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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253084, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345551

RESUMEN

Abstract Repeatedly frying process of dietary edible oil has a potential role in the generation of free radicals. Therefore, questions have always been raised as to whether, there is an efficient and economical method to reduce the harmful effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Since hibiscus has been stated to have a wide variety of therapeutic effects, it was important to investigate its properties against harmful effects of free radicals. The current study aspires to find out whether irradiated powder of hibiscus has a protective role against adverse effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were equally assigned into five groups. First group"G1" was fed with normal diet as control group, meanwhile, group"G2" the diet mixed with fresh oil, "G3" diet mixed with repeatedly frying oil only, "G4" diet mixed with frying oil treated with hibiscus and "G5" diet mixed with frying oil treated with irradiated hibiscus. Feeding duration was six weeks. Fatty acid analyses of oil as well as peroxide values were determined. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses as well as histological study. Repeatedly heated cooked oil has significant increases in peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and both conjugated diene and triene compared with repeatedly frying oil treated with hibiscus. Also there are significant increases in cholesterol and triglyceride and impaired in liver functions in "G3"compared with others. In addition, relative to the hibiscus groups, there is a substantial reduction in oxygen consumption in "G3". Both hibiscus as well as irradiated hibiscus attract attention in order to play a vital and economical role against harmful effects of frequent use of frying edible oil on some biological functions but, irradiated hibiscus was more effective.


Resumo O processo de fritura repetida de óleo comestível da dieta tem papel potencial na geração de radicais livres que podem ter efeitos prejudiciais em algumas funções biológicas. Portanto, sempre se questionou se existe uma maneira eficiente e econômica de prevenir ou pelo menos reduzir os efeitos nocivos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Como o hibisco tem ampla variedade de efeitos terapêuticos, foi importante investigar suas propriedades como agente antioxidante contra os efeitos nocivos dos radicais livres. O presente estudo pretende descobrir se o pó irradiado de hibisco tem papel protetor contra os efeitos adversos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Trinta e cinco ratos albinos machos adultos foram divididos igualmente em cinco grupos. O primeiro grupo "G1" foi alimentado com dieta normal como grupo controle, enquanto o grupo "G2" dieta misturada com óleo fresco, dieta "G3" misturada com óleo de fritura repetida, dieta "G4" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco e dieta "G5" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco irradiado. A duração da alimentação foi de seis semanas. Foram determinadas as análises de ácidos graxos de óleo, bem como os valores de peróxidos. Amostras de sangue e fígado foram coletadas para análises bioquímicas e estudo histológico. O óleo cozido repetidamente aquecido tem aumentos significativos no valor de peróxido, valor de ácido, ácido graxo livre e dieno e trieno conjugados em comparação com óleo de fritura repetidamente tratado com hibisco. Também há aumentos significativos no colesterol e triglicérides e comprometimento das funções hepáticas no "G3" em comparação com outros. Além disso, em relação aos grupos de hibiscos, há uma redução substancial no consumo de oxigênio no "G3". Tanto o hibisco como o hibisco irradiado chamam atenção por desempenhar papel vital e econômico contra os efeitos nocivos do uso frequente de óleo comestível para fritar em algumas funções biológicas, mas o hibisco irradiado foi mais eficaz.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Hibiscus , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Colesterol , Culinaria , Calor
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

RESUMEN

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Quemaduras/tratamiento farmacológico , Glutamina , Ratas Wistar , Dipéptidos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Aminoácidos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253183, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355858

