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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127565, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717686

RESUMEN

The chemical composition, antioxidant activity (AA), cytotoxic activity, antihemolytic effects, and enzyme inhibition (EI) of lyophilized jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) seed extract (LJE) was studied. The main compounds found were castalagin, vescalagin, procyanidin A2, and ellagic acid. LJE was more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells, meaning relative toxicological safety. This cytotoxic effect can be attributed to the pro-oxidant effect observed in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assay. LJE inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE-I activities and protected human erythrocytes from hemolysis. LJE was incorporated into yogurts at different concentrations and the total phenolic content, AA, and EI increased in a dose-dependent manner. LJE-containing yogurt presented 86% sensory acceptance. The yogurt was administered to Wistar rats bearing cancer and it modulated the gut bacterial microbiota, having a prebiotic effect. LJE is a potential functional ingredient for food companies looking for TPC, AA, and prebiotic effect in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Myrtaceae/química , Polifenoles/farmacología , Yogur , 1,2-Dimetilhidrazina/toxicidad , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/química , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Catequina/análisis , Catequina/farmacología , Neoplasias del Colon/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias del Colon/microbiología , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolizables/análisis , Taninos Hidrolizables/farmacología , Masculino , Fenoles/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polifenoles/análisis , Proantocianidinas/análisis , Proantocianidinas/farmacología , Ratas Wistar , Semillas/química , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores
2.
Gene ; 766: 145155, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950634

RESUMEN

Expression of browning genes are lower in both humans and animals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims at determining effects of long-term nitrate administration on protein and mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and PPAR-γ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1-α) in epididymal adipose tissue (eAT) of rats with T2D. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6/group): Control, diabetes, control + nitrate (CN), and diabetes + nitrate (DN). T2D was induced using high fat diet combined with a low-dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg body weight). Sodium nitrate was administrated at a dose of 100 mg/L for 6 months in nitrate-treated rats. Fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at months 0 (i.e. at start of the protocol), 3, and 6. At month 6, protein and mRNA levels of UCP1, PPAR-γ, and PGC1-α were measured in eAT samples. In addition, tissue concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was measured and histological analyses were done at month 6. In rats with T2D, 6-month administration of nitrate decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations by 13% and 23%, respectively and increased cGMP level by 85%. Rats with T2D had lower mRNA and protein levels of PPAR-γ (62%, P < 0.0001 and 18%, P = 0.0472), PGC1-α (49%, P = 0.0019 and 21%, P = 0.0482), and UCP1 (35%, P = 0.0613 and 30%, P = 0.0031) in eAT; 6-month nitrate administration restored these decreased levels to near control values. In addition, nitrate increased adipocyte density by 193% and decreased adipocyte area by 53% in rats with T2D. In conclusion, long-term low-dose nitrate administration increased mRNA and protein expressions of browning genes in white adipose tissue of male rats with T2D; these findings partly explain favorable metabolic effects of nitrate administration in diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Adipocitos Marrones/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/efectos de los fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epidídimo/efectos de los fármacos , Nitratos/administración & dosificación , Adipocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Adipocitos/metabolismo , Adipocitos Marrones/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/metabolismo , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epidídimo/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Insulina/sangre , Masculino , PPAR gamma/genética , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Estreptozocina/farmacología
3.
Braz Dent J ; 31(5): 477-484, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146330

