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4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44488, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1096023

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar dúvidas de puérperas e familiares sobre cuidados domiciliares com o recém-nascido de baixo risco e analisar a roda de conversa, mediada por simulador realístico de baixa fidelidade, como uma tecnologia educativa para o preparo de famílias no processo de alta da maternidade. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, incluindo dezenove familiares de recém-nascidos de baixo risco em um hospital municipal de Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, de maio a outubro de 2018, por entrevista semiestruturada. Dados submetidos à Análise Temática. Resultados: as dúvidas dos familiares versaram sobre cuidados com higiene, alimentação, ambiente, afeto, saúde, sono e doenças. A roda de conversa com simulador de baixa fidelidade foi considerada uma estratégia positiva para mediar o aprendizado. Conclusão: a tecnologia educativa revelou-se útil na instrumentalização de famílias no processo de alta da maternidade, visto que o cuidador fortalece suas potencialidades, retira dúvidas e troca informações e experiências no grupo.


Objective: to identify puerperal and family members' questions about home care with low-risk newborns and to analyze the conversation circle, mediated by a realistic low fidelity simulator, as an educational technology for the preparation of families in the maternity discharge process. Method: qualitative research conducted with nineteen relatives of low-risk newborns in the municipal hospital in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from May to October 2018, through semi-structured interview. Data submitted to thematic analysis. Results: the family members' doubts were about care with hygiene, food, environment, affection, health, sleep and diseases. The conversation wheel with low fidelity simulator was considered a positive strategy to mediate learning. Conclusion: the educational technology proved to be useful in the instrumentalization of families in the maternity discharge process, as the caregiver strengthens their potential, removes doubts and exchanges information and experiences in the group.


Objetivo: identificar dudas puerperales y familiares sobre atención domiciliaria con recién nacidos de bajo riesgo y analizar el círculo de conversación, mediado por simulador realista de baja fidelidad, como una tecnología educativa de preparación de familias en el proceso de alta de la maternidad. Método: investigación cualitativa, con diecinueve familiares de recién nacidos de bajo riesgo en un hospital municipal en Río das Ostras, Río de Janeiro, de mayo a octubre de 2018, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se utilizó a Análisis temático. Resultados: las dudas fueron sobre higiene, alimentación, medio ambiente, afecto, salud, sueño y enfermedades. El círculo de conversación con simulador se consideró una estrategia positiva para mediar en el aprendizaje. Conclusión: la tecnología educativa demostró ser útil en la instrumentalización de familias en el proceso de alta de la maternidad, porque el cuidador fortalece su potencial, elimina dudas e intercambia información y experiencias en el grupo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Alta del Paciente , Recién Nacido , Familia , Cuidadores/educación , Tecnología Educacional , Atención Domiciliaria de Salud/educación , Brasil , Tecnología Educacional/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa , Entrenamiento Simulado , Maternidades , Hospitales Municipales
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 42281, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094844

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar evidências acerca do uso seguro da hipotermia terapêutica em recém-nascidos. Método: revisão integrativa realizada entre junho e julho de 2018, em fontes eletrônicas da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde e PubMed, por meio da pergunta:"Que evidências podem subsidiar o cuidado de enfermagem voltado para a redução de sequelas em recém-nascidos submetidos à hipotermia terapêutica?".Foram eleitos nove artigos para análise, sendo oito internacionais e um nacional. Resultados:o resfriamento deve acontecer por 72 horas, com hipotermia leve. As indicações para inclusão no protocolo foram: primeiras seis horas de vida, idade gestacional maior que 35 semanas e acidose na primeira hora de vida.São cuidados essenciais: monitoração hemodinâmica, observação da pele, controle térmico retal, vigilância do Eletroencefalograma de Amplitude Integrada. Conclusão: a terapêutica apresenta benefícios, porém sua aplicação depende de protocolo institucional e treinamento das equipes com foco nas potenciais complicações.


