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1.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(2): 179-186, 2021 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137232

RESUMEN

To investigate the effect of captopril on the dentin bonding durability of self-etch adhesive. Different concentrations of captopril ethanol solutions or captopril ethanol/water solutions were prepared to pretreat dentin as primer for the self-etch adhesives. The surface morphology of the dentin was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the morphology analysis, the pretreatment condition was selected and two self-etch adhesives were employed to evaluate the improvement effect of the captopril pretreatment on the dentin bonding durability. : SEM showed that the pretreatment of captopril ethanol solutions and captopril ethanol/water solutions were able to remove the smear lay and partially expose collagen matrix. According to the SEM results, the pretreating condition of captopril ethanol/water solution with the pretreating time of was selected for further dentin bonding study. For Clearfil SEBOND system, the immediate bonding strength increased from to  (<0.05). After one-year aging, the bonding strength of the control group decreased markedly [(22.90±6.82) MPa, <0.05]; while the bonding strength of the captopril pretreated group kept steadily >0.05]. For Clearfil S BOND system, there was no significant difference in the immediate bonding strength between the experimental group [(4.07) MPa] and the control group[(4.11) MPa]. But after one-year aging, the bonding strength of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group <0.05]. : The pretreatment with captopril ethanol/water solution increases the dentin bonding strength of the self-etch adhesive systems and also improves the bonding durability.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Adhesivos , Captopril , Dentina , Ensayo de Materiales , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Cementos de Resina
2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5462-5473, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical performance of universal adhesives in etch-and-rinse or self-etch application modes through meta-analysis. METHODS: A literature search was performed by two reviewers in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases (from January 2000 to March 2020). A total of 2,516 non-replicated records were identified and filtered. Studies that evaluated the clinical performance of universal adhesives using etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode were included. RevMan 5.3.5 (Cochrane, London, UK) was used to perform the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The retention rates were higher in etch-and-rinse groups compared with self-etch groups [odds ratio (OR) =0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18-0.71, P=0.003]. The etch-and-rinse approach also had better performance in marginal adaptation (OR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.36-0.67, P<0.001) and marginal staining (OR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.36-0.66, P<0.001). The current data showed a very low incidence rate of secondary caries or postoperative sensitivity, and there were no significant differences in the incidence rates between the etch-and-rinse groups and self-etch groups. DISCUSSION: The current evidence shows that, compared with self-etch approach, the etch-and-rinse approach for universal adhesives provides improved clinical outcomes in terms of retention rates, marginal adaptation, and marginal staining.


Asunto(s)
Adhesivos , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Humanos , Londres , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina
3.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(3): 187-200, 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060299

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to compare the retention rates of 3-step etch-and-rinse (3ER) adhesives with 1-step self-etch (1SE) adhesives in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). The secondary outcomes were marginal integrity and marginal discoloration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared 1SE with 3ER in NCCLs were included. Controlled vocabulary and keywords were combined in the search strategy for PubMed/Medline, LILACS, BBO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, grey literature, and IADR abstracts (1990-2018). The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB) was applied to eligible studies. Meta-analyses were conducted for retention rate and secondary outcomes at different follow-up times, using the random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed with the Cochran Q test and I2 statistics. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: After the removal of duplicates, title and abstract screening, 18 studies remained. Of these, 15 studies were used for meta-analysis. Fourteen out of these 15 were judged at "unclear" risk and 1 at "low" risk of bias. No significant differences between groups were observed in the different follow-up periods for retention rates 12 to 24 months (p = 0.66), 24 to 36 months (p = 0.21) and 60 months (p = 0.96). A significant difference in marginal integrity was found at 12 to 24 months (p = 0.04) and in marginal discoloration at 12 to 24 months (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: There is no evidence that 3-step ER adhesives have better retention rates than 1-step SE adhesives in NCCLs.


