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3.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974703

RESUMEN

Digital epidemiology is a new and rapidly growing field. The technological revolution we have been witnessing during the last decade, the global rise of the Internet, the emergence of social media and social networks that connect individuals worldwide for information exchange and social interactions, and the almost complete social penetration of mobile devices such as smartphones provide access to data on individual behavior with unprecedented resolution and precision. In digital epidemiology, this type of high-resolution behavioral data is analyzed to advance our understanding of, for example, infectious disease dynamics and improve our abilities to forecast epidemic outbreaks and related phenomena.This article provides an overview on the topic. Different aspects of digital epidemiology are alluded to. Based on examples, I will explain how epidemiological data is integrated on new comprehensive and interactive websites, how the analysis of interactions and activities on social media platforms can yield answers to epidemiological questions, and finally how individual-based data collected by smartphones or wearable sensors in natural experiments can be used to reconstruct contact and physical proximity networks the knowledge of which substantially improves the predictive power of computational models for transmissible infectious diseases.The challenges posed in terms of privacy protection and data security will be discussed. Concepts and solutions will be explained that may help to improve public health by leveraging the new data while at the same time protecting the individual's data sovereignty and personal dignity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Recolección de Datos , Alemania , Humanos , Salud Pública
4.
Waste Manag ; 102: 722-731, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805445

RESUMEN

This research was motivated by the intriguing phenomena across several economies that green building clients/developers are observably lukewarm in pursuing construction waste management (CWM). Recent studies, most of them in a qualitative nature, reported that to obtain CWM-related credits is "costlier" than obtaining credits from other green building aspects such as sites, lighting, and so on. Yet, there is a clear lack of empirical analysis of such cost implications with a view to providing convincing explanation to the phenomena. This research aims to identify the cost implications of achieving CWM-related credits as stipulated in green building rating tools by focusing in Hong Kong. The costs for using materials required for green certification were calculated and compared against conventional materials by introducing a life cycle perspective. It is discovered that to obtain the CWM-related credits, one needs to pay a higher cost ranging from 0.4% to 6%.


Asunto(s)
Materiales de Construcción , Administración de Residuos , Recolección de Datos , Hong Kong
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105319, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706186

RESUMEN

The continuous motorization of traffic has led to a sustained increase in the global number of road related fatalities and injuries. To counter this, governments are focusing on enforcing safe and law-abiding behavior in traffic. However, especially in developing countries where the motorcycle is the main form of transportation, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the safety-critical behavioral metric of motorcycle helmet use. This lack of data prohibits targeted enforcement and education campaigns which are crucial for injury prevention. Hence, we have developed an algorithm for the automated registration of motorcycle helmet usage from video data, using a deep learning approach. Based on 91,000 annotated frames of video data, collected at multiple observation sites in 7 cities across the country of Myanmar, we trained our algorithm to detect active motorcycles, the number and position of riders on the motorcycle, as well as their helmet use. An analysis of the algorithm's accuracy on an annotated test data set, and a comparison to available human-registered helmet use data reveals a high accuracy of our approach. Our algorithm registers motorcycle helmet use rates with an accuracy of -4.4% and +2.1% in comparison to a human observer, with minimal training for individual observation sites. Without observation site specific training, the accuracy of helmet use detection decreases slightly, depending on a number of factors. Our approach can be implemented in existing roadside traffic surveillance infrastructure and can facilitate targeted data-driven injury prevention campaigns with real-time speed. Implications of the proposed method, as well as measures that can further improve detection accuracy are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Dispositivos de Protección de la Cabeza/estadística & datos numéricos , Motocicletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Ciudades , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar
6.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 171-174, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407080

RESUMEN

The article reports a clinical case illustrating a favorable outcome of endovascular treatment of a patient with a ruptured wide range neck ACoA aneurysm by WEB-Device. The peculiar characteristics of the pre-procedural period and the procedure are described.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma Roto , Procedimientos Endovasculares , Aneurisma Intracraneal , Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Arteria Cerebral Anterior , Recolección de Datos , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraneal/terapia
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e190010.supl.3, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800849