Objective: to identify the evidence on safe use of therapeutic hypothermia in newborns. Method: integrative review of the literature, conducted between June and July of 2018, in electronic sources from the Virtual Health Library and PubMed, through the question: "What evidence can support nursing care aimed at reducing sequelae in newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia?". Analysis was conducted for nine selected article, being eight from international literature and one from Brazilian national literature. Results: cooling should occur for 72 hours with mild hypothermia. Indications for inclusion in the protocol were: first six hours of life, gestational age greater than 35 weeks and acidosis in the first hour of life. Essential care includes hemodynamic monitoring, skin observation, rectal thermal control, Integrated Amplitude Electroencephalogram surveillance. Conclusion: the therapy has benefits, but its application depends on institutional protocol and team training focusing on potential complications.


Objetivo: identificar la evidencia sobre el uso seguro de la hipotermia terapéutica en recién nacidos. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura, realizada entre junio y julio de 2018, en fuentes electrónicas de la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud y PubMed, a través de la pregunta: "¿Qué evidencia puede apoyar la atención de enfermería dirigida a reducir las secuelas en los recién nacidos que sufren hipotermia terapéutica?". Se realizaron análisis para nueve artículos seleccionados, ocho de literatura internacional y uno de literatura nacional brasileña. Resultados: el enfriamiento debe ocurrir durante 72 horas con hipotermia leve. Las indicaciones para la inclusión en el protocolo fueron: primeras seis horas de vida, edad gestacional mayor de 35 semanas y acidosis en la primera hora de vida. El cuidado esencial incluye monitoreo hemodinámico, observación de la piel, control térmico rectal, vigilancia integrada de electroencefalograma de amplitud. Conclusión: la terapia tiene beneficios, pero su aplicación depende del protocolo institucional y del entrenamiento del equipo, enfocándose en posibles complicaciones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Recién Nacido , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Hipotermia Inducida/métodos , Hipotermia Inducida/normas , Asfixia Neonatal/complicaciones , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiología , Hipotermia Inducida/efectos adversos , Hipotermia Inducida/enfermería
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48578, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1116102

RESUMEN

Objetivo: conhecer a experiência dos pais como estratégia de avaliação da qualidade da assistência de enfermagem. Método: pesquisa descritiva com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvida na Unidade Neonatal de um Hospital do sul do Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevistas, utilizando a técnica do incidente crítico (TIC), com 18 pais que estavam com seus filhos internados por 20 dias ou mais e que tinham previsão e plano de alta hospitalar. Após, os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Resultados: a análise revelou fragilidades no cuidado prestado pela equipe de enfermagem em relação à administração de medicamentos, ao uso de equipamentos, à monitorização e ao posicionamento dos bebês, aos cuidados com a pele e à higiene de mãos. Conclusão: a experiência dos pais revelou elementos que integram a avaliação da assistência em enfermagem, destacando-os como pilares para a segurança do paciente.


Objective: to learn the parents' experience as a strategy for assessing the quality of nursing care. Method: in this qualitative, descriptive study at the Neonatal Unit of a hospital in southern Brazil, data were collected by critical incident (CI) interviews of 18 parents whose children had been hospitalized for 20 days or more, and whose discharge was scheduled and planned for. The data subsequently underwent content analysis. Results: data analysis revealed weaknesses in the care provided by the nursing staff as regards administration of medication, use of equipment, monitoring and positioning of babies, skin care and hand hygiene. Conclusion: The parents' experience revealed elements that enter into evaluation of nursing care, revealing parents to be mainstays of patient safety.


Objetivo: conocer la experiencia de los padres como estrategia para evaluar la calidad de la atención de enfermería. Método: en este estudio cualitativo y descriptivo en la Unidad Neonatal de un hospital en el sur de Brasil, los datos fueron recolectados por entrevistas de incidentes críticos (IC) de 18 padres cuyos hijos habían estado hospitalizados durante 20 días o más, y cuyo alta fue programada y planificada para. Los datos posteriormente se sometieron a análisis de contenido. Resultados: el análisis de datos reveló debilidades en la atención brindada por el personal de enfermería en lo que respecta a la administración de medicamentos, uso de equipos, monitoreo y posicionamiento de bebés, cuidado de la piel e higiene de manos. Conclusión: la experiencia de los padres reveló elementos que entran en la evaluación de la atención de enfermería, revelando que los padres son pilares de la seguridad del paciente.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Adulto , Padres , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal/normas , Seguridad del Paciente , Grupo de Enfermería/normas , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Brasil , Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Investigación Cualitativa , Daño del Paciente/prevención & control
7.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 167-188, nov. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191352

