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1.
Urolithiasis ; 52(1): 52, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564033

RESUMEN

Urolithiasis is a prevalent urological disorder that contributes significantly to global morbidity. This study aimed to assess the anti-urolithic effects of Cymbopogon proximus (Halfa Bar) and Petroselinum crispum (parsley) seed ethanolic extract /Gum Arabic (GA) emulsion, and its nanogel form against ethylene glycol (EG) and ammonium chloride (AC)-induced experimental urolithiasis in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: group 1 served as the normal control, group 2 received EG with AC in drinking water for 14 days to induce urolithiasis, groups 3 and 4 were orally administered emulsion (600 mg/kg/day) and nanogel emulsion (600 mg/kg/day) for 7 days, followed by co-administration with EG and AC in drinking water for 14 days. Urolithiatic rats exhibited a significant decrease in urinary excreted magnesium, and non-enzymic antioxidant glutathione and catalase activity. Moreover, they showed an increase in oxalate crystal numbers and various urolithiasis promoters, including excreted calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid. Renal function parameters and lipid peroxidation were intensified. Treatment with either emulsion or nanogel emulsion significantly elevated urolithiasis inhibitors, excreted magnesium, glutathione levels, and catalase activities. Reduced oxalate crystal numbers, urolithiasis promoters' excretion, renal function parameters, and lipid peroxidation while improving histopathological changes. Moreover, it decreased renal crystal deposition score and the expression of Tumer necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cleaved caspase-3. Notably, nanogel emulsion showed superior effects compared to the emulsion. Cymbopogon proximus (C. proximus) and Petroselinum crispum (P. crispum) seed ethanolic extracts/GA nanogel emulsion demonstrated protective effects against ethylene glycol induced renal stones by mitigating kidney dysfunction, oxalate crystal formation, and histological alterations.


Asunto(s)
Cymbopogon , Agua Potable , Cálculos Renales , Polietilenglicoles , Polietileneimina , Urolitiasis , Animales , Ratas , Petroselinum , Cloruro de Amonio , Goma Arábiga , Emulsiones , Catalasa , Magnesio , Nanogeles , Urolitiasis/inducido químicamente , Urolitiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Urolitiasis/prevención & control , Semillas , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Etanol , Glutatión , Oxalatos , Glicoles de Etileno , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7744, 2024 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565633

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine the effects of resistance training combined with a probiotic supplement enriched with vitamin D and leucine on sestrin2, oxidative stress, antioxidant defense, and mitophagy markers in aged Wistar rats. Thirty-five male rats were randomly assigned to two age groups (old with 18-24 months of age and young with 8-12 weeks of age) and then divided into five groups, including (1) old control (OC: n = 5 + 2 for reserve in all groups), (2) young control (YC: n = 5), (3) old resistance training (OR: n = 5), (4) old resistance training plus supplement (ORS: n = 5), and old supplement group (OS: n = 5). Training groups performed ladder climbing resistance training 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Training intensity was inserted progressively, with values equal to 65, 75, and 85, determining rats' maximal carrying load capacity. Each animal made 5 to 8 climbs in each training session, and the time of each climb was between 12 and 15 s, although the time was not the subject of the evaluation, and the climbing pattern was different in the animals. Old resistance plus supplement and old supplement groups received 1 ml of supplement 5 times per week by oral gavage in addition to standard feeding, 1 to 2 h post training sessions. Forty-eight hours after the end of the training program, 3 ml of blood samples were taken, and all rats were then sacrificed to achieve muscle samples. After 8 weeks of training, total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activity levels increased in both interventions. A synergistic effect of supplement with resistance training was observed for total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and PTEN-induced kinase 1. Sestrin 2 decreased in intervention groups. These results suggest that resistance training plus supplement can boost antioxidant defense and mitophagy while potentially decreasing muscle strength loss.