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the biocompatibility, biomineralization, and collagen fiber maturation induced by Resorbable Tissue Replacement (RTR®; ß-tricalcium phosphate [TCP]), Bioglass (BIOG; bioactive glass), and DM Bone® (DMB; hydroxyapatite and ß-TCP) in vivo. Sixty-four polyethylene tubes with or without (control group; CG) materials (n=8/group/period) were randomly implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of 16 male Wistar rats (four per rat), weighting 250 to 280 g. The rats were killed after 7 and 30 days (n=8), and the specimens were removed for analysis of inflammation using hematoxylin-eosin; biomineralization assay using von Kossa (VK) staining and polarized light (PL); and collagen fiber maturation using picrosirius red (PSR). Nonparametric data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests, and parametric data by one-way ANOVA test (p<0.05). At 7 days, all groups induced moderate inflammation (p>0.05). At 30 days, there was mild inflammation in the BIOG and CG, and moderate inflammation in the RTR and DMB groups, with a significant difference between the CG and RTR (p<0.05). The fibrous capsule was thick at 7 days and predominantly thin at 30 days in all groups. All materials exhibited structures that stained positively for VK and PL. Immature collagen fibers were predominant at 7 and 30 days in all groups (p>0.05), although DMB exhibited more mature fibers than BIOG at 30 days (p<0.05). RTR, BIOG, and DMB were biocompatible, inducing inflammation that reduced over time and biomineralization in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. DMB exhibited more mature collagen fibers than BIOG over a longer period.


Asunto(s)
Biomineralización , Materiales de Obturación del Conducto Radicular , Compuestos de Aluminio , Animales , Materiales Biocompatibles , Compuestos de Calcio , Cerámica , Colágeno , Masculino , Ensayo de Materiales , Óxidos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Silicatos , Tejido Subcutáneo
4.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(9): e202000906, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146235

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The current study explored the involvement of neurogenic pathway-linked cholecystokinin (CCK) release in RIP-induced cardioprotection in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to four cycles of alternate episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (five min each) to induce RIP. Thereafter, the hearts were subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion ex vivo. The myocardial damage was assessed by quantifying the levels of heartspecific biochemicals i.e. LDH-1, CK-MB and cTnT. Apoptotic cell injury was assessed by measuring the levels of caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The levels of CCK were measured in the plasma following RIP. RESULTS: Exposure to RIP significantly increased the plasma levels of CCK and attenuated IR-induced myocardial injury. Administration of CCK antagonist, proglumide significantly attenuated RIP-induced cardioprotection. Administration of hexamethonium, a ganglion blocker, abolished RIP-induced increase in plasma CCK levels and cardioprotective effects. Exogenous delivery of CCK-8 restored the effects of RIP in hexamethonium treated animals. CONCLUSION: RIP activates the neurogenic pathway that may increase the plasma levels of CCK, which may act on the heart-localized CCK receptors to produce cardioprotection against I/R injury.


Asunto(s)
Precondicionamiento Isquémico Miocárdico , Infarto del Miocardio , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica , Animales , Colecistoquinina , Creatina Quinasa , Miembro Posterior , Masculino , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/prevención & control , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
5.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 1982-1989, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148845

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Was to compare the changes in hematological parameters of blood in the conditions of prolonged exposure of lead sulfide nanoparticles (NP) of different sizes and of lead nitrate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study was conducted on mature male Wistar rats 160-180 g, intraperitoneally injected with Pb(NO3)2 and NP PbS of 26-34 nm and 50-80 nm in 0,94 mg/kg/day dose adjusted to lead. Toxic effects were evaluated after 1,5 months, 3 months and 1 month after exposure. The studies were performed on hematologic analyzer. RESULTS: Results: Changes in peripheral blood were characterized by decrease in the hemoglobin level in the blood. An increase in the total number of leucocytes was observed, which is statistically significant by the increase of number of lymphocytes and the absolute number of monocytes. Changes in the platelet number were characterized by an increase in the average volume of platelets and a decrease in the platelet heterogeneity index. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The most pronounced changes hemoglobin level in the blood and concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte were observed in the effects of PbS NP (50-80 nm), but leucocytes indicators - of PbS NP (26-34 nm) and Pb(NO3)2.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Animales , Recuento de Eritrocitos , Hemoglobinas , Masculino , Nanopartículas/toxicidad , Recuento de Plaquetas , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
6.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 132-137, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130660