Asunto(s)
Cementos Dentales , Recubrimientos Dentinarios
4.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 34(1): 10-17, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137773

RESUMEN

Dentin hypersensitivity is caused by increased dentinal permeability due to total or partial exposure of dentinal tubules, which in turn can be produced by alterations of dental structures or failure of restorative procedures. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of the application of different kinds of adhesive systems to prevent dentin permeability before and after an erosive challenge. Fifty bovine dentin discs (6x1 mm) were prepared and the specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=10): (SB2) Single Bond 2, (SBU) Universal Single Bond, (CSB) Clearfil SE Bond, (SM) Scotchbond Multipurpose and (C) Control. Hydraulic conductance of dentin was recorded after adhesive application (HC-1) and after erosive challenge (HC-2). Dentin surface images of post-treatment and post-erosive challenge were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney with Bonferroni correction and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05). Reduction in dentin permeability was observed with the application of adhesive systems (p<0.05). After the erosive challenge, dentin permeability increased for SBU and CSB (p<0.05), while SB2 and SM did not differ in HC-1 or HC-2 (p>0.05). The conventional, self-etching and universal adhesive systems reduce dentinal permeability by more than 80%, and dentin demineralization may contribute to the increased permeability of universal and self-etching systems.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Animales , Bovinos , Resinas Compuestas , Cementos Dentales , Dentina , Ensayo de Materiales , Permeabilidad , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción
5.
Am J Dent ; 34(2): 80-86, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940664

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the effect on micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) of a double layer application of three universal adhesives applied in self-etch mode to proximal dentin/cementum gingival margins of class II direct composite restorations, immediately and after 12 months water storage. METHODS: 66 molars with compound class II cavities, with gingival margin 1 mm below CEJ, were divided into three groups according to the universal adhesive used. The adhesives evaluated included All-Bond Universal (AB), Single Bond Universal (SB), and Prime&Bond Elect (PB). The groups were further subdivided according to adhesive application technique, either single layer or double layer application. All teeth were restored with the same nanofilled resin composite. µTBS were examined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute after 24 hours or 12 months water storage. Fracture mode was assessed under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (P< 0.05). RESULTS: The double layer application µTBS values were significantly higher than single layer application in all groups. Regardless of the type of adhesive or application technique, all subgroups showed significantly decreased bond strength after aging. There were significant lower µTBS values for AB adhesive compared with the other two adhesives that demonstrated no significant differences between them. The double layer application technique was effective in enhancing µTBS values of all tested adhesives bonded to proximal dentin/cementum gingival margins compared to single layer application. Regardless of application technique, all tested adhesives were incapable of defying long-term water aging. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The double layer application technique may be recommended to enhance the bonding durability of universal adhesives to face challenges in bonding to dentin-cementum cervical margins.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Cementos Dentales , Cemento Dental , Dentina , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 127: 105148, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022546

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize an experimental primer containing cationic lipid nanoparticles (NPL-chitosan) and to evaluate its properties. DESIGN: The NPL-chitosan were synthesized by emulsion and sonication method. The experimental primers were applied in dentin surface of fifty human molars. The experimental groups were: 1) application of commercial primer; 2) Primer containing 2% of Chlorhexidine (CHX) 3); Primer with 2% NPL-chitosan 4); Primer with 0.6 % of NPL-chitosan 5); Primer with 0.4 % of NPL-chitosan. A composite resin plateau was used for the analysis, where sections were made for making the dentin beams. The effect of experimental primer with cationic nanoparticles in the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was carrying out by in situ zymography. For the Resin-Dentin Adhesive Strength and in situ Zymography analysis, was used the One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance level of 95 %. RESULTS: Spherical NPL-chitosan presented size below 220 nm, polydispersity index of 0.179 and zeta potential positive and was stable over 75 days. These nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity agsainst S. mutans with MIC of the 0.4 % and MBC of 0.67 %. In the Microtensile Strength, no statistical difference was observed between the experimental groups (p = 0.9054). The in situ zymography assay showed that the group with 2% of NPL-chitosan presented higher inactivation activity of MMPs compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The experimental primer containing NPL-chitosan has antimicrobial activity, does not alter the adhesive resistance and inactivates MMPs present in dentin.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Nanopartículas , Resinas Compuestas , Cementos Dentales/farmacología , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Metaloproteasas , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción
7.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(2): 159-165, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825429