Asunto(s)
Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Probióticos , Entrenamiento de Fuerza , Humanos , Anciano , Ratas , Masculino , Animales , Lactante , Preescolar , Ratas Wistar , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Entrenamiento de Fuerza/métodos , Mitofagia , Condicionamiento Físico Animal/fisiología , Estrés Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
3.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 8(1): 40, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565836

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility and tissue response of using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-integrated silicone-covered self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) for local hyperthermia in a rat esophageal model. METHODS: The study involved 42 Sprague-Dawley rats. Initially, 6 animals were subjected to near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation (power output from 0.2 to 2.4 W) to assess the in vitro heating characteristics of the AuNP-integrated SEMS immediately after its placement. The surface temperature of the stented esophagus was then measured using an infrared thermal camera before euthanizing the animals. Subsequently, the remaining 36 animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 9 each. Groups A and B received AuNP-integrated SEMS, while groups C and D received conventional SEMS. On day 14, groups A and C underwent NIR laser irradiation at a power output of 1.6 W for 2 min. By days 15 (3 animals per group) or 28 (6 animals per group), all groups were euthanized for gross, histological, and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: Under NIR laser irradiation, the surface temperature of the stented esophagus quickly increased to a steady-state level. The surface temperature of the stented esophagus increased proportionally with power outputs, being 47.3 ± 1.4 °C (mean ± standard deviation) at 1.6 W. Only group A attained full circumferential heating through all layers, from the epithelium to the muscularis propria, demonstrating marked apoptosis in these layers without noticeable necroptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Local hyperthermia using the AuNP-integrated silicone-covered SEMS was feasible and induced cell death through apoptosis in a rat esophageal model. RELEVANCE STATEMENT: A gold nanoparticle-integrated silicone-covered self-expanding metal stent has been developed to mediate local hyperthermia. This approach holds potential for irreversibly damaging cancer cells, improving the sensitivity of cancer cells to therapies, and triggering systemic anticancer immune responses. KEY POINTS: • A gold nanoparticle-integrated silicone-covered self-expanding metal stent was placed in the rat esophagus. • Upon near-infrared laser irradiation, this stent quickly increased the temperature of the stented esophagus. • Local hyperthermia using this stent was feasible and resulted in cell death through apoptosis.


Asunto(s)
Hipertermia Inducida , Nanopartículas del Metal , Ratas , Animales , Oro , Siliconas , Estudios de Factibilidad , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Esófago , Stents
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7804, 2024 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565873

RESUMEN

Social transmission of fear occurs in a subset of individuals, where an Observer displays a fear response to a previously neutral stimulus after witnessing or interacting with a conspecific Demonstrator during memory retrieval. The conditions under which fear can be acquired socially in rats have received attention in recent years, and suggest that social factors modulate social transmission of information. We previously found that one such factor, social rank, impacts fear conditioning by proxy in male rats. Here, we aimed to investigate whether social roles as determined by nape contacts in females, might also have an influence on social transmission of fear. In-line with previous findings in males, we found that social interactions in the home cage can provide insight into the social relationship between female rats and that these relationships predict the degree of fear acquired by-proxy. These results suggest that play behavior affects the social transfer/transmission of information in female rats.


Asunto(s)
Memoria , Conducta Social , Ratas , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Memoria/fisiología , Reacción Cataléptica de Congelación/fisiología , Miedo/fisiología , Relaciones Interpersonales
5.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 15(1): 95, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566259

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human adipose stromal cells-derived extracellular vesicles (haMSC-EVs) have been shown to alleviate inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI) animal models. However, there are few systemic studies on clinical-grade haMSC-EVs. Our study aimed to investigate the manufacturing, quality control (QC) and preclinical safety of clinical-grade haMSC-EVs. METHODS: haMSC-EVs were isolated from the conditioned medium of human adipose MSCs incubated in 2D containers. Purification was performed by PEG precipitation and differential centrifugation. Characterizations were conducted by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western blotting, nanoflow cytometry analysis, and the TNF-α inhibition ratio of macrophage [after stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]. RNA-seq and proteomic analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used to inspect the lot-to-lot consistency of the EV products. Repeated toxicity was evaluated in rats after administration using trace liquid endotracheal nebulizers for 28 days, and respiratory toxicity was evaluated 24 h after the first administration. In vivo therapeutic effects were assessed in an LPS-induced ALI/ acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) rat model. RESULTS: The quality criteria have been standardized. In a stability study, haMSC-EVs were found to remain stable after 6 months of storage at - 80°C, 3 months at - 20 °C, and 6 h at room temperature. The microRNA profile and proteome of haMSC-EVs demonstrated suitable lot-to-lot consistency, further suggesting the stability of the production processes. Intratracheally administered 1.5 × 108 particles/rat/day for four weeks elicited no significant toxicity in rats. In LPS-induced ALI/ARDS model rats, intratracheally administered haMSC-EVs alleviated lung injury, possibly by reducing the serum level of inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION: haMSC-EVs, as an off-shelf drug, have suitable stability and lot-to-lot consistency. Intratracheally administered haMSC-EVs demonstrated excellent safety at the tested dosages in systematic preclinical toxicity studies. Intratracheally administered haMSC-EVs improved the lung function and exerted anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced ALI/ARDS model rats.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Pulmonar Aguda , Vesículas Extracelulares , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria , Humanos , Ratas , Animales , Cromatografía Liquida , Proteómica , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/terapia , Obesidad , Control de Calidad , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiología , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/fisiología
6.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23587, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568835