RESUMEN

In medical literature is known that the electromagnetic waves own a harmful effect on human organism. Is convinced shows that surround household microwave oven exist certain quantity of non-ionizing radiation leak. The aim of the present work is study the effect of non-ionizing radiation, emitted by household microwave oven, on the body weight, emotional and locomotor activity and cortisol blood plasma level in rats. 6 weeks Wistar rats cage were placed near microwaves oven, from closed door escape 727,24±84,55 Mw/m² Power Density microwaves. The oven was switch over two times a day for 3-3 minutes during 10 days. Experimental and control group rats are weighed before and after experiment. To assess the emotional state and locomotor activity open field test was performed and for determine stress level the concentration of plasma cortisol was measured. It was found that after 10 days, in microwave radiation exposure group rat body weight gain increase more than in control group. In open field test, microwave radiation exposure group rats spent more time in center square than control group rats, line crossings, center square entries, stretch attend postures are also more in microwave radiation exposure group rats than in control. Cortisol level in plasma were increased in microwave radiation exposure group rats than in control group. Complete analysis of our results have convinced shown the necessary to study of household microwave oven non-ionizing radiation.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocortisona , Microondas , Animales , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(10): 1247-1250, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198873

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal pathway in rats with intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IRI) injury. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into sham operation group (Sham group), IRI group, and H2S precursor sodium hydrosuphide (NaHS) intervention group (IRI+NaHS group) by random number table method, with 10 rats in each group. The animal model of IRI was established by 60 minutes superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blockage with non-invasive vascular clamp and 120 minutes reflow. SMA was dissociated and peritoneum cavity was closed in Sham group. The rats in IRI+NaHS group was received NaHS (100 µmol/kg bolus+1.07 mmol×kg-1×h-1 infusion) 10 minutes prior to the onset of reperfusion, while the rats in IRI group and Sham group were received equal volume of normal sodium. Blood in vena cava was collected. H2S was detected by sensitive sulfide electrode. Rats were sacrificed after blood collection. Histopathology change was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, ileal pathological score was studied by Chiu score. The protein expressions of phosphated Akt (p-Akt), Akt, PI3K, cleaved caspase-9, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined by Western Blot. RESULTS: Compared with the Sham group, there was intestinal mucosa structure disorder edema and shedding villous fracture in the IRI group. Ileal pathological score in IRI group was significantly increased (4.21±0.15 vs. 0.15±0.03, P < 0.01), while plasma H2S in IRI group was significantly decreased (µmol/L: 26.72±3.17 vs. 38.34±5.24, P < 0.01). Ileal p-Akt, PI3K, caspase-9 and mTOR protein in IRI group were significantly increased (p-Akt/GAPDH: 2.67±0.12 vs. 0.24±0.05, PI3K/GAPDH: 1.42±0.07 vs. 0.57±0.08, caspase-9/GAPDH: 4.23±0.61 vs. 0.13±0.02, mTOR/GAPDH: 2.17±0.23 vs. 0.23±0.02, all P < 0.01). Compared with the IRI group, pathological changes of intestinal mucosa in the IRI+NaHS group was improved, ileal pathological score was significantly decreased (1.56±0.02 vs. 4.21±0.15, P < 0.01), plasma H2S was significantly increased (µmol/L: 32.36±2.45 vs. 26.72±3.17, P < 0.01) and ileal p-Akt, PI3K were significantly increased (p-Akt/GAPDH: 5.12±0.08 vs. 2.67±0.12, PI3K/GAPDH: 3.14±0.05 vs. 1.42±0.07, both P < 0.01), while caspase-9, mTOR in IRI+NaHS group were significantly decreased (caspase-9/GAPDH: 2.12±0.24 vs. 4.23±0.61, mTOR/GAPDH: 1.37±0.28 vs. 2.17±0.23, both P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: H2S attenuates intestinal injury in IRI rats by up-regulating PI3K/Akt signal pathway and down-regulating caspase-9 and mTOR.