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of inclusion of two dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) concentrations in simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives on dentin bonding durability after three years of water storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two caries-free third molars were divided into six experimental groups (n = 7) according to the following factors: 1) adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], 3M Oral Care; Prime&Bond 2.1 [PB], Dentsply Sirona); 2) concentration of DMSO (control group: 0.0% DMSO; addition of 0.2% DMSO [0.2] and 2% DMSO [2.0]). After completing restoration, specimens were stored in water (37°C) for 24 h, sectioned into adhesive-dentin sticks (0.8 mm2), tested for microtensile bond strength (µTBS) at 0.5 mm/min, and examined for nanoleakage (NL) using SEM immediately thereafter or after three years of water storage. Data were subjected to a three-way repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05) for each property evaluated. RESULTS: After three years of water storage, for both adhesives, the incorporation of 2% DMSO maintained the µTBS when compared to immediate µTBS (p > 0.05). In general, SB resulted in a statistically significantly higher mean of µTBS compared to PB, independent of the DMSO concentration after water storage (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the amount of NL was lower and practically limited to the hybrid layer given the concentrations of 0.2% and 2% DMSO for both tested adhesives after three years. CONCLUSION: The incorporation of DMSO in simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives maintains the long-term stability of the dentin bond.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Dentina , Dimetilsulfóxido , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción , Agua
8.
Oper Dent ; 46(1): E1-E10, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882142

RESUMEN

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Carious and eroded dentin represent clinical challenges. The use of a universal bonding system, in a self-etching mode, associated with chlorhexidine (CHX) seems to not improve its longevity. This may be attributed to the competition for calcium between the bonding agent functional monomer and CHX.


Asunto(s)
Clorhexidina , Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Cementos Dentales , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción
9.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 119: 104498, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839538

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we incorporated hybrid nanoparticles (poly (acrylic acid)-grafted nanoclay/nanosilica, respectively, with platelet and spherical morphologies, abbreviated as PAA-g-NC-Sil) in different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 wt%) to an experimental dentin bonding system and investigated the physical properties of the filled adhesive and its shear bond strength (µ-SBS) to dentin. We subsequently compared the properties of the adhesives containing PAA-g-NC-Sil with previously studied adhesives containing poly (methacrylic acid)-g-nanoclay (PMA-g-NC) (Solhi et al., 2012a), poly (acrylic acid)-g-nanoclay (PAA-g-NC) (Solhi et al., 2012b), and the hybrid poly (methacrylic acid)-grafted-nanoclay-nanosilica (PMA-g-NC-Sil) (Solhi et al., 2020). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a set of previous publications and the present paper, we grafted poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) or poly (methacrylic acid) (PMA) onto the surface of pristine Na-MMT nanoclay (Cloisite® Na+) through free radical polymerization of monomer in an aqueous media in the presence or absence of nanosilica particles. We characterized the resulting modified nanoparticles (PMA-g-NC, PAA-g-NC, PMA-g-NC-Sil and PAA-g-NC-Sil) using GPC, FTIR, TGA, and XRD. We then incorporated the modified particles as functionalized fillers to experimental dentin adhesives in different concentrations and studied the stability of modified fillers dispersion by separation analysis. We also studied the properties of the photo-cured adhesive matrices using FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDXA, and XRD. We examined the shear bond strength of the adhesives (containing different contents of each modified filler, separately) to human premolar teeth. The results were analysed and compared statistically. RESULTS: The results confirmed that the polymers have been grafted onto the surface of nanoclay. An exfoliated structure for the nanoclay platelets in the photo-cured adhesive containing PAA-g-NC-Sil was observed. Addition of 0.5 wt% of PAA-g-NC-Sil to the experimental adhesive increased the shear bond strength and the dispersion stability in comparison to unfilled adhesive. The same trend was also observed for adhesives containing PMA-g-NC, PAA-g-NC, and PMA-g-NC-Sil. The adhesive containing PAA-g-NC-Sil showed the best dispersion stability and subsequently the highest shear bond strength in the optimal concentration among adhesives containing the four available fillers (PMA-g-NC, PAA-g-NC, PMA-g-NC-Sil and PAA-g-NC-Sil). SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of poly (acrylic acid) modified nanoparticles to the experimental dentin adhesives resulted in higher shear bond strength due to the potential interactions between the carboxylic acid functional groups on the surface of the modified particles and the dentin structure. Between the poly (acrylic acid) and poly (methacrylic acid), the former acid with higher PKa performed better. Addition of the spherical nanosilica particles to the adhesives containing platelet nanoclay helped to better exfoliate the platelets resulting in improved µ-SBS and dispersion stability.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Nanopartículas , Adhesivos , Cementos Dentales , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Polimerizacion , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia al Corte
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922376