RESUMEN

Mastitis is a disease characterized by congestion, swelling, and inflammation of the mammary gland and usually caused by infection with pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the development of mastitis is closely linked to the exogenous pathway of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the regulatory mechanisms governing the gut-metabolism-mammary axis remain incompletely understood. The present study revealed alterations in the gut microbiota of mastitis rats characterized by an increased abundance of the Proteobacteria phylum. Plasma analysis revealed significantly higher levels of L-isoleucine and cholic acid along with 7-ketodeoxycholic acid. Mammary tissue showed elevated levels of arachidonic acid metabolites and norlithocholic acid. Proteomic analysis showed increased levels of IFIH1, Tnfaip8l2, IRGM, and IRF5 in mastitis rats, which suggests that mastitis triggers an inflammatory response and immune stress. Follistatin (Fst) and progesterone receptor (Pgr) were significantly downregulated, raising the risk of breast cancer. Extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors and focal adhesion signaling pathways were downregulated, while blood-milk barrier integrity was disrupted. Analysis of protein-metabolic network regulation revealed that necroptosis, protein digestion and absorption, and arachidonic acid metabolism were the principal regulatory pathways involved in the development of mastitis. In short, the onset of mastitis leads to changes in the microbiota and alterations in the metabolic profiles of various biological samples, including colonic contents, plasma, and mammary tissue. Key manifestations include disturbances in bile acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism. At the same time, the integrity of the blood-milk barrier is compromised while inflammation is promoted, thereby reducing cell adhesion in the mammary glands. These findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the metabolic status of mastitis and provide new insights into its impact on the immune system.


Asunto(s)
Mastitis , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Femenino , Humanos , Ratas , Animales , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiología , Proteómica , Ácido Araquidónico/metabolismo , Mastitis/microbiología , Mastitis/patología , Mastitis/veterinaria , Inflamación/metabolismo , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/metabolismo , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/metabolismo
7.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23586, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568858

RESUMEN

Acetaminophen (ACE) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug with various applications, from pain relief to fever reduction. Recent studies have reported equivocal effects of habitual ACE intake on exercise performance, muscle growth, and risks to bone health. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of a 6-week, low-dose ACE regimen on muscle and bone adaptations in exercising and non-exercising rats. Nine-week-old Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomized to an exercise or control (no exercise) condition with ACE or without (placebo). For the exercise condition, rats ran 5 days per week for 6 weeks at a 5% incline for 2 min at 15 cm/s, 2 min at 20 cm/s, and 26 min at 25 cm/s. A human equivalent dose of ACE was administered (379 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and adjusted each week based on body weight. Food, water intake, and body weight were measured daily. At the beginning of week 6, animals in the exercise group completed a maximal treadmill test. At the end of week 6, rats were euthanized, and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, and signaling pathways were measured. Additionally, three-point bending and microcomputer tomography were measured in the femur. Follow-up experiments in human primary muscle cells were used to explore supra-physiological effects of ACE. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA for treatment (ACE or placebo) and condition (exercise or non-exercise) for all animal outcomes. Data for cell culture experiments were analyzed via ANOVA. If omnibus significance was found in either ANOVA, a post hoc analysis was completed, and a Tukey's adjustment was used. ACE did not alter body weight, water intake, food intake, or treadmill performance (p > .05). There was a treatment-by-condition effect for Young's Modulus where placebo exercise was significantly lower than placebo control (p < .05). There was no treatment by condition effects for microCT measures, muscle CSA, fiber type, or mRNA expression. Phosphorylated-AMPK was significantly increased with exercise (p < .05) and this was attenuated with ACE treatment. Furthermore, phospho-4EBP1 was depressed in the exercise group compared to the control (p < .05) and increased in the ACE control and ACE exercise group compared to placebo exercise (p < .05). A low dose of ACE did not influence chronic musculoskeletal adaptations in exercising rodents but acutely attenuated AMPK phosphorylation and 4EBP1 dephosphorylation post-exercise.