Asunto(s)
Daño por Reperfusión , Animales , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasa , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Transducción de Señal
8.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(11): 1405-1409, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191698

RESUMEN

Objective: To observe the expressions of transforming growth factor ß 1 (TGF-ß 1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced membrane by Masquelet technique in rats treated with glycoside of short-horned epimedium Herb, and to explore the effect of glycoside of short-horned epimedium Herb on Masquelet induced membrane. Methods: Sixty 3-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 20 rats in each group; a tibial bone defect (6 mm in length) model was established. The blank group (group A) was not treated; the control group (group B) and the experimental group (group C) were filled with vancomycin antibiotic bone cement in the drawing stage, and the bone cement was completely solidified. Group C was given perfused flavonoids glycoside of short-horned epimedium Herb (10 µmol/L) by gavage once a day (0.3 mL) from 1 day after operation, and groups A and B were given the same amount of normal saline by gavage. After operation, the recovery and wound healing of experimental animals were observed; at 4 weeks after operation, X-ray film was taken to observe the recovery of bone defect of proximal tibia; at 6 weeks after operation, the bone defect was observed, and the morphological changes and vascularization degree of granulation tissue and induction membrane tissue were observed; the expressions of TGF-ß 1 and bFGF were observed by immunohistochemistry staining and ELISA detection. Results: The bone defect models of the 3 groups were established successfully, and there was no abnormality after operation. The incisions healed by first intention after operation. At 4 weeks after operation, X-ray films of proximal tibial defect showed that there was obvious space in group A, while bone cement was filled and Kirschner wire fixation was good in groups B and C. At 6 weeks after operation, the gross observation showed that the granulation tissue was filled in the defect area in group A; transparent membrane was formed in groups B and C, and microvessels were seen in some areas, and the microvessels in group C were significantly more than those in group B. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expressions of TGF-ß 1 and bFGF were negative in group A, but they were expressed in groups B and C, and the expressions of TGF-ß 1 and bFGF in group B were significantly less than those in group C. ELISA detection showed that the expressions of TGF-ß 1 and bFGF in group C were significantly higher than those in groups A and B ( P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between groups A and B ( P>0.05). Conclusion: Glycoside of short-horned epimedium Herb can significantly increase the expressions of TGF-ß 1 and bFGF, accelerate the process of osteogenesis, and contribute to bone shaping and reconstruction.


Asunto(s)
Epimedium , Factor 2 de Crecimiento de Fibroblastos , Animales , Glicósidos/farmacología , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Cicatrización de Heridas
9.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(4): 218-228, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070841

RESUMEN

Myocardial ischemia initiates a chain of pathological conditions leading to cardiomyocyte death. Therefore, pharmacological treatment to stop ischemia-induced damage is necessary. Fibrates, have been reported to decrease inflammatory markers and to modulate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Our aim was to explore if clofibrate treatment, administered one week after myocardial event, decreases MI-induced cardiac damage. Wistar rats were assigned to: 1. Sham or 2. Coronary artery ligation (MI). Seven days after, rats were subdivided to receive vehicle (V) or clofibrate [100 mg/kg (C)] daily for 7 days. Blood samples and left ventricle were analyzed. RAS components [angiotensin II, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and AT1-receptor] decreased in MI-C compared to MI-V, while [Ang-(1-7), bradykinin, ACE-2, and AT2-receptor] raised in response to clofibrate treatment. Oxidative stress markers increased in MI-V rats, a profile reverted in MI-C rats. Nitric oxide (NO) pathway (Akt, eNOS, and NO) exhibits a lower participation in MI-V, but clofibrate raised NO-pathway components and its production. MI-induced fibrosis and structural damage was also improved by clofibrate-treatment. In conclusion, clofibrate administration to 7 days MI-rats exerts an antioxidant, pro-vasodilator expression profile, and anti-fibrotic effect suggesting that PPARα activation can be considered a therapeutic target to improve cardiac condition posterior to ischemia.