RESUMEN

Some authors have been proposing the use of cavity disinfectants in order to reduce, or even eliminate, the effect of the microorganisms present in a dental cavity before a restoration is placed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on bond strength and clinical success of composite and glass ionomer restorations on primary teeth. The research was conducted using Cochrane Library, PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science for articles published up to February 2021. The search was performed according to the PICO strategy. The evaluation of the methodological quality of each in vitro study was assessed using the CONSORT checklist for reporting in vitro studies on dental materials. Sixteen in vitro studies and one in situ study fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Chlorhexidine was the most studied cavity disinfectant, and its use does not compromise dentin bonding. Sodium hypochlorite is a promising alternative, but more research on its use is required to clearly state that it can safely be used as a cavity disinfectant for primary teeth. Although other disinfectants were studied, there is a low-level evidence attesting their effects on adhesion, therefore their use should be avoided.


Asunto(s)
Preparación de la Cavidad Dental/métodos , Recubrimientos Dentinarios/química , Desinfectantes/química , Desinfección/métodos , Diente Primario/fisiología , Adhesividad , Humanos
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 119: 104545, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905918

RESUMEN

Capturing deformation of bone using strain gauges is still a common approach in biomechanics. So far, the bone surfaces had to be sanded and cleaned using various solvents prior to attaching the sensors using cyanoacrylate. This work proposes a novel approach employing common bonding procedures to enamel and dentin as used in restorative dentistry. Bovine ribs were obtained and osteotomies were created following clinical protocols for dental implant insertion. A unidirectional strain gauge was attached to the outer surface of the bone specimens using the steps of acid etching with phosphoric acid, application of a three-bottle dentin adhesive and light curing. Emerging strains were then captured during implant insertion as well as during static loading of the implants in a universal testing machine. The method described here allowed for the reliable fixation of strain gauges on unaltered bone surfaces. Both, compressive and tensile strains emerging in the surrounding of the dental implants could be captured.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Grabado Ácido Dental , Animales , Bovinos , Resinas Compuestas , Dentina , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina , Estrés Mecánico , Resistencia a la Tracción
12.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 119: 104529, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910131

RESUMEN

To evaluate the effect of three adhesive systems applied under electric current on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) and degree of conversion (DC). Molar teeth were restored with the aid of three adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond 2-SB2; Clearfil SE Bond-CSE; and Single Bond Universal-SBU) under different electric current intensities (0 µA; 25 µA; and 50 µA). Composite resin blocks were built up in increments (2 mm) and sectioned into 1 × 1 mm beams. The µTBS was tested after 24 h and 1 y distilled water storages. Samples (n = 10) from 24 h to 1 y storages were immersed in a 50% ammoniacal silver nitrate solution and submitted to scanning electron microscopy. The silver nitrate in the hybrid layer was quantified (ImageJ software). The adhesive systems' dentinal infiltration was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the DC. The µTBS data were submitted to two-way ANOVA (time vs. electric current) and Bonferroni's test (α = 0.05). Quantitative nanoleakage data were submitted to two-way ANOVA (electric current vs. adhesive) and Bonferroni's test (α = 0.05). DC data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05) for each adhesive system. The electric current statistically increased the µTBS for SB2 and CSE in 24 h storage, as well as for SB2, CSE and SBU in 1 y storage. No significant difference was observed between storage time for CSE and SBU. When compared to the control, electric currents (25 µA and 50 µA) showed significantly higher DC mean values for SB2 and SBU, and had no effect on CSE. The electric currents (25 µA and 50 µA) reduced the adhesive system's nanoleakage after 1-year storage, and improved the infiltration of SB2 and CSE. Both electric current intensities improved dentinal interface stability.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Adhesivos , Resinas Compuestas , Dentina , Ensayo de Materiales , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción
13.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(1): 29-34, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690825