Asunto(s)
Acetaminofén , Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Ratas , Humanos , Animales , Acetaminofén/farmacología , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar , Peso Corporal , Condicionamiento Físico Animal/fisiología , Carbohidratos
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2024: 2929315, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572169

RESUMEN

Background: Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus) population plays a significant role in the spread of numerous diseases in urban environments. The present study is aimed at investigating the presence of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), C. coli, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), C. difficile toxigenic, and C. perfringens in R. norvegicus captured from urban areas of Tehran, Iran. Methods: From October 2021 to October 2022, 100 urban rats were trapped in 5 different districts of Tehran, Iran. The genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples, and the presence of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. perfringens, and C. difficile species was evaluated using PCR assay. Moreover, PCR was used to assess the toxicity of C. difficile isolates. Results: Overall, 30% (n = 30/100) of fecal samples were positive for zoonotic pathogens. Based on the PCR on hippuricase (hipO), glycine (gly), CIDIF, and phospholipase C (plc) genes, C. perfringens and C. difficile were isolated from 18.2% (n = 14/77) and 5.2% (n = 4/77) of male rats. The highest frequency of C. perfringens and C. jejuni was 25% (n = 5/20) related to the south of Tehran. Toxigenic C. difficile was not detected in all regions. Conclusion: According to the findings, rats are the main reservoirs for diseases. Therefore, rodent control coupled with the implementation of surveillance systems should be prioritized for urban health.


Asunto(s)
Campylobacter jejuni , Clostridioides difficile , Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Clostridium perfringens , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Irán , Intestinos , Heces
9.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 25(4): 499-509, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572608

RESUMEN

Background: Salpingitis obstructive infertility (SOI) refers to infertility caused by abnormal conditions such as tubal adhesion and blockage caused by acute and chronic salpingitis. SOI has a serious impact on women's physical and mental health and family harmony, and it is a clinical problem that needs to be solved urgently.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential pharmacological mechanisms of the Yinjia tablets (Yin Jia Pian, YJP) on tubal inflammation.

Methods: Networks of YJP-associated targets and tubal inflammation-related genes were constructed through the STRING database. Potential targets and pathway enrichment analysis related to the therapeutic efficacy of YJP were identified using Cytoscape and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (metascape). E. coli was used to establish a rat model of tubal inflammation and to validate the predictions of network pharmacology and the therapeutic efficacy of YJP. H&E staining was used to observe the pathological changes in fallopian tubes. TEM observation of the ultrastructure of the fallopian tubes. ELISA was used to detect the changes of IL-6 and TNF-α in fallopian tubes. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ESR1. The changes of Bcl-2, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, MEK, p-MEK, EGFR, and p-EGFR were detected by western blot.

Results: Through database analysis, it was found that YJP shared 105 identical targets with the disease. Network pharmacology analysis showed that IL-6, TNF, and EGFR belong to the top 5 core proteins associated with salpingitis, and EGFR/MEK/ERK may be the main pathway involved. The E. coli-induced disease rat model of fallopian tube tissue showed damage, mitochondrial disruption, and increased levels of the inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α. Tubal inflammatory infertility rats have increased expression of Bcl-2, p-ERK1/2, p-MEK, and p-EGFR, and decreased expression of ESR1. In vivo, experiments showed that YJP improved damage of tissue, inhibited shedding of tubal cilia, and suppressed the inflammatory response of the body. Furthermore, YJP inhibited EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling, inhibited the apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and upregulated ESR1.

Conclusion: This study revealed that YJP Reducing tubal inflammation and promoting tissue repair may be associated with inhibition of the EGFR/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Infertilidad , Salpingitis , Humanos , Femenino , Ratas , Animales , Salpingitis/complicaciones , Salpingitis/metabolismo , Salpingitis/patología , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Farmacología en Red , Infertilidad/complicaciones , Transducción de Señal , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Quinasas de Proteína Quinasa Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo
10.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23599, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572590