RESUMEN

Abstract Nanoparticles are considered viable options in the treatment of cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetite folate core shell (MFCS) on leukemic and hepatocarcinoma cell cultures as well as their effect on the animal model of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Through current study nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized by various techniques, and their properties were studied to confirm their nanostructure. Invivo study, nanoparticles were evaluated to inspect their cytotoxic activity against SNU-182 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human leukemia), and THLE2 (human normal epithelial liver) cells via MTT test. Apoptotic signaling proteins Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 expression were inspected through RT-PCR method. A cytotoxic effect of MNPs and MFCS was detected in previous cell cultures. Moreover, the apoptosis was identified through significant up-regulation of caspase-3, with Bcl-2 down-regulation. Invitro study, AML was induced in rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea followed by oral treatment with MNPS and MFCS. Biochemical indices such as aspartate and alanine amino transferases, and lactate dehydrogenase activities, uric acid, complete blood count, and Beta -2-microglubulin were assessed in serum. Immunophenotyping for CD34 and CD38 detection was performed. Liver, kidney, and bone marrow were microscopically examined. Bcl-2 promoter methylation, and mRNA levels were examined. Although, both MNPs and MFCS depict amelioration in biochemical parameters, MFCS alleviated them toward normal control. Anticancer activity of MNPs and MFCS was approved especially for AML. Whenever, administration of MFCS was more effective than MNPs. The present work is one of few studies used MFCS as anticancer agent.


Resumo Nanopartículas são consideradas opções viáveis ​​no tratamento do câncer. Este estudo foi conduzido para investigar o efeito de nanopartículas de magnetita (MNPs) e núcleo de folato de magnetita (MFCS) em culturas de células leucêmicas e de hepatocarcinoma, bem como seu efeito no modelo animal de leucemia mielocítica aguda (LMA). Através do atual estudo, nanopartículas foram sintetizadas, caracterizadas por várias técnicas, e suas propriedades foram estudadas para confirmar sua nanoestrutura. No estudo in vivo, as nanopartículas foram avaliadas para inspecionar sua atividade citotóxica contra células SNU-182 (carcinoma hepatocelular humano), K562 (leucemia humana) e THLE2 (fígado epitelial humano normal) por meio do teste MTT. A expressão das proteínas sinalizadoras apoptóticas Bcl-2 e Caspase-3 foram inspecionadas através do método RT-PCR. Um efeito citotóxico de MNPs e MFCS foi detectado em culturas de células anteriores. Além disso, a apoptose foi identificada por meio de regulação positiva significativa da Caspase-3, com regulação negativa de Bcl-2. No estudo in vitro, a AML foi induzida em ratos por N-metil-N-nitrosoureia seguida por tratamento oral com MNPS e MFCS. Índices bioquímicos como aspartato e alanina aminotransferases e atividades de lactato desidrogenase, ácido úrico, hemograma completo e Beta-2-microglubulina foram avaliados no soro. A imunofenotipagem para detecção de CD34 e CD38 foi realizada. Fígado, rim e medula óssea foram examinados microscopicamente. A metilação do promotor Bcl-2 e os níveis de mRNA foram examinados. Embora tanto os MNPs quanto os MFCS representem uma melhora nos parâmetros bioquímicos, o MFCS os aliviou em direção ao controle normal. A atividade anticâncer de MNPs e MFCS foi aprovada especialmente para AML. Sempre, a administração de MFCS foi mais eficaz do que MNPs. O presente trabalho é um dos poucos estudos que utilizou o MFCS como agente anticâncer.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compuestos Férricos , Ácido Fólico
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

RESUMEN

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Colágeno/metabolismo , Alpinia/química , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Músculos/efectos de los fármacos , Fibrosis , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Brasil , Ratas Wistar , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Músculos/patología
5.
Med Gas Res ; 13(1): 7-9, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946216

RESUMEN

Ischemic stroke happens when the blood supply to the brain is obstructed and it is associated with numerous complex mechanisms, such as activated apoptosis genes, oxidative stress and reaction of inflammation, which finally result in neurological deficits. Several gases have been proved to have neuroprotective roles, even the classic gases that are thought to be toxic such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S is the third identified endogenous gas signaling molecule following carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. H2S plays a significant role in stroke. Inhalation of H2S can attenuate cerebral infarct volume and promote neurological function in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion to reduce ischemic stroke-induced injury in vivo and in vitro as a result. Therefore, H2S can be clinically used to reduce ischemic stroke-induced injury. This review introduces the toxic mechanisms and effects of H2S on cerebral ischemic stroke.