RESUMEN

La llegada de la pandemia por coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (la enfermedad de la COVID-19) a España también ha repercutido en el acceso parental a las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN). Al comienzo de la pandemia se tomaron las medidas que, fundamentadas en criterios de salud pública, se consideraron necesarias. A medida que avanzaba el conocimiento científico sobre la COVID-19, y en base a los nuevos datos obtenidos, se comenzaron a adaptar las medidas inicialmente establecidas. Sin embargo, creemos que la adaptación de alguno de estos protocolos, en concreto el del acceso parental a las UCIN, no ha sido la idónea desde el punto de vista bioético y del interés superior del menor. A lo largo de este artículo exponemos esas insuficiencias


The arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19 disease) in Spain has also had an impact on parental access to Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). At the beginning of the pandemic, measures were taken that, based on public health criteria, and were considered necessary. As scientific knowledge about COVID-19 advanced, and based on the new data obtained, the measures initially established began to be adapted. However, we believe that the adaptation of some of these protocols, specifically that of parental access to NICU, has not been the ideal one from the bioethical point of view and in the best interest of the minor. Throughout this article we expose these insufficiencies


L'arribada de la pandèmia per coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (la malaltia de la COVID-19) a Espanya també ha repercutit en l'accés parental a les Unitats de Cures Intensives Neonatals (UCIN). A l'inici de la pandèmia es van prendre les mesures que, fonamentades en criteris de salut pública, es van considerar necessàries. A mesura que avançava el coneixement científic sobre la COVID-19, I en base a les noves dades obtingudes, es van començar a adaptar, les mesures inicialment establertes. No obstant això, creiem que l'adaptació d'algun d'aquests protocols, en concret el de l'accés parental a les UCIN, no ha estat la idònia des del punt de vista bioètic I de l'interès superior del menor. Al llarg d'aquest article exposem aquestes insuficiències


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Pandemias , Padres , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Chaperones Médicos/ética , Chaperones Médicos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanización de la Atención
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1494-1496, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056949

RESUMEN

CDC works with other federal agencies to identify counties with increasing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence (hotspots) and offers support to state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Understanding whether increasing incidence in hotspot counties is predominantly occurring in specific age groups is important for identifying opportunities to prevent or reduce transmission. The percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results (percent positivity) is an important indicator of community transmission.* CDC analyzed temporal trends in percent positivity by age group in COVID-19 hotspot counties before and after their identification as hotspots. Among 767 hotspot counties identified during June and July 2020, early increases in the percent positivity among persons aged ≤24 years were followed by several weeks of increasing percent positivity in persons aged ≥25 years. Addressing transmission among young adults is an urgent public health priority.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Goiânia; s.n; out. 02, 2020. 1-24 p. ilus, tab, mapas, graf.(Boletim Epidemiológico Covid-19, 26).
Monografía en Portugués | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1121439

RESUMEN

O Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 objetiva documentar e divulgar informações oficiais atualizadas da situação epidemiológica no Estado de Goiás-GO, Brasil. Resume que desde os primeiros registros na China em dezembro de 2019 até o dia 26 de setembro foram confirmados 32.730.945 casos de COVID-19 no mundo. Deste total, 991.224 evoluíram a óbito. Quando comparados o número de casos e óbitos confirmados desta semana epidemiológica (SE 39) com a semana anterior, houve aumento de 6,7% nos casos e 3,8% nos óbitos. Sintetiza que, no Brasil, neste mesmo intervalo de tempo, o aumento foi 4,2% e 3,5% no número de casos e óbitos, respectivamente. No país o primeiro caso foi confirmado no dia 26 de fevereiro e até 26 de setembro foram registrados 4.717.991 casos confirmados com 141.406 óbitos. Informa que o registro dos primeiros casos suspeitos em Goiás foi a partir de 04 de fevereiro e até 26 de setembro foram notificados à Vigilância Epidemiológica 595.334 casos de COVID-19. Infere que, nesta última semana epidemiológica (SE 39) houve a confirmação de 17.551 casos novos, representando um aumento nos casos de COVID-19 de 9,5%, superior ao aumento observado no Brasil 4,2%. No Estado, 202.528 (34,0%) foram confirmados sendo 196.210 (96,9%) por critério laboratorial, 4.408 (2,2%) pelo critério clínico-epidemiológico, 589 (0,3%) por critério clínico imagem e 802 (0,4%) pelo critério clínico, 148.086 (24,9%) foram descartados e 221.461 (37,2%) continuam como suspeitos