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of ion-releasing restorative materials to sound and caries-affected dentin (CAD). STUDY DESIGN: 60 teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (sound dentin, CAD) and 5 subgroups of 6 samples each: conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), glass hybrid reinforced GIC (EQ), giomer (BII), and bioactive restorative material (ACT). µTBS analyses were performed and data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The ACT group bonded to sound dentin and the BII group bonded to CAD showed the highest µTBS (p<0.05). The GIC, RMGIC, and ACT groups, showed significantly lower µTBS when bonded to CAD compared with sound dentin (p<0.05). However, in the BII group, there were no statistically significant differences between the samples bonded to sound and CAD (p>0.05). All groups except EQ that bonded to sound dentin showed predominantly adhesive failure. CONCLUSION: The use of the giomer can be recommended due to its more stable bond durability.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Susceptibilidad a Caries Dentarias , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción
14.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 129(2): e12768, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667032

RESUMEN

This study aimed at determining the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives to intact enamel (IE) and ground enamel (GE) in different etching modes under thermal cycling (TC) and fatigue stresses. Two universal adhesives and a two-step self-etch adhesive were used. Enamel specimens were divided into four groups by treatment: (i) GE in etch-and-rinse, (ii) IE in etch-and-rinse, (iii) GE in self-etch, and (iv) IE in self-etch. Bonded specimens were subjected to TC, and then shear bond strengths (SBS) were conducted. SBS tests were also conducted after storage in 37°C water for 24 h (baseline). For shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing, bonded specimens were subjected to fatigue stress at a frequency of 10 Hz for 50,000 cycles. At baseline, all adhesives showed significantly higher SBS values with GE than IE in self-etch mode in contrast to in etch-and-rinse mode. After TC, the universal adhesives with IE showed lower SBS values than the baseline, regardless of the etching mode. Universal adhesives showed significantly lower SFS values with IE in etch-and-rinse, but not in self-etch mode. Phosphoric acid pre-etching or grinding of the aprismatic enamel may be helpful in establishing reliable initial and long-term bonds to enamel when using universal adhesives in self-etch mode.


Asunto(s)
Grabado Ácido Dental , Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Adhesivos , Cementos Dentales , Esmalte Dental , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia al Corte
15.
Dent Mater ; 37(5): 805-815, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663882

RESUMEN

The stability of the bond between polymeric adhesives to mineralized substrates is crucial in many biomedical applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of methyl substitution at the α- and ß-carbons on the kinetics of polymerization, monomer hydrolytic stability, and long-term bond strength to dentin for methacrylamide- and methacrylate-based crosslinked networks for dental adhesive applications. METHODS: Secondary methacrylamides (α-CH3 substituted=1-methyl HEMAM, ß-CH3 substituted=2-methyl HEMAM, and unsubstituted=HEMAM) and OH-terminated methacrylates (α- and ß-CH3 mixture=1-methyl HEMA and 2-methyl HEMA, and unsubstituted=HEMA) were copolymerized with urethane dimethacrylate. The kinetics of photopolymerization were followed in real-time using near-IR spectroscopy. Monomer hydrolysis kinetics were followed by NMR spectroscopy in water at pH 1 over 30 days. Solvated adhesives (40 vol% ethanol) were used to bond composite to dentin and microtensile bond strength (µTBS) measured after 24h and 6 months storage in water at 37°C. RESULTS: The rate of polymerization increased in the following order: OH-terminated methacrylates≥methacrylamides>NH2-terminated methacrylates, with minimal effect of the substitution. Final conversion ranged between 79% for 1-methyl AEMA and 94% for HEMA. 1-methyl-HEMAM showed the highest and most stable µTBS, while HEMA showed a 37% reduction after six months All groups showed measurable degradation after up to 4 days in pH 1, with the methacrylamides showing less degradation than the methacrylates. Additionally, transesterification products were observed in the methacrylamide groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Amide monomers were significantly more stable to hydrolysis than the analogous methacrylates. The addition of a α- or ß-CH3 groups increased the rate of hydrolysis, with the magnitude of the effect tracking with the expected base-catalyzed hydrolysis of esters or amides, but opposite in influence. The α-CH3 substituted secondary methacrylamide, 1-methyl HEMAM, showed the most stable adhesive interface. A side reaction was observed with transesterification of the monomers studied under ambient conditions, which was not expected under the relatively mild conditions used here, which warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Acrilamidas , Resinas Compuestas , Cementos Dentales , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Ensayo de Materiales , Metacrilatos , Metilación , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción
16.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 117: 104389, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647730