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Brazil presented a high proportion of ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) in 2000, compromising accurate cause-of-death analysis. OBJECTIVE: To analyze specific underlying causes for deaths originally assigned as IDCD in the Mortality Information System (SIM - Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade), after investigation activities implemented in country between 2006 and 2017. METHOD: For all IDCD identified in the SIM, municipal health professionals collected information about the final disease obtained from hospital records, autopsies, forms of family health teams, and home investigation. Specific causes among reclassified IDCD after investigation were evaluated according to age groups and four calendar periods. RESULTS: Proportions of IDCD reassigned to other causes after review increased over time, reaching 30.1% in 2017. From a total of 257,367 IDCD reclassified in 2006-2017, neonatal-related conditions, injury, ischemic heart disease and stroke were the leading causes detected in the age groups 0-9 years, 10-29 years, 30-69 years, 70 years and over, respectively. DISCUSSION: The similarity and plausibility of cause-specific proportions derived from the reclassification of IDCD by age group over time indicate the accuracy of the investigation data. CONCLUSION: High proportions of IDCD reassigned to more informative causes after review indicate the success of this approach to correct misclassification in the SIM, an initiative that should be maintained. Training physicians on death certification along with better quality of medical care and access to health services would lead to further improvement.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Sistemas de Información/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Autopsia/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Certificado de Defunción , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Entrevistas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Registros Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 898-963, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875812

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To obtain hemoglobin values in different regions of China is of great guiding value for judging anemia in children in different regions. METHODS: A total of 13 951 children aged 0-2 years old(female 6759, male 7192, urban area 6866, rural area 7085) in the 2010-2013 National Nutrition and Health Survey was analyzed the characteristics of hemoglobin spatial differentiation. SAS was used to analyze the data of children's hemoglobin result. Geographic Information System(GIS)spatial analysis method was used to form the spatial distribution map of hemoglobin mean values at 55 monitoring points, and inverse distance weighted spatial interpolation(IDW)method was used to obtain the spatial distribution map of children's hemoglobin in China. RESULTS: Based on the data of 13 951 children aged 0-2 years in the National Nutrition and Health Survey, it was found that the average hemoglobin value of Chinese children ranged from 112. 02 to 139. 03 g/L. The average hemoglobin value of Yi 'an County in Heilongjiang Province(139. 04 ± 1. 22 g/L) and Kangle County in Gansu Province(132. 43 ± 0. 82 g/L) was the highest, followed by Shanxi, Yunnan, Anhui, Qinghai and Fujian Provinces(124. 03-128. 72 g/L). The result of spatial interpolation of hemoglobin for children aged 0-2 in China showed that the hemoglobin of children aged0-2 in China showed spatial differences, forming inland high value areas with Heilongjiang, Gansu-Qinghai, Shanxi and Yunnan as the core, Anhui-Jiangsu-ZhejiangFujian coastal high value areas. Low-value areas of hemoglobin were formed in eastern Sichuan-Chongqing-western Hubei-southern Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia-Shanxi-Shaanxi, Beijing-Hebei, Jilin-Liaoning, southern Guangdong and Hainan. There was no significant correlation between the spatial distribution of hemoglobin and altitude in children aged 0-2 years in China in 2013. CONCLUSION: The spatial distribution of hemoglobin in children aged 0-2 years in China has significant spatial difference characteristics between different regions, with local higher value region and lower value region distribution, which has no significant correlation with altitude.


Asunto(s)
Hemoglobinas , Beijing , Preescolar , China , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido
9.
PLoS Med ; 16(12): e1002978, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846474

