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2.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e082527, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692722

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of the midwifery workforce and childbirth services in China and to identify the association between midwife staffing and childbirth outcomes. DESIGN: A descriptive, multicentre cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Maternity hospitals from the eastern, central and western regions of China. PARTICIPANTS: Stratified sampling of maternity hospitals between 1 July and 31 December 2021.The sample hospitals received a package of questionnaires, and the head midwives from the participating hospitals were invited to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 180 hospitals were selected and investigated, staffed with 4159 midwives, 412 obstetric nurses and 1007 obstetricians at the labour and delivery units. The average efficiency index of annual midwifery services was 272 deliveries per midwife. In the sample hospitals, 44.9% of women had a caesarean delivery and 21.4% had an episiotomy. Improved midwife staffing was associated with reduced rates of instrumental vaginal delivery (adjusted ß -0.032, 95% CI -0.115 to -0.012, p<0.05) and episiotomy (adjusted ß -0.171, 95% CI -0.190 to -0.056, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The rates of childbirth interventions including the overall caesarean section in China and the episiotomy rate, especially in the central region, remain relatively high. Improved midwife staffing was associated with reduced rates of instrumental vaginal delivery and episiotomy, indicating that further investments in the midwifery workforce could produce better childbirth outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Partería , Humanos , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Embarazo , Partería/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estadística & datos numéricos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Admisión y Programación de Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Maternidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Episiotomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Materna/provisión & distribución , Recursos Humanos/estadística & datos numéricos
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(5): 636-641, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715503

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the change in human resources within China's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 2010 to 2020. Methods: The self-reported information from provincial, prefectural (city), and county (district) levels of China's CDC, covering employee counts, staff composition, professional qualifications, educational backgrounds, technical titles, and tenure, were extracted from the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. The demographic context was provided by the annual population figures from the China Statistical Yearbook (2010-2020). The profile of CDC personnel was described, and the average annual percentage rate change (AAPC), average annual percentage rate change (APC), human resource agglomeration degree (HRAD) and the difference between HRAD and population agglomeration degree (PAD) were calculated. The Joinpoint regression model was used to analyze the time trend. Results: The decade under review witnessed a net increase of 17 300 active and 18 300 enrolled personnel in the CDC, surpassing the national population growth rate with AAPCs of 0.93% and 1.03%, respectively. This upward trajectory was statistically significant (P<0.05). The ratio of disease control personnel per 10 000 population escalated from 1.14 to 1.21. An initial decline in active CDC workforce density (from 1.31 to 1.27 per 10 000 population between 2010 and 2017) was followed by an increase (from 1.28 to 1.37 between 2018 and 2020), with APCs of -0.40% and 3.73%, respectively. The proportion of professional and technical staff in 2019 was highest in the eastern region (86.01%), followed by the western (83.75%) and central regions (79.54%). The period also saw an enhancement in the average academic degree (from 1.91 to 2.43 points) and professional title scores (from 1.39 to 1.53 points) of CDC personnel. While the average tenure in the eastern and western regions showed a slight decline, the central region experienced an increase, with HRAD values indicating a higher concentration in the eastern and central regions compared to the western region. The HRAD-PAD discrepancy revealed a negative value in the eastern region, nearing zero in the central and western regions. Conclusion: Between 2010 and 2020, China's CDC experienced notable growth in human resources and underwent structural optimization, albeit with significant regional disparities in concentration.


Asunto(s)
Recursos Humanos , China , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
6.
World Neurosurg ; 185: e16-e29, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741324

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There has been a modest but progressive increase in the neurosurgical workforce, training, and service delivery in Nigeria in the last 2 decades. However, these resources are unevenly distributed. This study aimed to quantitatively assess the availability and distribution of neurosurgical resources in Nigeria while projecting the needed workforce capacity up to 2050. METHODS: An online survey of Nigerian neurosurgeons and residents assessed the country's neurosurgical infrastructure, workforce, and resources. The results were analyzed descriptively, and geospatial analysis was used to map their distribution. A projection model was fitted to predict workforce targets for 2022-2050. RESULTS: Out of 86 neurosurgery-capable health facilities, 65.1% were public hospitals, with only 17.4% accredited for residency training. Dedicated hospital beds and operating rooms for neurosurgery make up only 4.0% and 15.4% of the total, respectively. The population disease burden is estimated at 50.2 per 100,000, while the operative coverage was 153.2 cases per neurosurgeon. There are currently 132 neurosurgeons and 114 neurosurgery residents for a population of 218 million (ratio 1:1.65 million). There is an annual growth rate of 8.3%, resulting in a projected deficit of 1113 neurosurgeons by 2030 and 1104 by 2050. Timely access to neurosurgical care ranges from 21.6% to 86.7% of the population within different timeframes. CONCLUSIONS: Collaborative interventions are needed to address gaps in Nigeria's neurosurgical capacity. Investments in training, infrastructure, and funding are necessary for sustainable development and optimized outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Neurocirujanos , Neurocirugia , Nigeria , Humanos , Neurocirugia/tendencias , Neurocirugia/educación , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neurocirujanos/provisión & distribución , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/tendencias , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/tendencias , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Recursos Humanos/tendencias , Internado y Residencia/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Predicción
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0293957, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630785