Asunto(s)
Clofibrato/administración & dosificación , Clofibrato/farmacología , Ventrículos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamiento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miocardio/patología , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animales , Fibrosis , Ventrículos Cardíacos/patología , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar , Receptor de Angiotensina Tipo 1/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6935-6944, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061360

RESUMEN

Introduction: Nanoparticle solutions have been studied to improve antimicrobial effect. The aim of this study was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiseptic efficacy of 0.25% aqueous-based chlorhexidine nanoemulsion (NM-Cl 0.25% w/v). Methods: The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v (2.5mg/mL) and free chlorhexidine nanoemulsion (FCN; same composition of NM-Cl without the molecule of chlorhexidine) were synthetized by the spontaneous emulsification method. Characterization analyses of physical and chemical properties were performed. The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v was compared with chlorhexidine 0.5% alcohol base (CS-Cl 0.5%) in vitro studies (microdilution study and kill curve study), and in vivo study (antisepsis of rats dorsum). Kruskal-Wallis test was used between groups and inside the same group, at different sample times and the Mann-Whitney test was performed when difference was detected. Results: The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v presented adequate physicochemical characteristics for a nanoemulsion, revealing a more basic pH than FCN and difference between zeta potential of NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and FCN. The NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and CS-Cl 0.5% solutions were more effective on Gram-positive than on Gram-negative bacteria (p≤0.05). NM-Cl 0.25% w/v presented upper antiseptic effect in the microdilution study and residual antiseptic effect was maintained for a longer time when compared to CS-Cl 0.5% (kill curve study). The four-fold (minimal inhibitory concentration) of NM-Cl 0.25% were the formulations with most durable effect within those tested, presenting residual effect until T6 for both bacteria. In the in vivo study, both formulations (NM-Cl 0.25% w/v and CS-Cl 0.5%) had a reduction of the microorganisms in the skin of the rats (p<0.0001) not revealing any difference between the formulations at different times, showing the antiseptic effect of NM-Cl (p≤0.05). Conclusion: Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that NM-Cl showed promising future as an antiseptic for cutaneous microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales/farmacología , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Emulsiones/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Animales , Antiinfecciosos Locales/química , Clorhexidina/química , Emulsiones/farmacología , Etanol/química , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nanoestructuras/uso terapéutico , Ratas Wistar , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/microbiología
11.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(10): 1175-1180, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Systemic oxidative stress may cause detrimental consequences for the liver, leading to hepatic fibrogenesis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate histopathological changes in liver tissues due to the increased systemic oxidative stress associated with rat extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) model and to document the consequences of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this experimental SWL model, 18 Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The control group (group I) had no intervention. Group II underwent SWL treatment with intraperitoneal saline injection. Group III also had SWL with intraperitoneal NAC and was divided into short-term (group III-14 days) and long-term (group III-28 days) subgroup. Hepatectomy was performed for histopathological examinations. Histopathological alterations were evaluated with light microscopy. Immunohistological staining for p53 and myeloperoxidase was also performed. RESULTS: Blood samples revealed a significant increase in plasma oxidative stress index (OSI) after plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) had been measured. It was shown that this increased systemic oxidative stress adversely affected liver tissues. Predominantly, sinusoidal dilatation was remarkably observed in rats with significantly high OSI values (p = 0.043). Similarly, periportal necrosis significantly increased in rats with high OSI values (p = 0.033). p53 positivity was also remarkable in rats with systemic oxidative stress (p = 0.049). N-acetylcysteine administration provided a significant decrease in OSI. N-acetylcysteine also improved all these alterations, including p53 staining. Particularly, sinusoidal dilatation was significantly protected in the long-term NAC group (group III-28 days). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that SWL-induced systemic oxidative stress causes histological alterations in liver tissues. Increased p53 and myeloperoxidase staining as markers of oxidative damage were also detected. N-acetylcysteine may protect from these histological and ultra-structural alterations related to oxidative stress.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Oxidativo , Acetilcisteína/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
12.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(9): e202000902, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084734

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the viability of the upper (UP) and lower pole (LP) of the spleen from a macro and microscopic point of view, after subtotal splenectomy with preservation (SSP) of the UP and the LP. METHODS: Seventeen male Wistar rats, two months old, were submitted to SSPUP and SSPLP and 5 to simulated operation (SG). After 80 days, the rats were euthanized, and the remaining LP and UP and intact spleens were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. RESULTS: Two rats died during the operation. Macroscopic analysis showed that in 15 LP, one of them was not viable and in 15 UP and in 5 spleens in the SG, all were viable. In the statistical analysis, there was no difference in relation to viability. The LP and UP analyzed showed variation. As for the length, the UP increased significantly; however, in relation to the width, there was a significant increase in the LP in relation to the UP. In addition, the weight of the UP was significantly greater than that of the LP. Microscopic analysis attested viability of the splenic remnants. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference regarding the viability of UP and LP, in macroscopy and microscopy.