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gun violence has shortened the average life expectancy of Americans, and better knowledge about the root causes of gun violence is crucial to its prevention. While some empirical evidence exists regarding the impacts of social and economic factors on violence and firearm homicide rates, to the author's knowledge, there has yet to be a comprehensive and comparative lagged, multilevel investigation of major social determinants of health in relation to firearm homicides and mass shootings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study used negative binomial regression models and geolocated gun homicide incident data from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, to explore and compare the independent associations of key state-, county-, and neighborhood-level social determinants of health-social mobility, social capital, income inequality, racial and economic segregation, and social spending-with neighborhood firearm-related homicides and mass shootings in the United States, accounting for relevant state firearm laws and a variety of state, county, and neighborhood (census tract [CT]) characteristics. Latitude and longitude coordinates on firearm-related deaths were previously collected by the Gun Violence Archive, and then linked by the British newspaper The Guardian to CTs according to 2010 Census geographies. The study population consisted of all 74,134 CTs as defined for the 2010 Census in the 48 states of the contiguous US. The final sample spanned 70,579 CTs, containing an estimated 314,247,908 individuals, or 98% of the total US population in 2015. The analyses were based on 13,060 firearm-related deaths in 2015, with 11,244 non-mass shootings taking place in 8,673 CTs and 141 mass shootings occurring in 138 CTs. For area-level social determinants, lag periods of 3 to 17 years were examined based on existing theory, empirical evidence, and data availability. County-level institutional social capital (levels of trust in institutions), social mobility, income inequality, and public welfare spending exhibited robust relationships with CT-level gun homicide rates and the total numbers of combined non-mass and mass shooting homicide incidents and non-mass shooting homicide incidents alone. A 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in institutional social capital was linked to a 19% reduction in the homicide rate (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.91, p < 0.001) and a 17% decrease in the number of firearm homicide incidents (IRR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95, p = 0.01). Upward social mobility was related to a 25% reduction in the gun homicide rate (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.86, p < 0.001) and a 24% decrease in the number of homicide incidents (IRR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.87, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, 1-SD increases in the neighborhood percentages of residents in poverty and males living alone were associated with 26%-27% and 12% higher homicide rates, respectively. Study limitations include possible residual confounding by factors at the individual/household level, and lack of disaggregation of gun homicide data by gender and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that the rich-poor gap, level of citizens' trust in institutions, economic opportunity, and public welfare spending are all related to firearm homicide rates in the US. Further establishing the causal nature of these associations and modifying these social determinants may help to address the growing gun violence epidemic and reverse recent life expectancy declines among Americans.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
10.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 46(6): 591-595, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872989

RESUMEN

This article describes an example of a pilot study that was done to determine the feasibility of measuring fatigue in patients on hemodialysis several times a day for one week to track patterns of fatigue. Pilot studies are studies done on a smaller scale that use the same methods and procedures to be used in a larger study and are important in determining the feasibility of a research project. Lessons learned regarding the feasibility of this pilot study are discussed, including difficulties in participant recruitment, retention, and data collection. Suggestions to improve feasibility of studying this topic in patients on hemodialysis are examined and highlight the importance of pilot studies in designing larger scale studies.


Asunto(s)
Fatiga , Diálisis Renal , Recolección de Datos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 9): 366, 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757212

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several large public repositories of microarray datasets and RNA-seq data are available. Two prominent examples include ArrayExpress and NCBI GEO. Unfortunately, there is no easy way to import and manipulate data from such resources, because the data is stored in large files, requiring large bandwidth to download and special purpose data manipulation tools to extract subsets relevant for the specific analysis. RESULTS: TACITuS is a web-based system that supports rapid query access to high-throughput microarray and NGS repositories. The system is equipped with modules capable of managing large files, storing them in a cloud environment and extracting subsets of data in an easy and efficient way. The system also supports the ability to import data into Galaxy for further analysis. CONCLUSIONS: TACITuS automates most of the pre-processing needed to analyze high-throughput microarray and NGS data from large publicly-available repositories. The system implements several modules to manage large files in an easy and efficient way. Furthermore, it is capable deal with Galaxy environment allowing users to analyze data through a user-friendly interface.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Recolección de Datos , Programas Informáticos , Transcriptoma/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Humanos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
12.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758220

RESUMEN

In the project BURDEN 2020 - "The burden of disease in Germany and its regions" - the years of life lost (YLL) due to premature mortality are calculated on the basis of official cause-of-death statistics. This requires the identification and redistribution of the so-called ill-defined ICD codes. "Ill-defined" means that an ICD code does not sufficiently reflect the cause of death, such that it is not informative for the calculation of the burden of disease.The first steps on the way to calculating cause-specific YLL are presented. Different frameworks of ill-defined codes are compared. The number of deaths with ill-defined codes that can be found in the German cause-of-death statistics in absolute and relative terms are analyzed, including how they are distributed by age, sex, and region.According to the WHO framework, 15.6% of the 925,200 deaths in Germany in 2015 can be identified as ill-defined. According to the framework of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) in the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD), the proportion of ill-defined codes is 26.6%. The ICD-related distribution patterns hardly differ between WHO and IHME classifications. Considerable differences exist between the federal states, with shares of ill-defined codes between 16 and 35% (IHME framework).The cause-of-death statistics in Germany contain a considerable proportion of ill-defined codes. The differences between the federal states can only partially be explained by different electronic data processing. Due to further dissemination and improvement of electronic data collection, higher quality of cause-of-death statistics can be expected in the future.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Biometría , Recolección de Datos , Alemania
13.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 736-745, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679060