RESUMEN

This research aimed to investigate the mediating function of Green Employee Empowerment (GEE) in the relationship between Green Human Resource Management practices (GHRM) and the environmental performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana, drawing on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) theory. This study assessed the hypotheses in the established research model using structural equation modeling based on data collected from 320 participants from small and medium-sized firms in Ghana. The study's results revealed that GHRM practices were significantly correlated with the firm's environmental performance. The study found significant GHRM's indirect consequences on environmental performance through GEE in all models examined. These findings suggest that GEE plays a crucial role in translating the impact of GHRM practices into improved environmental performance. The study overlooked other potential mediators or moderators in the relationship between GHRM practices and environmental performance, focusing on GEE. To better understand the complex dynamics behind GHRM techniques' environmental performance, future research might examine business culture, leadership style, and employee sustainability attitudes.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Análisis de Mediación , Humanos , Ghana , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Recursos Humanos
8.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 119, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information about the organisation and management of clinical research personnel in Europe and of their professional activity in intensive care. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey among personnel currently working in a French intensive care research network that involves 41 centres nationwide. The aim of the survey was to describe the personnel's personal and institutional organisation and management, their job perception in terms of satisfaction and stress, and suggestions for improvement. METHODS: Over 3 months in 2023, the research personnel received an electronic questionnaire on their personal and professional profile, past and present training, workplace and functions currently performed, personal knowledge about job skills required, job satisfaction and stress by as measured on a rating scale, and suggested ways of improvement. RESULTS: Ninety seven people replied to the questionnaire (a response rate of 71.3%), of whom 78 (57.3%) were sufficiently involved in intensive care to provide complete answers. This core sample had profiles in line with French recruitment policies and comprised mainly Bachelor/Master graduates, with nurses accounting for only 21.8%. The female to male ratio was 77:23%. Many responders declared to have a shared activity of technician (for investigation) and assistant (for quality control). More than 70% of the responders considered that most of the tasks required of each worker were major. Figures were much lower for project managers, who were few to take part in the survey. On a scale of 10, the median of job satisfaction was 7 for personal work organisation, 6 for training and for institutional organisation, and only 5 for personal career management. The median of job stress was 5 and was inversely correlated with satisfaction with career management. Respect of autonomy, work-sharing activity between investigation and quality control, a better career progression, financial reward for demanding tasks, and participation in unit staff meetings were the main suggestions to improve employee satisfaction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide survey provides a new insight into the activity of French clinical research personnel and points to ways to improve the quality and efficiency of this workforce.


Asunto(s)
Perfil Laboral , Investigadores , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Recursos Humanos , Percepción , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Actitud del Personal de Salud
9.
Hum Resour Health ; 22(1): 23, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605387

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the 1990-2000, Kazakhstan experienced a decline in the number of healthcare professionals working in rural areas. Since 2009, the national government has been implementing financial incentives to encourage healthcare professionals to relocate to rural areas. This study aims to investigate the temporal and spatial patterns in the distribution of the rural healthcare workforce and evaluate the impact of this incentive scheme. METHODS: Interrupted Time Series Analysis using ARIMA models and Difference in Differences analyzes were conducted to examine the impact of the incentive scheme on the density of different categories of the healthcare workforce in rural Kazakhstan in the period from 2009 to 2020. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the number of rural healthcare professionals from 2009 to 2020 in comparison to the period from 1998 to 2008. However, this increase was less pronounced in per capita terms. Moreover, a decline in the density of internists and pediatricians was observed. There is substantial variation in the density of rural nurses and physicians across different regions of Kazakhstan. The incentive scheme introduced in 2009 by the government of Kazakhstan included a one-time allowance and housing incentive. This scheme was found to have contributed insignificantly to the observed increase in the number of rural healthcare professionals. CONCLUSION: Future research should be undertaken to examine the impact made by the incentive scheme on other medical subspecialties, particularly primary practitioners. Addressing the shortage of healthcare workers in rural areas is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted approach. Aside from financial incentives, other policies could be considered to increase relocation and improve the retention of healthcare professionals in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Servicios de Salud Rural , Humanos , Kazajstán , Personal de Salud , Recursos Humanos , Atención a la Salud
11.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 203, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610026