The COVID-19 Epidemiological Bulletin aims to document and disseminate updated official information on the epidemiological situation in the State of Goiás-GO, Brazil. It summarizes that since the first registrations in China in December 2019 until the 26th of September, 32,730,945 cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide. Of this total, 991,224 died. When comparing the number of confirmed cases and deaths of this epidemiological week (SE 39) with the previous week, there was an increase of 6.7% in cases and 3.8% in deaths. It synthesizes that, in Brazil, in this same time interval, the increase was 4.2% and 3.5% in the number of cases and deaths, respectively. In the country, the first case was confirmed on February 26 and until September 26, 4,717,991 confirmed cases were recorded, with 141,406 deaths. Informs that the record of the first suspected cases in Goiás was from February 4 and until September 26, 595,334 cases of COVID-19 were notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance. It infers that, in this last epidemiological week (SE 39), 17,551 new cases were confirmed, representing an increase in the cases of COVID-19 of 9.5%, higher than the increase observed in Brazil 4.2%. In the State, 202,528 (34.0%) were confirmed, 196,210 (96.9%) by laboratory criteria, 4,408 (2.2%) by clinical-epidemiological criteria, 589 (0.3%) by clinical image criteria and 802 (0.4%) by the clinical criterion, 148,086 (24.9%) were discarded and 221,461 (37.2%) remain as suspects


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Monitoreo Epidemiológico
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239796, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002074

RESUMEN

Since the end of 2019, an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originating in the Chinese city of Wuhan has spread rapidly worldwide causing thousands of deaths. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is supported by SARS-CoV-2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Italy has been the first European country recording an elevated number of infected forcing the Italian Government to call for total lockdown. The lockdown had the aim to limit the spread of infection through social distancing. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the pandemic has affected the patient's accesses to the Ophthalmological Emergency Department of a tertiary referral center in central-northern Italy, during the lockdown period. The charts of all patients that came to the Emergency Department during the lockdown period (March 10 -May 4, 2020) have been retrospectively collected and compared with those in the same period of 2019 and the period from 15 January- 9 March 2020. A significant reduction of visits during the lockdown has been observed, compared with those of pre-lockdown period (reduction of 65.4%) and with those of the same period of 2019 (reduction of 74.3%). Particularly, during the lockdown, minor and not urgency visits decreased whereas the undeferrable urgency ones increased. These pieces of evidence could be explained by the fear of patients to be infected; but also revealed patients misuse of emergency services.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Oftalmología/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
16.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 293, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008456

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To summarize the diagnosis and treatment of 13 patients with mixed-type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) and propose another classification for mixed TAPVC. METHODS: A retrospective review of 13 patients with mixed TAPVC undergoing repair at a single institution was conducted between January 2010 and November 2019. The diagnosis of mixed-type TAPVC was made in all patients using echocardiography combined with computed tomography angiography. According to the mixed TAPVC anatomy, there were 3 patients with type I TAPVC (2 + 2 veins), 10 patients with type II TAPVC (3 + 1 veins) and no patients with type III TAPVC. Correspondingly, there was 1 patient with the "SVC + VV" subtype, 2 patients with the "CS + C" subtype, 8 patients with the "CS + VV" subtype, 1 patient with the "CS + SVC" subtype and 1 patient with the "RA + SVC" subtype according to our classification system. All patients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. RESULTS: The median weight at surgery was 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (3.4-7.3 kg), and the median age at surgery was 96.2 ± 81.2 days (10-242 days). The median cardiopulmonary bypass time was 132.7 ± 25.1 min (range, 100 to 190 min). The cross-clamping time was 69.2 ± 14.4 min (range, 45 to 88 min). The hospital mortality rate was 7.7% (1 of 13), with late mortality occurring in 1 patient because of pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO) 7 months after surgery. The average follow-up after surgery was 3.4 ± 2.2 years (range, 5 months to 8 years). The survival rates at 3 and 5 years were both 90.9% ± 8.7% (95% CI: 73.8-108%). All remaining surviving patients were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Mixed TAPVC can be repaired with good results in children and can be correctly diagnosed with echocardiography combined with computed tomography angiography. The classification system we propose is pragmatic and can guide the surgical approach.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Cimitarra/cirugía , Puente Cardiopulmonar , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Cimitarra/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Tratamiento , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1404-1409, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001872