RESUMEN

Road ecology research has tended to focus on wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) while omitting or failing to differentiate domestic (i.e., livestock) animal-vehicle collisions (DAVCs). This has limited our understanding of where, when, and how frequently DAVCs occur, and whether these patterns differ from those for WVCs. We used a 10-year collision data set for the U.S. state of Montana to compare temporal and spatial patterns of DAVCs versus WVCs at multiple scales. WVCs exhibited two diel peaks (dawn and dusk) versus only one prominent peak (late evening/early night) for DAVCs. Seasonal patterns of WVCs and DAVCs were broadly similar, but DAVCs exhibited a more pronounced late-fall peak. At the county scale, DAVCs were overrepresented relative to WVCs in most of eastern Montana and underrepresented in most of western Montana. WVC and DAVC hotpots did not show strong overlap at the 1-mile road segment scale. Our results suggest that DAVCs warrant greater attention, and they may represent a high priority for management and mitigation measures in some areas because (1) they can be locally common even when regionally rare, (2) they are more dangerous to motorists on a per-collision basis than WVCs, and (3) they can present a legal liability for livestock owners. Mitigation measures for DAVCs may differ from those for WVCs and require further development and testing. Future data collection efforts should include information not only on the location and timing of animal-vehicle collisions, but also on the species of animals killed.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Ganado , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Recolección de Datos , Montana
14.
Lancet ; 394(10209): 1668-1684, 2019 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668410

RESUMEN

The rapid emergence since the mid-2000s of a large and diverse range of substances originally designed as legal alternatives to more established illicit drugs (pragmatically clustered and termed new psychoactive substances; [NPS]) has challenged traditional approaches to drug monitoring, surveillance, control, and public health responses. In this section of the Series, we describe the emergence of NPS and consider opportunities for strengthening the detection, identification, and responses to future substances of concern. First, we explore the definitional complexity of the term NPS. Second, we describe the origins and drivers surrounding NPS, including motivations for use. Third, we summarise evidence on NPS availability, use, and associated harms. Finally, we use NPS as a case example to explore challenges and opportunities for future drug monitoring, surveillance, control, and public health responses. We posit that the current means of responding to emerging substances might no longer be fit for purpose in a world in which different substances can be rapidly introduced, and where people who use drugs can change preferences on the basis of market availability.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Recolección de Datos , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , /legislación & jurisprudencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Psicotrópicos/clasificación , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): 483-487, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693554

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Limited guidelines to assist nurse researchers who use web-based interventions are available. Nurses must develop the supporting technology enabling participants to complete study activities and collected data while maintaining data security and participant confidentiality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe how the authors used advanced Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) functionality to support the data management infrastructure of an interactive, web-based therapeutic intervention. METHODS: The data management infrastructure for the WISER (Writing to Improve Self-in-Relationships) intervention pilot study consisted of two components: a website for presentation of the intervention and participant account management and a REDCap project for data capture and storage. The REDCap application programming interface connected these two components using HTML links and data exchanges. RESULTS: We completed an initial pilot study of WISER with 14 participants using the REDCap-based infrastructure. Minimal technical difficulties were encountered. DISCUSSION: REDCap is cost-effective, is readily available, and, through its advanced functionality, is able to facilitate confidential, secure interactions with participants, robust data management, and seamless participant progression in web-based intervention research.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos , Gestión de la Información en Salud , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Internet , Investigación en Enfermería , Programas Informáticos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 72(12): 1031-1042, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732435

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This report presents the findings of the 2018 Spanish Catheter Ablation Registry. METHODS: Data collection was retrospective. A standardized questionnaire was completed by each of the participating centers. RESULTS: Data sent by 100 centers were analyzed, with a total number of 16566 ablation procedures performed (the highest historically reported in this registry) for a mean of 165.5±127.9 and a median of 119 procedures per center. The ablation targets most frequently treated were atrial fibrillation (n=4234; 25.6%), atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (n=3525; 21.3%) and cavotricuspid isthmus (n=3425; 20.7%). A new peak was observed in the ablation of atrial fibrillation, increasing the distance from the other substrates. The overall success rate was 91%. The rate of major complications was 2.2%, and the mortality rate was 0.04%. A total of 2.1% of the ablations were performed in pediatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish Catheter Ablation Registry enrolls systematically and continuously enrolls the ablation procedures performed in Spain, showing a progressive increasing in the number of ablations over the years, with a high success rate and low percentage of complications.


