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1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e5, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413736

RESUMEN

AIMS: When the Interagency Standing Committee (IASC) adopted the composite term mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) and published its guidelines for MHPSS in emergency settings in 2007, it aimed to build consensus and strengthen coordination among relevant humanitarian actors. The term MHPSS offered an inclusive tent by welcoming the different terminologies, explanatory models and intervention methods of diverse actors across several humanitarian sectors (e.g., health, protection, education, nutrition). Since its introduction, the term has become well-established within the global humanitarian system. However, it has also been critiqued for papering over substantive differences in the intervention priorities and conceptual frameworks that inform the wide range of interventions described as MHPSS. Our aims are to clarify those conceptual frameworks, to argue for their essential complementarity and to illustrate the perils of failing to adequately consider the causal models and theories of change that underlie our interventions. METHODS: We describe the historical backdrop against which the term MHPSS and the IASC guidelines were developed, as well as their impact on improving relations and coordination among different aid sectors. We consider the conceptual fuzziness in the field of MHPSS and the lack of clear articulation of the different conceptual frameworks that guide interventions. We describe the explanatory models and intervention approaches of two primary frameworks within MHPSS, which we label clinical and social-environmental. Using the examples of intimate partner violence and compromised parenting in humanitarian settings, we illustrate the complementarity of these two frameworks, as well as the challenges that can arise when either framework is inappropriately applied. RESULTS: Clinical interventions prioritise the role of intrapersonal variables, biological and/or psychological, as mediators of change in the treatment of distress. Social-environmental interventions emphasise the role of social determinants of distress and target factors in the social and material environments in order to lower distress and increase resilience in the face of adversity. Both approaches play a critical role in humanitarian settings; however, the rationale for adopting one or the other approach is commonly insufficiently articulated and should be based on a thorough assessment of causal processes at multiple levels of the social ecology. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention to the 'why' of our intervention choices and more explicit articulation of the causal models and theories of change that underlie those decisions (i.e., the 'how'), may strengthen intervention effects and minimise the risk of applying the inappropriate framework and actions to a particular problem.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Conflictos Armados , Salud Mental , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Medio Social , Humanos , Refugiados
2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244347, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395428

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia of unknown cause was detected on 30 December 2019 in China. It was categorized as an outbreak and named as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. The pandemic affects all people, but patient groups such as hemodialysis (HD) patients have been particularly affected. We do not know if refugees suffered more during the outbreak. In this study, we compared depressive symptom frequency between Syrian refugee HD patients and Turkish ones. METHODS: The study had a single-center, cross-sectional design. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively from patients' files containing details about past medical history, demographic variables and laboratory values. Validated Turkish and Arabic forms of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess depressive symptoms. BDI scores were compared according to nationality, demographic features and clinical data. A BDI score more than 14 was accepted as suspicion of depression. RESULTS: 119 patients were enrolled in the study. After the exclusion of 22 patients, 75 Turkish and 22 Syrian patients were included for further analysis. The median BDI (interquartile range) score for Turkish and Syrian patients were 12 (7-23) and 19.5 (12.7-25.2), respectively (p = 0.03). Suspicion of depression was present at 42.7% of Turkish, and 72.7% of Syrian HD patients (p = 0.013). Regarding all patients, phosphorus level, Kt/V, and nationality were significantly different between patients with and without suspicion of depression (p = 0.023, 0.039, 0.013, respectively). CONCLUSION: Syrian patients had higher BDI scores and more depressive symptoms than Turkish patients. Additional national measures for better integration and more mental support to Syrian HD patients are needed.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Pandemias , Refugiados/psicología , Diálisis Renal , Adulto , Anciano , /etnología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Siria/etnología , Turquia/epidemiología
3.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(1): 50-55, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443329

RESUMEN

This review is devoted to all health professionals in order to raise awareness of the psychopathological consequences of forced migration on the mental health of children. First, we will talk about the psychological consequences of immigration in a global way, and then we will discuss about some specific situations. We will finish with prevention and care of these vulnerable children.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Niño , Emigración e Inmigración , Humanos , Salud Mental
6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 36-47, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156999