RESUMEN

The presence of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) at the adhesive-dentin interface enables ionic binding to calcium salts, which results in rigid nano-layering within the submicron scale resin-dentin interdiffusion zone. MDP has been used with additional co-monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and/or 4-methacryloyloxyethyl-trimellitic acid (4-MET), mainly to enhance the chemical bonding properties. However, the use of co-monomers may compromise the rigidity of the adhesive-dentin interface. In this study, we use high-resolution mechanical mapping across the interface to discern the in situ mechanical properties of each target region at the nanoscale. Visualization by modulus mapping demonstrated that HEMA increases the diffusion properties of MDP into dentin structures. However, the rigidity of the adhesive-dentin interface indicated by the storage modulus was markedly lower in MDP containing HEMA than in MDP containing 4-MET. Dynamic indentation testing revealed that the bonding layer was more deformable in the presence of HEMA. Moreover, the presence of MDP in the bonding layer might also increase the deformability because the polymerization linearity allows a large degree of viscoelasticity. These factors also diminish the rigidity of the adhesive-dentin interface. Within the limitations of this study, our findings demonstrated that 4-MET is a better co-monomer than HEMA in MDP-based dental adhesives. Modulus mapping and nanoindentation are introduced as new tests for the adhesive-dentin interface to address queries about the effectiveness of dental adhesives.


Asunto(s)
Adhesivos , Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Sustancias Macromoleculares , Ensayo de Materiales , Metacrilatos , Cementos de Resina
17.
J Dent ; 108: 103641, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757864

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate, by means of microtensile bond strength test (µTBS), nanoleakage expression analysis (NL), gelatin zymography and in situ zymography, the effects of an experimental metal salt-based zirconium oxynitrate etchant [ZrO(NO3)2,] - ZON with two simplified adhesives on long-term bond strength and endogenous enzymatic activities. METHODS: Middle/deep coronal dentin surfaces (N = 32) were conditioned either with a traditional 37 % H3PO4 etchant (TE) or with ZON. Further, a single-component etch-and-rinse adhesive (EF) or a universal adhesive (AU) were applied and µTBS and NL tests were performed. Additional freshly extracted teeth were processed for gelatin zymography and in situ zymography evaluation. The tests were performed at baseline and (T0) and after 1-year-aging (T12). Bond strength and in situ zymography results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) (three-way and one-way, respectively), while Chi-squared test was used for the NL results. Statistical significance was preset at α = 0.05. RESULTS: All the investigated factors (adhesive system, dentin conditioner and aging) significantly influenced µTBS, with the AU and ZON performing better compared to EF and TE, respectively, and with lower bond strength values after aging (p < 0.05). Incremented silver nitrate deposits were observed at the adhesive interfaces after aging, especially for the TE groups (p < 0.05). Further, the experimental groups treated with ZON had significantly lower levels of enzymatic activity compared to TE, as shown by gelatin and in situ zymography (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The experimental etchant demonstrated promising results in hybrid-layer preservation over time when used with simplified bonding systems, and could therefore be recommended in the clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Cementos Dentales , Dentina , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia a la Tracción , Circonio
18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 119: 104453, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780849

RESUMEN

Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) in an aqueous solution can decrease dentin permeability, but some effects of its incorporation into adhesive systems are not yet known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical, water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) properties of two adhesive systems (Clearfil SE Bond/C and Scotchbond Universal/S) incorporated with 0.0% (T0), 2.5% (T2) and 4.0% (T4) titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4), and determine dentin permeability (L) after application of these adhesive systems both immediately afterwards (baseline) and after 6 months of storage. The physicochemical analyses of the incorporated solutions were performed based on evaluating particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI) by dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential (ZP) by electrophoresis. WS and SL tests followed ISO 4049 standards, and used a 7-day water storage period. The L test was performed by analyzing human dentin discs before and after adhesive system application, and after storage. PS and PDI were higher for CT0 and ST4 (p < 0.0001; ANOVA, Tukey). ZP was lower for CT4, ST2 and ST4 (p < 0.0001; ANOVA, Tukey). A 4.0% TiF4 incorporation showed higher WS (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, Dunn). Higher SL was observed for CT0 and ST4 (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, Dunn). The L value at baseline was lower for ST4, but was not different from the CT4 groups after storage (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, Dunn). It can be concluded that TiF4 affected the colloidal stability of Scotchbond, but did not alter the other properties. The 2.5% TiF4 did not affect the PDI, WS or L of the Clearfil, and can be considered an alternative for reducing hybrid layer degradation.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Adhesivos , Dentina , Permeabilidad de la Dentina , Fluoruros , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Cementos de Resina , Solubilidad , Resistencia a la Tracción , Titanio , Agua
19.
Am J Dent ; 34(1): 31-38, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544986