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In today's business environment, where sustainability has emerged as a strategic axis of business practices, the study of the link between human resources management and environmental management becomes increasingly necessary. In this sense, the present research focuses on analyzing the impact of Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) on the Sustainable Performance (SP) of Spanish wineries, as well as the mediating effect of Employee Wellbeing (EW) and Work Engagement (WE) on this linkage. In addition, age, size and membership in a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are introduced as control variables to increase the precision of the cause-effect relationships examined. METHODS: The study proposes a conceptual model based on previous studies, which is tested using structural equations (PLS-SEM) with data collected from 196 Spanish wineries between September 2022 and January 2023. RESULTS: The findings of the research reveal the existence of a positive and significant relationship between the GHRM development and the SP of Spanish wineries, as well as the partial mediation of EW and WE in this association. CONCLUSIONS: The uniqueness and significance of this study can be attributed to several crucial factors. First, it enhances the understanding and knowledge regarding the advantages associated with GHRM development. Second, no prior research has conducted a comprehensive study on GHRM as a catalyst for SP within the context of Spanish wineries. Third, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous study has analyzed the mediating role of EW and WE as mediators in the relationship between GHRM and SP of wineries.


Asunto(s)
Felicidad , Vino , Humanos , Existencialismo , Recursos Humanos
12.
Hum Resour Health ; 22(1): 25, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632567

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health workforce projection models are integral components of a robust healthcare system. This research aims to review recent advancements in methodology and approaches for health workforce projection models and proposes a set of good practice reporting guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review by searching medical and social science databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and EconLit, covering the period from 2010 to 2023. The inclusion criteria encompassed studies projecting the demand for and supply of the health workforce. PROSPERO registration: CRD 42023407858. RESULTS: Our review identified 40 relevant studies, including 39 single countries analysis (in Australia, Canada, Germany, Ghana, Guinea, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Lesotho, Malawi, New Zealand, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Spain, Thailand, UK, United States), and one multiple country analysis (in 32 OECD countries). Recent studies have increasingly embraced a complex systems approach in health workforce modelling, incorporating demand, supply, and demand-supply gap analyses. The review identified at least eight distinct types of health workforce projection models commonly used in recent literature: population-to-provider ratio models (n = 7), utilization models (n = 10), needs-based models (n = 25), skill-mixed models (n = 5), stock-and-flow models (n = 40), agent-based simulation models (n = 3), system dynamic models (n = 7), and budgetary models (n = 5). Each model has unique assumptions, strengths, and limitations, with practitioners often combining these models. Furthermore, we found seven statistical approaches used in health workforce projection models: arithmetic calculation, optimization, time-series analysis, econometrics regression modelling, microsimulation, cohort-based simulation, and feedback causal loop analysis. Workforce projection often relies on imperfect data with limited granularity at the local level. Existing studies lack standardization in reporting their methods. In response, we propose a good practice reporting guideline for health workforce projection models designed to accommodate various model types, emerging methodologies, and increased utilization of advanced statistical techniques to address uncertainties and data requirements. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the significance of dynamic, multi-professional, team-based, refined demand, supply, and budget impact analyses supported by robust health workforce data intelligence. The suggested best-practice reporting guidelines aim to assist researchers who publish health workforce studies in peer-reviewed journals. Nevertheless, it is expected that these reporting standards will prove valuable for analysts when designing their own analysis, encouraging a more comprehensive and transparent approach to health workforce projection modelling.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos , Predicción , Canadá
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302122, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635735