Asunto(s)
Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Animales , Encéfalo , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno/uso terapéutico , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/tratamiento farmacológico , Ratas , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248755, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350303

RESUMEN

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


Resumo O consumo de uma dieta rica em gordura causa um acúmulo prejudicial de gordura no fígado, que pode não reverter mesmo após a mudança para uma dieta mais saudável. Diferentes relatórios trataram do papel da beldroega como um extrato contra uma dieta rica em gordura; entretanto, foi necessário estudar o papel potencial da beldroega fresca como agente hipolipemiante. Este estudo pretende investigar mais profundamente o mecanismo potencial no efeito hipolipidêmico da beldroega fresca, medindo o colesterol 7a-hidroxilase (CYP7A1) e o receptor de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (Ldlr). Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos principais: o primeiro é o grupo controle normal (n = 7 ratos) e o segundo grupo (n = 28 ratos) recebeu dieta rica em gorduras por 28 semanas para induzir a obesidade. Em seguida, o grupo de dieta rica em gordura foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais. Como, o grupo de controle positivo ainda se alimentava apenas com dieta rica em gordura. Enquanto isso, os outros três grupos receberam dieta rica em gordura suplementada com diferentes porcentagens de beldroegas frescas (25%, 50% e 75%), respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras coletadas para estudos moleculares, bioquímica e histológicos. O estudo atual relatou que a suplementação de beldroegas frescas, especialmente a uma concentração de 75%, desempenha papel importante contra os efeitos prejudiciais da dieta rica em gordura em nível celular e orgânico, aumentando a expressão de CYP7A1 e Ldlr mRNA. Além disso, houve melhora nas funções hepáticas testadas, nos hormônios tireoidianos e no perfil lipídico. Beldroegas frescas desempenham papel potencial como agente hipolipemiante por meio da modulação de Ldlr e Cyp7A, o que apontará para o uso de beldroegas frescas contra os efeitos nocivos da obesidade.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Portulaca , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Hipolipemiantes , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilasa , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Hígado
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247360, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350301

RESUMEN

Abstract Excessive intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as, diclofenac sodium (DS) may lead to toxicity in the rats. In this work, we aimed to examine the protective impact of lentil extract (LE) and folic acid (FA) on the hematological markers, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal function against diclofenac sodium (DS) in male albino rats. The rats (120-150 g) were divided into four equal groups randomly, the first group kept as the untreated control. The second group was administrated with DS (11.6 mg/kg b.wt. orally once/day). The third group was received DS+FA (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+76.9 microgram/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. The fourth group was treated with DS+LE (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+500 mg/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. After four weeks, the results revealed that DS produced a significant decrease in the values of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and white blood cells (WBCs). On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the platelets count. Also, DS induced a renal deterioration; this was evidenced by the significant increase in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, Na, Ca, Mg as well as the nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney tissue. Also, there were a significant reduction in the serum levels of potassium (K) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidney homogenates. Moreover, the findings in the rats treated by DS+LE or DS+FA showed a potential protection on the hematological markers, oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the renal function disturbed by DS. LE and FA could play a potent role for the prevention the adverse hematological, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal dysfunction caused by DS via their anti-oxidative and bioactive phytochemicals.


Resumo A ingestão excessiva de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais, como o diclofenaco de sódio (DS), pode causar toxicidade em ratos. Neste trabalho, objetivamos examinar o impacto protetor do extrato de lentilha (LE) e ácido fólico (AF) em marcadores hematológicos, no estresse oxidativo do tecido renal e na função renal contra o diclofenaco de sódio (DS) em ratos albinos machos. Os ratos (120-150 g) foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais aleatoriamente, sendo o primeiro grupo mantido como controle não tratado. O segundo grupo foi administrado com DS (11,6 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). O terceiro grupo recebeu DS + FA (76,9 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). O quarto grupo foi tratado com DS + LE (500 mg / kg de peso corporal por via oral uma vez / dia). Após quatro semanas, os resultados revelaram que o DS produziu uma diminuição significativa nos valores de glóbulos vermelhos (RBCs), concentração de hemoglobina (Hb), hematócrito (HCT) e glóbulos brancos (WBCs). Por outro lado, houve um aumento significativo na contagem de plaquetas. Além disso, o DS induziu uma deterioração renal; isso foi evidenciado pelo aumento significativo dos níveis séricos de ureia, creatinina, ácido úrico, Na, Ca, Mg e também do nível de óxido nítrico no tecido renal. Além disso, houve uma redução significativa nos níveis séricos de potássio (K) e glutationa reduzida (GSH) nos homogenatos renais. Além disso, os achados nos ratos tratados com DS + LE ou DS + FA mostraram uma proteção potencial sobre os marcadores hematológicos, estresse oxidativo no tecido renal e função renal perturbada pelo DS. LE e AF podem desempenhar um papel potente na prevenção do estresse hematológico adverso, do estresse oxidativo do tecido renal e da disfunção renal causada pelo DS por meio de seus fitoquímicos antioxidantes e bioativos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Diclofenaco/toxicidad , Lens (Planta) , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Estrés Oxidativo , Ácido Fólico , Antioxidantes
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246592, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339408