RESUMEN

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease globally. Currently, there are no effective drugs for the treatment of DN. Although several studies have reported the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report that both human umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs) and UC-MSC-derived exosomes (UC-MSC-exo) attenuate kidney damage, and inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced DN rats. Strikingly, the Hedgehog receptor, smoothened (SMO), was significantly upregulated in the kidney tissues of DN patients and rats, and positively correlated with EMT and renal fibrosis. UC-MSC and UC-MSC-exo treatment resulted in decrease of SMO expression. In vitro co-culture experiments revealed that UC-MSC-exo reduced EMT of tubular epithelial cells through inhibiting Hedgehog/SMO pathway. Collectively, UC-MSCs inhibit EMT and renal fibrosis by delivering exosomes and targeting Hedgehog/SMO signaling, suggesting that UC-MSCs and their exosomes are novel anti-fibrotic therapeutics for treating DN.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatías Diabéticas , Exosomas , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Humanos , Ratas , Animales , Nefropatías Diabéticas/metabolismo , Exosomas/metabolismo , Receptor Smoothened , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Fibrosis , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/metabolismo , Cordón Umbilical/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo
11.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23595, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572811

RESUMEN

This study evaluates the sustained antidepressant-like effects and neurogenic potential of a 3-day intranasal co-administration regimen of galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) agonist M1145 and neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor (NPY1R) agonist [Leu31, Pro34]NPY in the ventral hippocampus of adult rats, with outcomes analyzed 3 weeks post-treatment. Utilizing the forced swimming test (FST), we found that this co-administration significantly enhances antidepressant-like behaviors, an effect neutralized by the GALR2 antagonist M871, highlighting the synergistic potential of these neuropeptides in modulating mood-related behaviors. In situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) indicated a significant increase in GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the ventral hippocampal dentate gyrus, suggesting a molecular basis for the behavioral outcomes observed. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolabeling revealed increased cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, specifically in neuroblasts as evidenced by co-labeling with doublecortin (DCX), without affecting quiescent neural progenitors or astrocytes. The study also noted a significant uptick in the number of DCX-positive cells and alterations in dendritic morphology in the ventral hippocampus, indicative of enhanced neuronal differentiation and maturation. These morphological changes highlight the potential of these agonists to facilitate the functional integration of new neurons into existing neural circuits. By demonstrating the long-lasting effects of a brief, 3-day intranasal administration of GALR2 and NPY1R agonists, our findings contribute significantly to the understanding of neuropeptide-mediated neuroplasticity and herald novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of depression and related mood disorders, emphasizing the therapeutic promise of targeting neurogenesis and neuronal maturation processes.


Asunto(s)
Neuropéptido Y , Neuropéptidos , Ratas , Animales , Receptor de Galanina Tipo 2/agonistas , Receptor de Galanina Tipo 2/metabolismo , Administración Intranasal , Galanina/farmacología , Galanina/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropéptido Y/metabolismo , Neuropéptidos/farmacología , Antidepresivos/farmacología , Neurogénesis
12.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e6, 2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572889

RESUMEN

Global aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities is of the most concern in food safety and quality. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of 80% methanolic leaf extract of Annona senegalensis against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced toxicity in rats. A. senegalensis has shown to inhibit genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in vitro. The rats were divided into six groups including untreated control, aflatoxin B1 only (negative control); curcumin (positive control; 10 mg/kg); and three groups receiving different doses (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg) of A. senegalensis extract. The rats received treatment (with the exception of untreated group) for 7 days prior to intoxication with aflatoxin B1. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine were measured. Hepatic tissues were analysed for histological alterations. Administration of A. senegalensis extract demonstrated hepatoprotective effects against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity in vivo by significantly reducing the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and regenerating the hepatocytes. No significant changes were observed in the levels of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine for the AFB1 intoxicated group, curcumin+AFB1 and Annona senegalensis leaf extract (ASLE)+AFB1 (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]) treated groups. Annona senegalensis is a good candidate for hepatoprotective agents and thus its use in traditional medicine may at least in part be justified.Contribution: The plant extract investigated in this study can be used in animal health to protect the organism from toxicity caused by mycotoxins.


Asunto(s)
Annona , Curcumina , Ratas , Animales , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidad , Curcumina/farmacología , Alanina Transaminasa/farmacología , Fosfatasa Alcalina/farmacología , Creatinina/farmacología , Hígado , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/farmacología , Lactato Deshidrogenasas
13.
J Neural Eng ; 21(2)2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572924