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To examine the marginal adaptation in enamel and dentin of mixed Class V saucer shaped restorations where cavities were prepared by two different lasers. METHODS: A handpiece-integrated Er:YAG laser @ 4.5 W, 300 mJ, 15 Hz (LiteTouch III) and a novel CO2 laser @ 12.95 W, 19.3 mJ, 671 Hz (Solea 9.3 µm). Diamond bur preparation with a 25 µm diamond bur (Intensiv) in a red contra angle at high speed under water spray cooling served as the control. Eight cavities per group were readied and restored under simulation of dentin fluid with a one bottle universal adhesive (One Coat 7 Universal) and a nanohybrid resin composite (Everglow), applied in two layers. For every preparation technique, the adhesive system was applied in the selective-etch and the self-etch mode, resulting in six experimental groups. Marginal analysis was performed immediately after polishing and after simultaneous thermal (5-50°C, 2 minutes each) and mechanical (max. 49 N; 200,000 cycles) loading by using a SEM (x200 magnification). RESULTS: Significant differences were found for all groups - except groups 2 and 5 - between initial and terminal results and between the groups as well (P< 0.05, 2-way ANOVA with Fisher's post-hoc test). The bur prepared group with selective-etch technique showed the best overall results after loading, followed by Er:YAG prepared self-etch group and CO2-prepared selective-etch group. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: By using a universal one-component adhesive system, marginal adaptation in enamel and in dentin depended on the preparation method and on the adhesive's application technique as well. When using lasers, Er:YAG in self-etch mode and CO2 9.3 µm in selective-etch mode total marginal adaptation showed results which were comparable to conventional bur preparation with selective-etch technique.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Láseres de Estado Sólido , Dióxido de Carbono , Resinas Compuestas , Preparación de la Cavidad Dental , Cementos Dentales , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Cementos de Resina
20.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 116: 104368, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545416

RESUMEN

Dental resin composites (DRCs) with 15 wt% (EC-15%) and 20 wt% (EC-20%) synthesized branched silicone methacrylate (BSM) in resin matrix have showed anti-adhesion effect against Streptococcus mutans. With the aim to evaluate the BSM containing DRCs further, water sorption (WS), solubility (SL), mechanical properties before and after water immersion, anti-adhesion effect against dual-species, bonding strength to adhesive treated dentin, and cytotoxicity of BSM containing DRCs were investigated. DRC without BSM was used as control. The WS and SL were obtained until the mass variation of composite in distilled water kept stable. Three-point bending test was used to evaluate flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) of composite before and after water immersion. Mixture of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was used to study the anti-adhesion effect against dual-species. Bonding strength of composite to adhesive treated dentin was measured through macro-shear test. Extract of composite was used to evaluate its cytotoxicity effect on L-929 mouse fibroblasts, and cell viability was obtained by MTT assay. The results showed that EC-15% and EC-20% had similar WS and SL as control (p < 0.05); After water immersion, FS and FM of all composites decreased (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in value of FS and FM between different groups (p > 0.05); More bacteria were recovered from the surface of control than those from the surface of EC-15% and EC-20% (p < 0.05); Extract of EC-15% was less cytotoxic (higher cell viability) than those EC-20% and control (p < 0.05). All of results revealed that incorporation of 15 wt% or 20 wt% BSM in resin matrix could endow DRC with inhibition effect on dual-species biofilm formation without impairing physiochemical properties, bonding strength to adhesive treated dentin, and cytotoxicity of DRC.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Metacrilatos , Animales , Biopelículas , Resinas Compuestas , Dentina , Recubrimientos Dentinarios , Ensayo de Materiales , Ratones , Cementos de Resina , Siliconas , Propiedades de Superficie
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