RESUMEN

Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for application in cell therapy and tissue engineering procedures because of their plasticity and capacity to differentiate into different cell types. Given the widespread use of MSCs, it is necessary to better understand some properties related to osteogenic differentiation, particularly those linked to biomaterials used in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to develop an analysis method using FT-Raman spectroscopy for the identification and quantification of biochemical components present in conditioned culture media derived from MSCs with or without induction of osteogenic differentiation. All experiments were performed between passages 3 and 5. For this analysis, MSCs were cultured on scaffolds composed of bioresorbable poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers. MSCs (GIBCO®) were inoculated onto the pure polymers and 75:25 PHBV/PCL blend (dense and porous samples). The plate itself was used as control. The cells were maintained in DMEM (with low glucose) containing GlutaMAX® and 10% FBS at 37oC with 5% CO2 for 21 days. The conditioned culture media were collected and analyzed to probe for functional groups, as well as possible molecular variations associated with cell differentiation and metabolism. The method permitted to identify functional groups of specific molecules in the conditioned medium such as cholesterol, phosphatidylinositol, triglycerides, beta-subunit polypeptides, amide regions and hydrogen bonds of proteins, in addition to DNA expression. In the present study, FT-Raman spectroscopy exhibited limited resolution since different molecules can express similar or even the same stretching vibrations, a fact that makes analysis difficult. There were no variations in the readings between the samples studied. In conclusion, FT-Raman spectroscopy did not meet expectations under the conditions studied.


Resumo As células-tronco mesenquimais (MSCs) possuem grande potencial para aplicação em procedimentos terapêuticos ligados a terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos, considerando-se a plasticidade e capacidade de formação em diferentes tipos celulares por elas. Dada a abrangência no emprego das MSCs, há necessidade de se compreender melhor algumas propriedades relacionadas à diferenciação osteogênica, particularmente liga à biomateriais usados em engenharia de tecidos. Este projeto objetiva o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de análise empregando-se a FT-Raman para identificação e quantificação de componentes bioquímicos presentes em meios de cultura condicionados por MSCs, com ou sem indução à diferenciação osteogênica. Todos os experimentos foram realizados entre as passagens 3 e 5. Para essas análises, as MSCs foram cultivadas sobre arcabouços de polímeros biorreabsorvíveis de poli (hidroxibutirato-co-hidroxivalerato) (PHBV) e o poli (ε-caprolactona) (PCL). As MSCs (GIBCO®) foram inoculadas nos polímeros puros e na mistura 75:25 de PHBV / PCL (amostras densas e porosas). As células foram mantidas em DMEM (com baixa glicose) contendo GlutaMAX® e 10% de SFB a 37oC com 5% de CO2 por 21 dias. A própria placa foi usada como controle. Os meios de cultura condicionados foram coletados e analisadas em FT-Raman para sondagem de grupos funcionais, bem como possíveis variações moleculares associadas com a diferenciação e metabolismo celular. Foi possível discernir grupos funcionais de moléculas específicas no meio condicionado, como colesterol, fosfatidilinositol, triglicerídeos, forma Beta de polipeptídeos, regiões de amida e ligações de hidrogênio de proteínas, além da expressão de DNA. Na presente avaliação, a FT-Raman apresentou como uma técnica de resolução limitada, uma vez que modos vibracionais de estiramento próximos ou mesmo iguais podem ser expressos por moléculas diferente, dificultando a análise. Não houve variações nas leituras entre as amostras estudadas, concluindo-se que a FT-Raman não atendeu às expectativas nas condições estudadas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Osteogénesis , Poliésteres , Espectrometría Raman , Medios de Cultivo Condicionados , Proliferación Celular , Andamios del Tejido
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237412, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355854

RESUMEN

Abstract Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non-castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.