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Professional licensing bodies are valuable sources for tracking the health workforce, as many skilled health-care providers require formal training, registration, and licensure. Regulatory activities in Ethiopia were not effectively implemented due to poor follow-up and gaps in skilled human resources, budget, and information technology infrastructure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the lived experiences and challenges faced by health care managers in health professionals' licensure practices in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with a phenomenological approach was employed between March 26 and April 30, 2021, to collect qualitative data. We conducted in-depth interviews with a total of 32 purposively selected health system managers. An interview guide was prepared in English, translated into Amharic, and then pretested. Audio recorded data was transcribed verbatim, translated, and analysed manually by themes and sub-themes. A member check was done to check the credibility of the result. RESULTS: The data revealed four major themes: awareness of licensing practices, enforcement of licensing practices, systems for assuring the quality of licensing practices, and challenges to licensing practices. Lack of awareness among managers about health workforce licensing was reported, especially at lower-level employers. Regulators were clear on the requirements to issue a licence to the health workforce if they are competent in the licensing exam, while human resource managers do not emphasise whether the employees have a licence or not during employment. As a result of this, non-licenced health workers were employed. Health care managers mentioned that they did not know any monitoring tools to solve the issue of working without a licence. Fraudulent academic credentials, shortage of resources (human resources, finance, equipment, and supplies), and weak follow-up and coordination systems were identified as main practice challenges. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported a suboptimal health professionals' licensing practice in Ethiopia, which is against the laws and proclamations of the country that state to employ all health workers only with professional licenses. Challenges for health professionals' licensing practice were identified as fraudulent academic credentials, a shortage of resources (HR, finance, equipment, and supplies), and a weak follow-up and coordination system. Further awareness of licensing practices should be created, especially for lower-level employers. Regulators shall establish a reliable digital system to consistently assure the quality of licensing practices. Health care managers must implement mechanisms to regularly monitor the licensing status of their employees and ensure that government requirements are met. Collaboration and regular communication between regulators and employers can improve quality practices.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Etiopía , Estudios Transversales , Recursos Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302175, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625874

RESUMEN

Planning for investment in human resources for health (HRH) is critical to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and establish a sustainable health system. Informed planning warrants a better understanding of the health labour market (HLM) to tackle a variety of health and care workforce challenges: from addressing critical supply shortage, to ensuring optimal skills mix and distribution, and addressing motivation and performance challenges. Scant evidence around the overall role of socioeconomic and cultural factors like gender, race, marital status, citizenship (migrant) status, workplace hierarchy etc. in determining workforce composition, deployment, distribution, retention, un- and underemployment, sub-optimal work environments and other factors in the 'HRH crisis' warrants further exploration. This scoping review protocol aims to map and present the available evidence on inequalities experienced by health and care workforce, the socio-economic, cultural and other bases of these inequalities, and their outcomes/ consequences. PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and SCOPUS will be used to identify relevant literature. All types of published study designs in English language will be included if they discuss any inequality experienced by any category of health and care workers. Elaborate keyword categories for health and care workers and inequalities context have been developed, tested and reduced to the near-final search string. Eligible articles will be charted using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist. The sample data extraction chart in JBI manual will be used as a basic skeleton with fields added to it to serve the needs of the scoping review. Descriptive analysis will be performed, depicting basic frequencies. While no further analysis has been advised in the JBI and PRISMA protocol, thematic analysis will be undertaken; following the Braun and Clarke's method with some modification and open coding as suggested by Maquire and Delahunt.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Recursos Humanos , Estado Civil , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto
15.
Hum Resour Health ; 22(1): 24, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627735

RESUMEN

A robust workforce of locum tenens (LT) physicians is imperative for health service stability. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize current evidence on the strategies used to facilitate the recruitment and retention of LT physicians. English articles up to October 2023 across five databases were sourced. Original studies focusing on recruitment and retention of LT's were included. An inductive content analysis was performed to identify strategies used to facilitate LT recruitment and retention. A separate grey literature review was conducted from June-July 2023. 12 studies were retained. Over half (58%) of studies were conducted in North America. Main strategies for facilitating LT recruitment and retention included financial incentives (83%), education and career factors (67%), personal facilitators (67%), clinical support and mentorship (33%), and familial considerations (25%). Identified subthemes were desire for flexible contracts (58%), increased income (33%), practice scouting (33%), and transitional employment needs (33%). Most (67%) studies reported deterrents to locum work, with professional isolation (42%) as the primary deterrent-related subtheme. Grey literature suggested national physician licensure could enhance license portability, thereby increasing the mobility of physicians across regions. Organizations employ five main LT recruitment facilitators and operationalize these in a variety of ways. Though these may be incumbent on local resources, the effectiveness of these approaches has not been evaluated. Consequently, future research should assess LT the efficacy of recruitment and retention facilitators. Notably, the majority of identified LT deterrents may be mitigated by modifying contextual factors such as improved onboarding practices.