RESUMEN

Objective. Artificial nerve scaffolds composed of polymers have attracted great attention as an alternative for autologous nerve grafts recently. Due to their poor bioactivity, satisfactory nerve repair could not be achieved. To solve this problem, we introduced extracellular matrix (ECM) to optimize the materials.Approach.In this study, the ECM extracted from porcine nerves was mixed with Poly(L-Lactide-co-ϵ-caprolactone) (PLCL), and the innovative PLCL/ECM nerve repair conduits were prepared by electrostatic spinning technology. The novel conduits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile properties, and suture retention strength test for micromorphology and mechanical strength. The biosafety and biocompatibility of PLCL/ECM nerve conduits were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay with Mouse fibroblast cells and cell adhesion assay with RSC 96 cells, and the effects of PLCL/ECM nerve conduits on the gene expression in Schwann cells was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, a 10 mm rat (Male Wistar rat) sciatic defect was bridged with a PLCL/ECM nerve conduit, and nerve regeneration was evaluated by walking track, mid-shank circumference, electrophysiology, and histomorphology analyses.Main results.The results showed that PLCL/ECM conduits have similar microstructure and mechanical strength compared with PLCL conduits. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrates better biosafety and biocompatibility of PLCL/ECM nerve conduits. And the cell adhesion assay further verifies that the addition of ECM is more beneficial to cell adhesion and proliferation. RT-PCR showed that the PLCL/ECM nerve conduit was more favorable to the gene expression of functional proteins of Schwann cells. Thein vivoresults indicated that PLCL/ECM nerve conduits possess excellent biocompatibility and exhibit a superior capacity to promote peripheral nerve repair.Significance.The addition of ECM significantly improved the biocompatibility and bioactivity of PLCL, while the PLCL/ECM nerve conduit gained the appropriate mechanical strength from PLCL, which has great potential for clinical repair of peripheral nerve injuries.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Extracelular , Nervio Ciático , Ratones , Ratas , Masculino , Porcinos , Animales , Nervio Ciático/fisiología , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Ratas Wistar , Electricidad Estática , Regeneración Nerviosa/fisiología , Andamios del Tejido/química , Poliésteres/química
14.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23594, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573451

RESUMEN

A high prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) has been observed among individuals living at high altitudes, and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) can cause bone mass and strength deterioration. However, the effect of HH on OA remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of HH on OA and its potential mechanisms. A rat knee OA model was established by surgery, and the rats were bred in an HH chamber simulating a high-altitude environment. Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT), histological analysis, and RNA sequencing were performed to evaluate the effects of HH on OA in vivo. A hypoxic co-culture model of osteoclasts and osteoblasts was also established to determine their effects on chondrogenesis in vitro. Cartilage degeneration significantly worsened in the HH-OA group compared to that in the normoxia-OA (N-OA) group, 4 weeks after surgery. Micro-CT analysis revealed more deteriorated bone mass in the HH-OA group than in the N-OA group. Decreased hypoxia levels in the cartilage and enhanced hypoxia levels in the subchondral bone were observed in the HH-OA group. Furthermore, chondrocytes cultured in a conditioned medium from the hypoxic co-culture model showed decreased anabolism and extracellular matrix compared to those in the normoxic model. RNA sequencing analysis of the subchondral bone indicated that the glycolytic signaling pathway was highly activated in the HH-OA group. HH-related OA progression was associated with alterations in the oxygen environment and bone remodeling in the subchondral zone, which provided new insights into the pathogenesis of OA.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis , Oxígeno , Animales , Ratas , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Hipoxia , Osteoartritis/etiología , Remodelación Ósea
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301430, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578715

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SCI is a time-sensitive debilitating neurological condition without treatment options. Although the central nervous system is not programmed for effective endogenous repairs or regeneration, neuroplasticity partially compensates for the dysfunction consequences of SCI. OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of our study is to investigate whether early induction of hypothermia impacts neuronal tissue compensatory mechanisms. Our hypothesis is that although neuroplasticity happens within the neuropathways, both above (forelimbs) and below (hindlimbs) the site of spinal cord injury (SCI), hypothermia further influences the upper limbs' SSEP signals, even when the SCI is mid-thoracic. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 30 male and female adult rats are randomly assigned to four groups (n = 7): sham group, control group undergoing only laminectomy, injury group with normothermia (37°C), and injury group with hypothermia (32°C +/-0.5°C). METHODS: The NYU-Impactor is used to induce mid-thoracic (T8) moderate (12.5 mm) midline contusive injury in rats. Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) is an objective and non-invasive procedure to assess the functionality of selective neuropathways. SSEP monitoring of baseline, and on days 4 and 7 post-SCI are performed. RESULTS: Statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the SSEP signal amplitudes recorded when stimulating either forelimb in the group of rats with normothermia compared to the rats treated with 2h of hypothermia on day 4 (left forelimb, p = 0.0417 and right forelimb, p = 0.0012) and on day 7 (left forelimb, p = 0.0332 and right forelimb, p = 0.0133) post-SCI. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the forelimbs SSEP signals from the two groups of injuries with and without hypothermia have statistically significant differences on days 4 and 7. This indicates the neuroprotective effect of early hypothermia and its influences on stimulating further the neuroplasticity within the upper limbs neural network post-SCI. Timely detection of neuroplasticity and identifying the endogenous and exogenous factors have clinical applications in planning a more effective rehabilitation and functional electrical stimulation (FES) interventions in SCI patients.