Asunto(s)
Bazo , Esplenectomía , Animales , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Periodo Posoperatorio , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Bazo/cirugía
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5083, 2020 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033259

RESUMEN

In hippocampal pyramidal cells, a small subset of dendritic spines contain endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In large spines, ER frequently forms a spine apparatus, while smaller spines contain just a single tubule of smooth ER. Here we show that the ER visits dendritic spines in a non-random manner, targeting spines during periods of high synaptic activity. When we blocked ER motility using a dominant negative approach against myosin V, spine synapses became stronger compared to controls. We were not able to further potentiate these maxed-out synapses, but long-term depression (LTD) was readily induced by low-frequency stimulation. We conclude that the brief ER visits to active spines have the important function of preventing runaway potentiation of individual spine synapses, keeping most of them at an intermediate strength level from which both long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD are possible.


Asunto(s)
Espinas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplásmico/metabolismo , Sinapsis/metabolismo , Animales , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Potenciación a Largo Plazo , Miosina Tipo V/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar , Imagen de Lapso de Tiempo
14.
J Adhes Dent ; 22(5): 515-522, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073782

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the biocompatibility in rat subcutaneous tissue of conventional orthodontic cements, Riva (R) and Meron (M), modified by the addition of ethanolic extract of red propolis (EERP), at different concentrations and time intervals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eight male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed in nine groups of cements with added EERP at the concentrations used (C-control, MC, M10, M25, M50, RC, R10, R25, and R50). The rats were sacrificed after 3 time intervals (7, 15, and 30 days). Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The findings were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The highest concentrations led to a higher level of inflammation at the initial times (p < 0.05), but without differences after 30 days. In terms of collagen, there was less collagenization at the initial times in comparison with the control group C. However, over time, the addition of propolis resulted in healing compatible with that of group C. The level of CD68 immunostaining was statistically significantly higher in the groups with the highest concentrations (R50 and M50) (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Orthodontic cements with the addition of EERP were found to be biocompatible in rat subcutaneous tissue. Riva cement with the addition of 50% EERP showed the highest tissue inflammation, but with satisfactory tissue repair.


Asunto(s)
Própolis , Animales , Cementos Dentales , Materiales Dentales , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Tejido Subcutáneo
15.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1022-1033, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999189

RESUMEN

Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the significant risk factors that result in maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and exercise is known to exert cardioprotection. In this research, the cardioprotective function and exercise mechanisms were explored.The rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation. The rats that received TAC were randomly assigned to five groups: (1) rats subjected to a sham operation as control group (SC), (2) rats that underwent TAC group (TC), (3) TAC and moderate-intensity exercise group (TE), (4) TE plus 3-MA group (TEM), and (5) TE plus Compound C group (TEC). The heart function was measured via echocardiography. Histological analysis and relative protein testing were conducted to analyze collagen deposition and apoptosis. Furthermore, western blot was employed to measure the protein expression of relevant signaling pathways. Impaired cardiac function, interstitial fibrosis, enhanced apoptosis, and ER stress were observed in the TAC-induced left ventricular hypertrophy. Exercise attenuated TAC-induced cardiac dysfunction, interstitial fibrosis, and ER stress-related apoptosis. In addition, exercise significantly improved autophagy and upregulated AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor Compound C repressed the activation of AMPK, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine reversed exercise-induced autophagy. All of these abolished the protection of exercise against cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis induced by TAC.Our results indicated that 4 weeks of treadmill exercise could alleviate pressure overload-induced LV dysfunction and remodeling via an autophagy-dependent mechanism, which was induced by enhancing autophagy through the activation of AMPK.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/rehabilitación , Condicionamiento Físico Animal/fisiología , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/rehabilitación , Animales , Apoptosis , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Estrés del Retículo Endoplásmico , Femenino , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas Wistar , Remodelación Ventricular
16.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1690-1695, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055335