Asunto(s)
Arritmias Cardíacas/cirugía , Cardiología , Ablación por Catéter/estadística & datos numéricos , Técnicas Electrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Sociedades Médicas , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatología , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , España
17.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 72(12): 1054-1064, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727564

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This article presents the data corresponding to automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implants in Spain reported to the Spanish Registry in 2018. METHODS: The data in this registry include both primary implants and generator replacements and were gathered from a data collection sheet voluntarily completed by implantation centers. RESULTS: In 2018, 6421 implant sheets were received compared with 7077 reported by Eucomed (European Confederation of Medical Suppliers Associations). This represents data on 90.7% of the devices implanted in Spain. Compliance ranged between 99.6% for the field "name of the implanting hospital" and 12.4% for "population of residence". A total of 173 hospitals reported their data to the registry, representing a slight decrease compared with hospitals participating in 2017 (n=181). CONCLUSIONS: After the reduction in ICD implants in 2017, the number of implants increased in 2018, with the highest number of ICDs implanted in Spain. The total number of implants remains much lower than the European Union average, with substantial differences between autonomous communities.


Asunto(s)
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Cardiología , Desfibriladores Implantables/estadística & datos numéricos , Electrofisiología/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Sociedades Médicas , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , España
18.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 14.
Artículo en Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613374

RESUMEN

The development of accelerometers has revolutionized measurement of physical activity, and they are used to a large extent in research and have started to be implemented into clinical settings. However, achievement of reliable outcomes requires good methodological knowledge and skills by the user. Otherwise, significant measurement errors may occur, interfering with assessment of the physical activity level in the population, group differences, associations with health parameters or effect of treatments. This paper by the Swedish Network for Objective Measurement of Movement (NORM) provides an overview of physical activity measurement including sections of data collection, processing of raw data into useful metrics and statistical analysis. It targets users of accelerometer in research, health care and national surveys.


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría/normas , Ejercicio , Recolección de Datos/normas , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Humanos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1288, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615472

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human activity and the interaction between health conditions and activity is a critical part of understanding the overall function of individuals. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) models function as all aspects of an individual's interaction with the world, including organismal concepts such as individual body structures, functions, and pathologies, as well as the outcomes of the individual's interaction with their environment, referred to as activity and participation. Function, particularly activity and participation outcomes, is an important indicator of health at both the level of an individual and the population level, as it is highly correlated with quality of life and a critical component of identifying resource needs. Since it reflects the cumulative impact of health conditions on individuals and is not disease specific, its use as a health indicator helps to address major barriers to holistic, patient-centered care that result from multiple, and often competing, disease specific interventions. While the need for better information on function has been widely endorsed, this has not translated into its routine incorporation into modern health systems. PURPOSE: We present the importance of capturing information on activity as a core component of modern health systems and identify specific steps and analytic methods that can be used to make it more available to utilize in improving patient care. We identify challenges in the use of activity and participation information, such as a lack of consistent documentation and diversity of data specificity and representation across providers, health systems, and national surveys. We describe how activity and participation information can be more effectively captured, and how health informatics methodologies, including natural language processing (NLP), can enable automatically locating, extracting, and organizing this information on a large scale, supporting standardization and utilization with minimal additional provider burden. We examine the analytic requirements and potential challenges of capturing this information with informatics, and describe how data-driven techniques can combine with common standards and documentation practices to make activity and participation information standardized and accessible for improving patient care. RECOMMENDATIONS: We recommend four specific actions to improve the capture and analysis of activity and participation information throughout the continuum of care: (1) make activity and participation annotation standards and datasets available to the broader research community; (2) define common research problems in automatically processing activity and participation information; (3) develop robust, machine-readable ontologies for function that describe the components of activity and participation information and their relationships; and (4) establish standards for how and when to document activity and participation status during clinical encounters. We further provide specific short-term goals to make significant progress in each of these areas within a reasonable time frame.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos , Informática Médica , Humanos
20.
Adv Dent Res ; 30(2): 28-30, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633386
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