population dynamics for various life histories across the slow-fast pace-of-life continuum. We found that the population dynamics of slower life histories are relatively more sensitive to changes in covariation, regardless of the trade-off considered. Additionally, we found that the impact on population stability depends on which trade-off is considered, with opposite effects of intraindividual and intergenerational trade-offs. Last, the expression of different trade-offs can feed back to influence generation time through selection acting on individual heterogeneity within cohorts, ultimately affecting population dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Dinámica Poblacional , Animales , Modelos Biológicos , Ambiente , Simulación por Computador
15.
Ecol Lett ; 27(5): e14445, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783648

RESUMEN

Mammalian life history strategies can be characterised by a few axes of variation, conforming a space where species are positioned based on the life history strategies favoured in the environment they exploit. Yet, we still lack global descriptions of the diversity of realised mammalian life history and how this diversity is shaped by the environment. We used six life history traits to build a life history space covering worldwide mammalian adaptation, and we explored how environmental realms (land, air, water) influence mammalian life history strategies. We demonstrate that realms are tightly linked to distinct life history strategies. Aquatic and aerial species predominantly adhere to slower life history strategies, while terrestrial species exhibit faster life histories. Highly encephalised terrestrial species are a notable exception to these patterns. Furthermore, we show that different mode of life may play a significant role in expanding the set of strategies exploitable in the terrestrial realm. Additionally, species transitioning between terrestrial and aquatic realms, such as seals, exhibit intermediate life history strategies. Our results provide compelling evidence of the link between environmental realms and the life history diversity of mammals, highlighting the importance of differences in mode of life to expand life history diversity.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Biodiversidad , Evolución Biológica , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Mamíferos , Animales , Ambiente
16.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 56, 2024 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702598

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite its implications for population dynamics and evolution, the relationship between genetic and phenotypic variation in wild populations remains unclear. Here, we estimated variation and plasticity in life-history traits and fitness of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana in two common garden experiments that differed in environmental conditions. We used up to 306 maternal inbred lines from six Iberian populations characterized by low and high genotypic (based on whole-genome sequences) and ecological (vegetation type) diversity. RESULTS: Low and high genotypic and ecological diversity was found in edge and core Iberian environments, respectively. Given that selection is expected to be stronger in edge environments and that ecological diversity may enhance both phenotypic variation and plasticity, we expected genotypic diversity to be positively associated with phenotypic variation and plasticity. However, maternal lines, irrespective of the genotypic and ecological diversity of their population of origin, exhibited a substantial amount of phenotypic variation and plasticity for all traits. Furthermore, all populations harbored maternal lines with canalization (robustness) or sensitivity in response to harsher environmental conditions in one of the two experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we conclude that the environmental attributes of each population probably determine their genotypic diversity, but all populations maintain substantial phenotypic variation and plasticity for all traits, which represents an asset to endure in changing environments.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Aptitud Genética , Genotipo , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiología , España , Variación Genética , Fenotipo , Variación Biológica Poblacional
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(3): 800-808, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572760

RESUMEN

Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a highly destructive pest in Asia, poses a significant threat to maize production by causing substantial yield losses. However, there is a lack of information regarding the impact of temperature variations on its population dynamics and the age-stage and two-sex life table. This study aimed to investigate the impact of 4 temperatures (20 °C, 24 °C, 28 °C, 32 °C) on the development, reproduction, and survival of O. furnacalis under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that O. furnacalis successfully developed, survived, and laid eggs across the tested temperatures (20-32 °C). The shortest developmental duration for all immature stages was observed at 32 °C. Conversely, increasing temperatures led to decreased longevity. Among the temperatures tested, 28 °C proved to be optimal for O. furnacalis, exhibiting the highest intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and net reproductive rate. Our findings indicate that O. furnacalis thrives within a wide temperature range of 20-32 °C, with 28 °C being the most favorable for reproduction. These insights are crucial for predicting population dynamics under diverse climatic conditions and developing effective control strategies against O. furnacalis. This study enhances our understanding of O. furnacalis' life-history traits and provides valuable information for targeted pest management approaches.


Asunto(s)
Larva , Tablas de Vida , Mariposas Nocturnas , Temperatura , Animales , Mariposas Nocturnas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mariposas Nocturnas/fisiología , Femenino , Masculino , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/fisiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Longevidad , Pupa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pupa/fisiología , Reproducción , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida
18.
J Anim Ecol ; 93(6): 659-662, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650117