Asunto(s)
Médicos de Familia , Servicios de Salud Rural , Humanos , Recursos Humanos , Empleo , Motivación
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e077710, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569681

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preventing readmission to hospital after giving birth is a key priority, as rates have been rising along with associated costs. There are many contributing factors to readmission, and some are thought to be preventable. Nurse and midwife understaffing has been linked to deficits in care quality. This study explores the relationship between staffing levels and readmission rates in maternity settings. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study using routinely collected individual patient data in three maternity services in England from 2015 to 2020. Data on admissions, discharges and case-mix were extracted from hospital administration systems. Staffing and workload were calculated in Hours Per Patient day per shift in the first two 12-hour shifts of the index (birth) admission. Postpartum readmissions and staffing exposures for all birthing admissions were entered into a hierarchical multivariable logistic regression model to estimate the odds of readmission when staffing was below the mean level for the maternity service. RESULTS: 64 250 maternal admissions resulted in birth and 2903 mothers were readmitted within 30 days of discharge (4.5%). Absolute levels of staffing ranged between 2.3 and 4.1 individuals per midwife in the three services. Below average midwifery staffing was associated with higher rates of postpartum readmissions within 7 days of discharge (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.108, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.223). The effect was smaller and not statistically significant for readmissions within 30 days of discharge (aOR 1.080, 95% CI 0.994 to 1.174). Below average maternity assistant staffing was associated with lower rates of postpartum readmissions (7 days, aOR 0.957, 95% CI 0.867 to 1.057; 30 days aOR 0.965, 95% CI 0.887 to 1.049, both not statistically significant). CONCLUSION: We found evidence that lower than expected midwifery staffing levels is associated with more postpartum readmissions. The nature of the relationship requires further investigation including examining potential mediating factors and reasons for readmission in maternity populations.


Asunto(s)
Partería , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Readmisión del Paciente , Estudios Longitudinales , Pacientes Internos , Periodo Posparto , Recursos Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298167, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626130

RESUMEN

The advancement of the sports industry's development constitutes a critical concern shared by regional authorities and the scholarly community, reflecting its significant role in economic and social development. This study employs a Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) methodology to examine the 31 provincial-level administrative units in China. The objective is to elucidate the influence of technological, organizational, and environmental factors on the industry's development level, considering both a holistic national framework and dissected regional approaches (Eastern, Central, and Western China). This paper's contribution to the literature is structured around the following core findings: (1) The study establishes that a singular condition does not suffice as an essential prerequisite for achieving a heightened development state within the sports industry. (2) At the national level, there are three pathways to enhance the development level of the sports industry, specifically identified as "network-human resources dominant pathway," "technological innovation-human resources dominant pathway," and "comprehensive synergistic pathway."(3) From a regional perspective, the Eastern region has two pathways for sports industry enhancement: "network-economic pathway" and "comprehensive synergistic pathway." The Central region follows a "technology pathway," while the Western region has three pathways: "organization-environment pathway," "network-organization-environment pathway," and "organization pathway."(4) The synthesis of these findings underscores the multifactorial nature of sports industry development, suggesting a paradigm where diverse routes can lead to equivalent outcomes. This heterogeneity indicates that provinces or regions can tailor their development strategies to their unique situational contexts.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Industrial , Industrias , Humanos , Recursos Humanos , China , Procesos de Grupo , Desarrollo Económico
18.
Am Psychol ; 79(3): 347-349, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635197

RESUMEN

This commentary on Rubenstein et al. (2024) applauds their sensitive historical exploration of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and balanced review of the strengths and weaknesses of that approach. I offer five points to expand on their contribution. (a) Stringent exposure therapy workforce requirements limit scalability, thus restricting access for the large number of patients in need of PTSD treatment. (b) There are additional non-trauma-focused approaches that show efficacy for PTSD. (c) Results of exposure therapy trials should be interpreted in light of how much the study designs align with real-world conditions. (d) Some surprising results from the subfield of PTSD/substance use disorder could suggest new treatment options. (e) There is a need for stronger reporting of clinical worsening (iatrogenesis) outside of clinical trials. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Estado de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Recursos Humanos
20.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 30(3): 416-419, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603748

RESUMEN

This study assessed the staffing allocations and associated costs incurred by Ohio local health departments (LHDs) in response to the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were extracted from the annual financial reports of Ohio LHDs for 2020 and 2021, encompassing a sample of 38 LHDs in 2020 and 60 LHDs in 2021. Descriptive analysis showed that Ohio LHDs committed substantial resources to responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although there was considerable variability across LHDs, median staffing and compensation collectively constituted 22% of total staffing and compensation. Multivariate regression analysis found minimal associations between the examined agency and community-level variables and the differences in staffing allocations and associated costs incurred by LHDs in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After decades of underfunding and understaffing, securing sustainable funding will be crucial to equip LHDs across the country with the necessary resources to deliver comprehensive public health services in their communities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Ohio/epidemiología , Gobierno Local , COVID-19/epidemiología , Recursos Humanos , Salud Pública
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