Asunto(s)
Hipotermia , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal , Humanos , Ratas , Masculino , Femenino , Animales , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/terapia , Potenciales Evocados Somatosensoriales/fisiología , Sistema Nervioso Central , Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología , Médula Espinal
16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 25(4): 75, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580793

RESUMEN

Minoxidil (MIN) is used topically to treat alopecia. However, its low absorption limits its use, warranting a new strategy to enhance its delivery into skin layers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dermal delivery of MIN by utilizing dissolved microneedles (MNs) loaded with MIN nanosuspension (MIN-NS) for hair regrowth. MIN-NS was prepared by the solvent-antisolvent precipitation technique. The particle size of MIN-NS was 226.7 ± 9.3 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.29 ± 0.17 and a zeta potential of -29.97 ± 1.23 mV. An optimized formulation of MIN-NS was selected, freeze-dried, and loaded into MNs fabricated with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC) polymeric solutions (MIN-NS-loaded MNs). MNs were evaluated for morphology, dissolution rate, skin insertion, drug content, mechanical properties, ex vivo permeation, in vivo, and stability studies. MNs, prepared with 14% Na CMC, were able to withstand a compression force of 32 N for 30 s, penetrate Parafilm M® sheet at a depth of 374-504 µm, and dissolve completely in the skin within 30 min with MIN %recovery of 95.1 ± 6.5%. The release of MIN from MIN-NS-loaded MNs was controlled for 24 h. MIN-NS-loaded MNs were able to maintain their mechanical properties and chemical stability for 4 weeks, when kept at different storage conditions. The in vivo study of the freeze-dried MIN-NS and MIN-NS-loaded MNs proved hair regrowth on rat skin after 11 and 7 days, respectively. These results showed that MIN-NS-loaded MNs could potentially improve the dermal delivery of MIN through the skin to treat alopecia.


Asunto(s)
Minoxidil , Piel , Ratas , Animales , Administración Cutánea , Alopecia/tratamiento farmacológico , Cabello , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/métodos , Agujas
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 147, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580929

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia, the acute inflammation of lung tissue, is multi-factorial in etiology. Hence, continuous studies are conducted to determine the mechanisms involved in the progression of the disease and subsequently suggest effective treatment. The present study attempted to evaluate the effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG), an herbal antioxidant, on inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in a rat pneumonia model. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats, 5 months old and 250-290 g were divided into four groups including control, EGCG, experimental pneumonia (i/p LPS injection, 1 mg/kg), and experimental pneumonia treated with EGCG (i/p, 15 mg/kg, 1 h before and 3 h after LPS instillation). Total cell number in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, inflammation (TNF-a, Il-6, IL-1ß, and NO), oxidative stress (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX, MDA, and TAC), apoptosis (BCL-2, BAX, CASP-3 and CASP-9), and autophagy (mTOR, LC3, BECN1) were evaluated. RESULTS: The findings demonstrated that EGCG suppresses the LPS-induced activation of inflammatory pathways by a significant reduction of inflammatory markers (p-value < 0.001). In addition, the upregulation of BCL-2 and downregulation of BAX and caspases revealed that EGCG suppressed LPS-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ECGC suppressed oxidative injury while promoting autophagy in rats with pneumonia (p-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The current study revealed that EGCG could suppress inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and promote autophagy in experimental pneumonia models of rats suggesting promising therapeutical properties of this compound to be used in pneumonia management.