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to observe the influence of dense bean extract on the intensity of apoptotic processes in the liver cells and pancreas of rats on a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus on obesity's background. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The main method was to model type 2 diabetes mellitus on the background of obesity in organism of mature six-month-old male rats of the Wistar population (n = 21), weighing 150-170 g. The modelling was carried out by intraperitoneal low dose administration of streptozotocin (30 mg / kg, in citrate buffer pH = 4, 5) inside after three months period of keeping animals on a combined diet. Apoptosis in DNA samples of liver and pancreas cells was identified in duplicates using electrophoresis in a 1% agarose gel with using a 1kb DNA SibEnzyme apoptosis marker (from 10,000 to 250 nucleotides). RESULTS: Results: Only in two of the seven studied DNA samples of the pancreas of a group of rats, treated with a dense bean extract, were observed the traces of necrosis without detectable manifestations of the apoptotic process. It situates at the level of indicators of the animals' intact control group and indicates the distinct effect's presence which includes maintaining pancreas cells survival (in both endocrine and exocrine parts) if imbalance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism take place in organism. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: Dense bean extract showed a more distinct effect than the comparison drug metformin in relation to the risk of premature loss of pancreatic cell function and the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A dense bean extract is promising for further pharmacological studies, with the aim of creating phytopreparations - «Glyphasonorm¼ tablets and «Glyfasolin¼ capsules for the correction of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animales , Apoptosis , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Obesidad/complicaciones , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
17.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 26(3): 37-43, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063750

RESUMEN

Critical ischaemia of lower limbs is a cause of death and invalidity in the whole world. Stem cells and products of their secretion find wide application in treatment of vascular diseases, including critical ischaemia of the lower limbs. Erythropoietin promotes an increase in the angiogenic potential of stem cells. The authors examined the therapeutic potential of a biomedical cellular product (mesenchymal stem cells and products of their secretion) and mesenchymal stem cells with erythropoietin on the processes of restoration of vessels in the hind legs of Wistar male rats following induction of lower limb critical ischaemia. Mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of male Wistar rats. Critical ischaemia of hind legs was modulated by transaction of the femoral artery. The parameters of microcirculation in the foot were assessed with the help of laser Doppler flowmetry. In the blood serum and crural muscles by means of solid-phase enzyme immunoassay we examined the levels of cytokines, growth factors, and persistent metabolites of nitrogen oxide - nitrites. Muscles morphology and the number of blood vessels were assessed by the findings of histological examination. It was shown that the biomedical cellular product alone and in combination with erythropoietin stimulated angiogenesis. The results of Doppler flowmetry revealed restoration of the parameters of microcirculation in the lower limb by 35-75% of the baseline values. Besides, we observed a decrease of muscle necrosis, connective tissue proliferation, and an increase in the number of the vessels supplying the muscles in the experimental groups. It was also determined that the biomedical cellular product influenced the levels of cytokines in blood serum and crural muscles. Hence, the obtained findings proved the therapeutic potential of the biomedical cellular product in critical ischaemia of lower limbs.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia , Enfermedades Vasculares Periféricas , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Isquemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Extremidad Inferior , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
18.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(4): 350-354, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089280