Resumo Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Ratas , Pilocarpina/toxicidad , Convulsiones/inducido químicamente , Estado Epiléptico/inducido químicamente , Ratas Wistar , Agonistas Muscarínicos/toxicidad , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMEN

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Cebollas , Antioxidantes , Porcinos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , alfa-Glucosidasas , Peróxido de Hidrógeno
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Asteraceae , Antioxidantes , Daño del ADN , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas Wistar , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Polvos , Hormonas Tiroideas , Glucemia , Frutas
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e241164, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278551

RESUMEN

Abstract Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species' behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.


Resumo O comportamento é uma característica útil para estudos comparativos que fornecem a compreensão das relações filogenéticas entre as espécies. Apresentamos aqui uma descrição do repertório comportamental de duas espécies de ratos-de-espinho Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). Os padrões comportamentais afiliativos e agonísticos foram amostrados durante um estudo de três anos em populações de animais silvestres em cativeiro. Os dados foram coletados em duas fases sob diferentes arranjos de indivíduos em grupos sociais. Comparamos as características comportamentais de T. setosus e C. laticeps com as da espécie mais conhecida, T. yonenagae. Adicionamos categorias às descrições anteriores de T. setosus, e um etograma padrão para C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus mostrou uma exibição visual e vocal que chamamos de saltitar, que não foi descrito nesta forma e função para outras espécies do gênero estudado até agora. Discutimos diferenças nos níveis de socialidade e similaridades e diferenças entre os padrões comportamentais e repertórios.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Roedores , Conducta Social , Filogenia , Brasil , Animales Salvajes
14.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 4126273, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345778

RESUMEN

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an herbal medicine with polysaccharides as its important active ingredient. The purpose of this research was to identify the effects of the polysaccharides of P. quinquefolius (WQP) on rats with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) induced by lincomycin hydrochloride. WQP was primarily composed of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The yield, total sugar content, uronic acid content, and protein content were 6.71%, 85.2%, 31.9%, and 2.1%, respectively. WQP reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the ileum and colon, reduced the IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α levels, increased the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in colon tissues, improved the production of acetate and propionate, regulated the gut microbiota diversity and composition, improved the relative richness of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides, and reduced the relative richness of Blautia and Coprococcus. The results indicated that WQP can enhance the recovery of the intestinal structure in rats, reduce inflammatory cytokine levels, improve short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, promote recovery of the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosal barrier, and alleviate antibiotic-related side effects such as diarrhoea and microbiota dysbiosis caused by lincomycin hydrochloride. We found that WQP can protect the intestinal barrier by increasing Occludin and Claudin-1 expression. In addition, WQP inhibited the MAPK inflammatory signaling pathway to improve the inflammatory status. This study provides a foundation for the treatment of natural polysaccharides to reduce antibiotic-related side effects.


Asunto(s)
Panax , Animales , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Diarrea/inducido químicamente , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Diarrea/metabolismo , Lincomicina/farmacología , Lincomicina/uso terapéutico , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Panax/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Ratas
15.
Cell Tissue Res ; 387(2): 303-314, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837110

RESUMEN

Renal α2-adrenoceptors have been reported to play a role in the regulation of urinary output, renin secretion, and water and sodium excretion in the kidneys. However, the distribution of α2-adrenoceptor subtypes in the kidneys remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the localization of α2-adrenoceptor subtypes in rat kidneys using 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunofluorescence imaging revealed that both α2A- and α2B-adrenoceptors were expressed in the basolateral, but not apical, membrane of the epithelial cells of the proximal tubules. We also found that α2A- and α2B-adrenoceptors were not expressed in the glomeruli, collecting ducts, or the descending limb of the loop of Henle and vasa recta. In contrast, α2C-adrenoceptors were found to be localized in the glomeruli and lumen of the cortical and medullary collecting ducts. These results suggest that noradrenaline may act on the basement membrane of the proximal tubules through α2A- and α2B-adrenoceptors. Moreover, noradrenaline may be involved in the regulation of glomerular filtration and proteinuria through the induction of morphological changes in mesangial cells and podocytes via α2C-adrenoceptors. In the collecting ducts, urinary noradrenaline may regulate morphological changes of the microvilli through α2C-adrenoceptors. Our findings provide an immunohistochemical basis for understanding the cellular targets of α2-adrenergic regulation in the kidneys. This may be used to devise therapeutic strategies targeting α2-adrenoceptors.