Asunto(s)
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Lipopolisacáridos , Neumonía , Ratas , Masculino , Animales , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Proteína X Asociada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar , Estrés Oxidativo , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/metabolismo , Neumonía/tratamiento farmacológico , Apoptosis , Autofagia
18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 197, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous syndrome that affects millions worldwide, resulting in substantial health and economic burdens. However, the molecular mechanism of HF pathogenesis remains unclear. METHODS: HF-related key genes were screened by a bioinformatics approach.The impacts of HAPLN1 knockdown on Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced AC16 cells were assessed through a series of cell function experiments. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis-related factors. The HF rat model was induced by subcutaneous injection isoprenaline and histopathologic changes in the cardiac tissue were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and echocardiographic index. Downstream pathways regulated by HAPLN1 was predicted through bioinformatics and then confirmed in vivo and in vitro by western blot. RESULTS: Six hub genes were screened, of which HAPLN1, FMOD, NPPB, NPPA, and COMP were overexpressed, whereas NPPC was downregulated in HF. Further research found that silencing HAPLN1 promoted cell viability and reduced apoptosis in Ang II-induced AC16 cells. HAPLN1 knockdown promoted left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), while decreasing left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) in the HF rat model. HAPLN1 knockdown promoted the levels of GSH and suppressed the levels of MDA, LDH, TNF-α, and IL-6. Mechanistically, silencing HAPLN1 activated the PKA pathway, which were confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: HAPLN1 knockdown inhibited the progression of HF by activating the PKA pathway, which may provide novel perspectives on the management of HF.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Ratas , Humanos , Animales , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Volumen Sistólico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/etiología , Transducción de Señal
19.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 149, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is associated with disturbances in male reproductive function and fertility. Studies have shown that oxidative stress with the subsequent inflammation and apoptosis cause these complications in diabetes. Garlic (G) (Allium sativum L) and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (C) both have antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. Recently, we demonstrated their synergistic effects in alleviating reproductive complications when administered concomitantly. However, as even medicinal plants in long term usage may lead to some unwanted side effects of their own, we examined whether with half the original doses of these two medicinal plants we could achieve the desired results. METHODS: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7/group): Control, Diabetic, Diabetic + G (0.5 ml/100 g BW), Diabetic + C (5 mg/kg BW) and Diabetic + GC (0.5 ml/100 g BW of garlic and 5 mg/kg BW of C. colocynthis) groups. The experimental period was 30 days. RESULTS: Oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), immunoexpression of caspase-3, and expression of mRNAs for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4) and nuclear factor kappa B increased in testis of diabetic rats. Treatment with garlic and C. colocynthis alone showed some beneficial effects, but in the combination form the effectiveness was more profound. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the combination therapy of diabetic rats with lower doses is still as efficient as higher doses; therefore, the way forward for reducing complications in long term consumption.


Asunto(s)
Citrullus colocynthis , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Ajo , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Ajo/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Receptor para Productos Finales de Glicación Avanzada/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Ratas Wistar , Transducción de Señal
20.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 153, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vortioxetine (VORTX) is a potent and selective type of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is mainly prescribed for treating major depression along with mood disorders as the first drug of choice. Limited previous findings have indicated evidence of liver injury and hepatotoxicity associated with daily VORTX treatment. Rutin (RUT), which is known for its antioxidant properties, has demonstrated several beneficial health actions, including hepatoprotection. Therefore the current study aimed to evaluate and assess the ameliorative effect of RUT against the hepatotoxic actions of daily low and high-dose VORTX administration. METHODS: The experimental design included six groups of rats, each divided equally. Control, rats exposed to RUT (25 mg/kg), rats exposed to VORTX (28 mg/kg), rats exposed to VORTX (28 mg/kg) + RUT (25 mg/kg), rats exposed to VORTX (80 mg/kg), and rats exposed to VORTX (80 mg/kg) + RUT (25 mg/kg). After 30 days from the daily exposure period, assessments were conducted for serum liver enzyme activities, hepatotoxicity biomarkers, liver antioxidant endogenous enzymes, DNA fragmentation, and histopathological studies of liver tissue. RESULTS: Interestingly, the risk of liver damage and hepatotoxicity related to VORTX was attenuated by the daily co-administration of RUT. Significant improvements were observed among all detected liver functions, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total protein, acid phosphatase, N-Acetyl-/ß-glucosaminidase (ß-NAG), ß-Galactosidase (ß-Gal), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), caspase 3, and cytochrom-C along with histopathological studies, compared to the control and sole RUT group. CONCLUSION: Thus, RUT can be considered a potential and effective complementary therapy in preventing hepatotoxicity and liver injury induced by the daily or prolonged administration of VORTX.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Ratas , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Rutina/farmacología , Vortioxetina , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Glutatión/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Biomarcadores
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