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the expression and significance of chemokines CCL21, E-selectins and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in periodontal tissues of rats with experimental periodontitis. METHODS: Forty 10-week-old male Wistar rats were significantly randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. Periodontitis models were established in groups A, B and C, and the rest were 10 blank control groups. Rats in group A, B and C were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after basic periodontal treatment, and the periodontal tissues of the first and second molars were taken for CCL21, E-selectins and Hsp90 protein expression detection. SPSS 25.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The levels of periodontal attachment in group A, B and C were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05). The levels of periodontal attachment, CCL21, E-selectins, Hsp90 mRNA and protein expression in periodontal tissues increased first and then decreased(P<0.05). The levels of periodontal attachment, CCL21, E-selectins, Hsp90 mRNA and protein expression in group B and C were significantly higher than those in group A(P<0.05). The levels of periodontal attachment, CCL21, E-selectins, Hsp90 and relative protein expression in periodontal tissues of group C were significantly lower than those of group B(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The expression of CCL21, E-selectins and Hsp90 is up-regulated in periodontitis tissues. With local periodontal treatment, the expression level of CCL21, E-selectins and Hsp90 gradually decreases.


Asunto(s)
Selectina E , Periodontitis , Animales , Quimiocina CCL21/metabolismo , Proteínas HSP90 de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Diente Molar , Periodontitis/genética , Periodoncio , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
19.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(9): e202000904, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027361

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of omeprazole and nitrites on the gastric mucosa of rats submitted to specific techniques to induce duodenogastric reflux. METHODS: One hundred and twenty Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I (n=40) -gastrotomy; Group II (n=40) - duodenogastric reflux after gastrojejunoanastomosis latero-lateral (DGR); Group III (n=40) - retrograde duodenogastric reflux through the pylorus (DGR-P). The groups were divided into 4 subgroups of 10 animals, respectively treated for 16 weeks with water, omeprazole 1.6 mg / rat / day, nitrite 600 mg / kg / day and omeprazole plus nitrite simultaneously. RESULTS: The proliferative lesions found were: squamous hyperplasia - 69.1%, adenomatous hyperplasia in the anastomosis - 29.1% and prepyloric adenomatous hyperplasia - 42.5%. Adenocarcinomas were registered in 7 animals (5.8%): one in Group I (omeprazole plus nitrite), two in Group II (omeprazole and nitrite plus omeprazole) and four in Group III (water, nitrite, omeprazole and omeprazole plus nitrite). CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of squamous hyperplasia, adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma increased after gastrojejunal anastomoses, which cause duodenogastric reflux. The association of omeprazole did not protect the development of proliferative lesions and cancer induced by duodenogastric reflux in rats.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Reflujo Duodenogástrico , Omeprazol , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones , Adenocarcinoma/etiología , Adenocarcinoma/prevención & control , Animales , Reflujo Duodenogástrico/complicaciones , Mucosa Gástrica , Humanos , Omeprazol/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7185-7198, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061375

RESUMEN

Background: Next generation of coating materials on the surface of implants is designed with a paradigm shift from an inert material to an osteoimmunomodulatory material. Regulating immune response to biomedical implants through influencing the polarization of macrophage has been proven to be an effective strategy. Methods: Through anodization and hydrothermal treatment, magnesium ion incorporated TiO2 nanotube array (MgN) coating was fabricated on the surface of titanium and it is hypothesized that it has osteoimmunomodulatory properties. To verify this assumption, systematic studies were carried out by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results: Mg ion release behavior results showed that MgN coating was successfully fabricated on the surface of titanium using anodization and hydrothermal technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the morphology of the MgN coating on the titanium. The expression of inflammation-related genes (IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α) was downregulated in MgN group compared with TiO2 nanotube (NT) and blank Ti groups, but anti-inflammatory genes (IL-10 and IL-1ra) were remarkably upregulated in the MgN group. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that MgN coating influenced macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype compared with NT and blank-Ti groups, which enhanced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells rBMSCs in conditioned media (CM) generated by macrophages. Conclusion: MgN coating on the titanium endowed the surface with immune-regulatory features and exerted an advantageous effect on osteogenesis, thereby providing excellent strategies for the surface modification of biomedical implants.


Asunto(s)
Inflamación/patología , Macrófagos/patología , Magnesio/farmacología , Nanoestructuras/química , Oseointegración/efectos de los fármacos , Titanio/farmacología , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Forma de la Célula/efectos de los fármacos , Medios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacología , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Osteogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratas Wistar , Propiedades de Superficie
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