RESUMEN

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in more than 6,800,000 reported U.S. cases and more than 199,000 associated deaths.* Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 incidence was highest among older adults (1). CDC examined the changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during May-August by assessing three indicators: COVID-19-like illness-related emergency department (ED) visits, positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Nationwide, the median age of COVID-19 cases declined from 46 years in May to 37 years in July and 38 in August. Similar patterns were seen for COVID-19-like illness-related ED visits and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results in all U.S. Census regions. During June-August, COVID-19 incidence was highest in persons aged 20-29 years, who accounted for >20% of all confirmed cases. The southern United States experienced regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in June. In these regions, increases in the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among adults aged 20-39 years preceded increases among adults aged ≥60 years by an average of 8.7 days (range = 4-15 days), suggesting that younger adults likely contributed to community transmission of COVID-19. Given the role of asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (2), strict adherence to community mitigation strategies and personal preventive behaviors by younger adults is needed to help reduce their risk for infection and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to persons at higher risk for severe illness.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1428-1433, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001874

RESUMEN

Excessive alcohol use is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States (1) and costs associated with it, such as those from losses in workplace productivity, health care expenditures, and criminal justice, were $249 billion in 2010 (2). CDC used the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application* to estimate national and state average annual alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL) during 2011-2015, including deaths from one's own excessive drinking (e.g., liver disease) and from others' drinking (e.g., passengers killed in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes). This study found an average of 95,158 alcohol-attributable deaths (261 deaths per day) and 2.8 million YPLL (29 years of life lost per death, on average) in the United States each year. Of all alcohol-attributable deaths, 51,078 (53.7%) were caused by chronic conditions, and 52,921 (55.6%) involved adults aged 35-64 years. Age-adjusted alcohol-attributable deaths per 100,000 population ranged from 20.8 in New York to 53.1 in New Mexico. YPLL per 100,000 population ranged from 631.9 in New York to 1,683.5 in New Mexico. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing excessive drinking, including those recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes and regulating the number and concentration of alcohol outlets), could reduce alcohol-attributable deaths and YPLL.†.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/mortalidad , Esperanza de Vida/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1385-1390, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001877

RESUMEN

Homicide is the 13th leading cause of death among infants (i.e., children aged <1 year) in the United States (1). Infant homicides occurring within the first 24 hours of life (i.e., neonaticide) are primarily perpetrated by the mother, who might be of young age, unmarried, have lower educational attainment, and is most likely associated with concealment of an unintended pregnancy and nonhospital birthing (2). After the first day of life, infant homicides might be associated with other factors (e.g., child abuse and neglect or caregiver frustration) (2). A 2002 study of the age variation in homicide risk in U.S. infants during 1989-1998 found that the overall infant homicide rate was 8.3 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 222.2 per 100,000 person-years, a homicide rate at least 10 times greater than that for any other time of life (3). Because of this period of heightened risk, by 2008 all 50 states* and Puerto Rico had enacted Safe Haven Laws. These laws allow a parent† to legally surrender an infant who might otherwise be abandoned or endangered (4). CDC analyzed infant homicides in the United States during 2008-2017 to determine whether rates changed after nationwide implementation of Safe Haven Laws, and to examine the association between infant homicide rates and state-specific Safe Haven age limits. During 2008-2017, the overall infant homicide rate was 7.2 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 74.0 per 100,000 person-years, representing a 66.7% decrease from 1989-1998. However, the homicide rate on first day of life was still 5.4 times higher than that for any other time in life. No obvious association was found between infant homicide rates and Safe Haven age limits. States are encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of their Safe Haven Laws and other prevention strategies to ensure they are achieving the intended benefits of preventing infant homicides. Programs and policies that strengthen economic supports, provide affordable childcare, and enhance and improve skills for young parents might contribute to the prevention of infant homicides.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño Abandonado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Homicidio/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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