RESUMEN

Research Highlight: Rademaker, M., van Leeuwen, A., & Smallegange, I. M. (2024). Why we cannot always expect life history strategies to directly inform on sensitivity to environmental change. Journal of Animal Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.14050. Ecological studies have long delved into how organisms allocate energy between reproduction and somatic maintenance to maximize fitness. This allocation gives rise to various life-history strategies, and these strategies have been shown to predict how populations respond to environmental change, allowing us to generalize potential responses to increasing human pressures. Such predictions have, however, been made for a limited set of terrestrial taxa and typically do not explore how individual differences in life-history responses to environmental change scale to affect population-level responses. Using novel data on diverse fish species, Rademaker et al. (2024) construct models that link individual-level trade-offs in energy allocation under environmental change to population-level life-history strategies. A key finding in their study is that short-lived species are not more sensitive to environmental change-unlike results of previous studies. This study represents a new generation of work that underscores the complexity of predicting population responses to environmental shifts and suggests a need for a broader understanding of individual-level mechanisms. The results of Rademaker et al. (2024) encourage further mechanistic life-history analyses across a wider range of species and populations to validate the exciting findings and explore their implications across diverse ecological contexts.


Asunto(s)
Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Animales , Peces/fisiología , Cambio Climático , Ambiente , Modelos Biológicos
19.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 93(1): 115-132, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597987

RESUMEN

Genetic polymorphism in key metabolic genes plays a pivotal role in shaping phenotypes and adapting to varying environments. Polymorphism in the metabolic gene 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6Pgdh) in bulb mites, Rhizoglyphus robini is characterized by two alleles, S and F, that differ by a single amino acid substitution and correlate with male reproductive fitness. The S-bearing males demonstrate a reproductive advantage. Although the S allele rapidly fixes in laboratory settings, the persistence of polymorphic populations in the wild is noteworthy. This study examines the prevalence and stability of 6Pgdh polymorphism in natural populations across Poland, investigating potential environmental influences and seasonal variations. We found widespread 6Pgdh polymorphism in natural populations, with allele frequencies varying across locations and sampling dates but without clear geographical or seasonal clines. This widespread polymorphism and spatio-temporal variability may be attributed to population demography and gene flow between local populations. We found some correlation between soil properties, particularly cation content (Na, K, Ca, and Mg) and 6Pgdh allele frequencies, showcasing the connection between mite physiology and soil characteristics and highlighting the presence of environment-dependent balancing selection. We conducted experimental fitness assays to determine whether the allele providing the advantage in male-male competition has antagonistic effects on life-history traits and if these effects are temperature-dependent. We found that temperature does not differentially influence development time or juvenile survival in different 6Pgdh genotypes. This study reveals the relationship between genetic variation, environmental factors, and reproductive fitness in natural bulb mite populations, shedding light on the dynamic mechanisms governing 6Pgdh polymorphism.


Asunto(s)
Fosfogluconato Deshidrogenasa , Polimorfismo Genético , Animales , Masculino , Polonia , Fosfogluconato Deshidrogenasa/genética , Fosfogluconato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Acaridae/genética , Acaridae/fisiología , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Femenino , Proteínas de Artrópodos/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodos/metabolismo , Frecuencia de los Genes , Ambiente
20.
Tree Physiol ; 44(7)2024 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602710

RESUMEN

Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are essential for tree growth and adaptation, yet our understanding of the seasonal storage and mobilization dynamics of whole-tree NSC is still limited, especially when tree functional types are involved. Here, Quercus acutissima Carruth. and Pinus massoniana Lamb, with distinct life-history traits (i.e. a deciduous broadleaf species vs an evergreen coniferous species), were studied to assess the size and seasonal fluctuations of organ and whole-tree NSC pools with a focus on comparing differences in carbon resource mobilization patterns between the two species. We sampled the organs (leaf, branch, stem and root) of the target trees repeatedly over four seasons of the year. Then, NSC concentrations in each organ were paired with biomass estimates from the allometric model to generate whole-tree NSC pools. The seasonal dynamics of the whole-tree NSC of Q. acutissima and P. massoniana reached the peak in autumn and summer, respectively. The starch pools of the two species were supplemented in the growing season while the soluble sugar pools were the largest in the dormant season. Seasonal dynamics of organ-level NSC concentrations and pools were affected by organ type and tree species, with above-ground organs generally increasing during the growing season and P. massoniana roots decreasing during the growing season. In addition, the whole-tree NSC pools of P. massoniana were larger but Q. acutissima showed larger seasonal fluctuations, indicating that larger storage was not associated with more pronounced seasonal fluctuations. We also found that the branch and root were the most dynamic organs of Q. acutissima and P. massoniana, respectively, and were the major suppliers of NSC to support tree growth activities. These results provide fundamental insights into the dynamics and mobilization patterns of NSC at the whole-tree level, and have important implications for investigating environmental adaptions of different tree functional types.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Pinus , Quercus , Estaciones del Año , Árboles , Quercus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Quercus/metabolismo , Quercus/fisiología , Pinus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pinus/metabolismo , Pinus/fisiología , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Árboles/metabolismo , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Tallos de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tallos de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo
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