Asunto(s)
Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2 , Roedores , Animales , Riñón , Norepinefrina , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/fisiología
16.
J Mol Neurosci ; 72(3): 565-573, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569007

RESUMEN

As one of the main types of secondary craniocerebral injury, the onset, progression, and prognosis of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) are closely related to the local inflammation of intracranial hematoma. Atorvastatin is reported to be effective in the conservative treatment of CSDH. This study aimed to clarify whether atorvastatin regulated the inflammatory responses in CSDH by interfering with the function of macrophages. The rat CSDH model was prepared by repeated intracranial blood injection with velocity gradient, and MRI was applied to calculate the intracranial hematoma volume. Changes in rat nerve functions were evaluated by foot-fault and Morris water maze tests. Flow cytometry was applied to detect the number of total macrophages and the percentage of M1 or M2 macrophages. The expression of inflammatory factors was examined by ELISA and western blot. Western bolt was applied to detect the expression of proteins involved in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) signaling pathway. Our results showed that atorvastatin significantly accelerated the absorption of hematoma and improved the nerve functions of CSDH rats. In addition, atorvastatin treatment effectively suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and promoted the expression of IL-10. The total number of macrophages was decreased, and the percentage of M2 macrophages was increased in the intracranial hematoma following atorvastatin treatment. Furthermore, atorvastatin increased the levels of M2-related genes and surface markers in BMDMs stimulated by lipopolysaccharides and IFNγ, and activated the CSF-1R signaling pathway. In conclusion, our study shows that atorvastatin could alleviate the symptoms of CSDH and promote hematoma ablation by polarizing macrophages to M2 type and regulating the inflammatory responses.


Asunto(s)
Hematoma Subdural Crónico , Animales , Atorvastatina/farmacología , Atorvastatina/uso terapéutico , Hematoma Subdural Crónico/diagnóstico , Hematoma Subdural Crónico/tratamiento farmacológico , Hematoma Subdural Crónico/etiología , Inflamación , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Ratas
17.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(4): 548-553, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957648

RESUMEN

Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a form of systemic vasculitis characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the upper and lower airways, vasculitis, and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. It is strongly associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCAs). Various in vitro observations provided strong evidence that autoimmune PR3-ANCAs are directly involved in glomerular and vascular inflammation. However, little is known about the pathogenic significance of PR3-ANCAs in vivo. Therefore, the generation of animal models helped to validate the suggested autoimmune origin and pathophysiology in WG. To characterize and improve the models, numerous studies were carried out to elucidate the effect of mouse/rat PR3-ANCAs on neutrophil function as well as the role of CD4/CD8 in T and B cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease. Understanding the pathogenesis is therefore critical to relate these models to human studies hoping that they will be useful for better insight of WG and the development of specific therapies for the disease.


Asunto(s)
Granulomatosis con Poliangitis , Animales , Anticuerpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Ratones , Mieloblastina , Neutrófilos , Ratas
18.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 9166370, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340587

RESUMEN

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) lies at the apex of signal transduction cascades that results in induced destruction of joints in rheumatoid arthritis. It is therefore of great medicinal interest to modulate the cellular responses to TNF-α. Ebosin, a novel exopolysaccharide derived from Streptomyces sp, has been demonstrated to have remarkable therapeutic actions on collagen-induced arthritis in rats, while it also suppressed the production of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 at both mRNA and protein levels in cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In order to further understand the potential mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of ebosin at molecular level, we investigated the impact of it on the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways following TNF-α induced in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The results showed that the phosphorylation levels of TNF-α-induced p38, JNK1, JNK2, IKKα, IKKß, and IκB, as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation, were reduced significantly in FLS cells in response to ebosin. Furthermore, we proved that ebosin decreased the level of NF-κB in the nucleus and blocked the DNA-binding ability of NF-κB using electrophoresis mobility gel shift assay. Besides, low levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3) and chemokines (interleukin-8 and RANTES) were found in TNF-α-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with ebosin. These results indicate that ebosin can suppress a range of activities in both MAPK and NF-κB pathways induced by TNF-α in rat fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which provides a rationale for examining the use of ebosin as a potential therapeutic candidate for rheumatic arthritis.


Asunto(s)
FN-kappa B , Sinoviocitos , Animales , Fibroblastos , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Polisacáridos Bacterianos , Ratas , Sinoviocitos/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Cell Tissue Res ; 387(2): 275-285, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820705

RESUMEN

Isosteviol has been indicated as a cardiomyocyte protector. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Thus, we sought to confirm the protective effect of isosteviol after myocardial infarction in a model of permanent coronary artery occlusion and investigate the potential proangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. A 4-week permanent coronary artery occlusion rat model was generated, and the protective effect of isosteviol was evaluated by echocardiographic imaging and hemodynamics assays. The coronary capillary density was tested by immunochemistry and micro-computed tomography (µCT) imaging. The effect of isosteviol on endothelial cells was determined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and Tg (kdrl: EGFP) zebrafish in vivo. We also examined the expression of related transcription factors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Isosteviol increased ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), cardiac systolic index (CI), maximum rate of increase of left ventricular pressure (Max dp/dt), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) by 32%, 40%, 25%, 26%, and 10%, respectively, in permanent coronary artery occlusion rats. Interestingly, it also promoted coronary capillary density by 2.5-fold. In addition, isosteviol promoted the proliferation and branching of HUVECs in vitro. It also rescued intersegmental vessel (ISV) development and improved endothelial cell proliferation by approximately fivefold (4-6) in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Isosteviol also upregulated the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in zebrafish by fourfold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Our findings suggest that isosteviol is a proangiogenic agent and that this activity is related to its protective effects against myocardial ischemia. After using the permanent coronary artery occlusion model, we demonstrated that isosteviol promotes angiogenesis directly and increases capillary density in myocardial ischemia rats. Isosteviol promotes angiogenesis in zebrafish in vivo and increases vascular endothelial cell proliferation in HUVECs and zebrafish. The angiogenesis activity of isosteviol may be correlated with VEGFA and HIF-1α signaling.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Animales , Diterpenos de Tipo Kaurano , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/metabolismo , Neovascularización Fisiológica , Ratas , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Pez Cebra/metabolismo
20.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 181-195, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626966

RESUMEN

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a critical public health problem around the world. To date, there are no accurate therapeutic approaches for the management of cardiovascular impairments induce by TBI. In this regard, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gasotransmitter, has been proposed as a neuro- and cardioprotective molecule. This study was designed to determine the effect of subchronic management with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on hemodynamic, vasopressor sympathetic outflow and sensorimotor alterations produced by TBI. Animals underwent a lateral fluid percussion injury, and changes in hemodynamic variables were measured by pletismographic methods. In addition, vasopressor sympathetic outflow was assessed by a pithed rat model. Last, sensorimotor impairments were evaluated by neuroscore test and beam-walking test. At seven, 14, 21, and 28 days after moderate-severe TBI, the animals showed: (1) a decrease on sensorimotor function in the neuroscore test and beam-walking test; (2) an increase in heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure; (3) progressive sympathetic hyperactivity; and (4) a decrease in vasopressor responses induced by noradrenaline (α1/2-adrenoceptors agonist) and UK 14,304 (selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist). Interestingly, intraperitoneal daily injections of NaHS, an H2S donor (3.1 and 5.6 mg/kg), during seven days after TBI prevented the development of the impairments in hemodynamic variables, which were similar to those obtained in sham animals. Moreover, NaHS treatment prevented the sympathetic hyperactivity and decreased noradrenaline-induced vasopressor responses. No effects on sensorimotor dysfunction were observed, however. Taken together, our results suggest that H2S ameliorates the hemodynamic and sympathetic system impairments observed after TBI.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Hipertensión , Animales , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/complicaciones , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Vasoconstrictores/farmacología
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