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the time-varying association of pre-migration and post-migration stressors in refugees' mental health could help in designing tailored health promotion services at different resettlement stages and improving the efficiency of resource allocation. In this study, we explored these time-varying associations. METHODS: We used data from the first four waves (October, 2013, to February, 2017) of a national refugee-based longitudinal study, the Building a New Life in Australia (BNLA) project. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and high risk of severe mental illness (HR-SMI) were used to assess mental health. The independent variables included the number of potentially traumatic events experienced during the pre-migration process, and a range of post-migration stressors. We used logistic regression models to analyse the relative importance of variables and time-varying associations between the pre-migration potentially traumatic events, post-migration resettlement stressors, and refugees' mental health. Analyses were stratified by gender, and sociodemographic covariates included age, marital status, education level, country of birth, and weekly income. RESULTS: 2399 participants were surveyed in Wave 1 of the BNLA project in 2013-14, of whom 2009 (83·7%) responded in Wave 2 in 2014-15, 1894 (78·9%) in Wave 3 in 2015-16, and 1929 (80·4%) in Wave 4 in 2016-17. The three most important factors associated with mental health in each wave differed for male and female refugees, but the socioeconomic stressors of loneliness and adjustment to life in Australia were consistently prominent. Positive associations between socioeconomic stressors and mental ill-health were found for both genders, with a peak at Wave 2 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] among men, 1·60 [95% CI 1·26-2·03], p=0.0001 for PTSD; AOR 1·86 [1·35-2·55], p=0·0001 for HR-SMI; and among women, AOR 1·81 [1·27-2·57], p=0·0009 for PTSD; AOR 2·24 [1·49-3·38], p=0·0001 for HR-SMI). Associations between loneliness and mental health fluctuated, but were significant for both genders in Wave 4 (among men, AOR 1·90 [1·21-2·99], p=0·0051 for PTSD; AOR 3·70 [2·18-6·27], p<0·0001 for HR-SMI; and among women, AOR 3·65 [2·08-6·39], p<0·0001 for PTSD; AOR 3·68 [2·02-6·69], p<0·0001 for HR-SMI). The association between difficulties in adjustment to life in Australia and male refugees' mental ill-health increased continuously during the resettlement period. INTERPRETATION: Gender-specific and time-sensitive services should be considered to improve refugees' mental health. For both genders, improved economic conditions that complement social security benefits deserve attention and are relevant throughout the resettlement process. At the later stage of resettlement, services to reduce loneliness could be carried out, and reducing stressors related to adjustment to life in the host country is especially needed for male refugees. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración , Refugiados/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129128, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301998

RESUMEN

The forced displacement of over 700,000 Rohingyas from Myanmar to Bangladesh since the crackdown in August 2017 has resulted in a critical humanitarian and environmental crisis. Groundwater is the primary source of drinking water in the camps that were constructed to provide shelter for the refugee population. The current study explores occurrence of Mn in groundwater in the Rohingya camps and adjacent areas. A total of 52 groundwater samples were collected between August and October 2018 from different camps sites and the adjacent host area. It was found that 64% exceeded the Bangladesh standard (100 µg/L) suggesting the presence of elevated concentrations of Mn in some groundwater aquifers in the camp sites. Mn is a neurotoxicant and previous studies have reported intellectual impairment in children exposed to Mn levels similar to those detected in groundwater in the camp sites. Nearly 450,000 migrant and new-born children live in the camps in already stressed conditions. The occurrence of elevated Mn concentrations in groundwater in the camps and their adjacent areas is likely an additional stressor exposing these children to an increased risk of neurotoxicity. Based on the results of this small-scale study, we recommend undertaking an in-depth study on the occurrence of Mn in groundwater in the camps to come up with appropriate strategies to minimise exposure. In addition, we recommend conducting a systematic epidemiological study on potential impacts of manganese in drinking water on neurological development of the Rohingya children in the camps.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Refugiados , Bangladesh , Niño , Humanos , Manganeso , Campos de Refugiados
8.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1): 117-123, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207130

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Immigrants are believed to be at high risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A leading suspected risk factor is their role in the essential workforce. We aimed to describe COVID-19-related risk factors among Bhutanese and Burmese refugees in the United States. METHODS: We administered an anonymous online survey in May 2020 among community leaders of Bhutanese and Burmese refugees. Using a snowball sampling strategy, we invited community leaders to complete the survey and share the link with others who met inclusion criteria (English proficient, aged ≥18, currently living in the United States). We compared respondents with and without recent COVID-19 and identified risk factors for infection. RESULTS: Of 218 refugees in 23 states who completed the survey from May 15 through June 1, 2020, fifteen (6.9%) reported infection with COVID-19. Being an essential worker during the pandemic (odds ratio [OR] = 5.25; 95% CI, 1.21-22.78), having an infected family member (OR = 26.92; 95% CI, 5.19-139.75), and being female (OR = 5.63; 95% CI, 1.14-27.82) were risk factors for infection. Among 33 infected family members, 23 (69.7%) were essential workers. CONCLUSION: Although we had a small snowball sample, we found that working in essential industries was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 infection among Bhutanese and Burmese refugees. We call for larger studies that include Asian immigrant subgroups, as well as immediate attention to protecting immigrant essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Bután/etnología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mianmar/etnología , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243005, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259555

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness, vision impairment and cataract surgery coverage among Rohingya refugees aged ≥ 50 years residing in camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. METHODS: We used the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology to select 76 clusters of 50 participants aged ≥ 50 years with probability proportionate to size. Demographic and cataract surgery data were collected using questionnaires, visual acuity was assessed per World Health Organization criteria and examinations were conducted by torch, and with direct ophthalmoscopy in eyes with pinhole-corrected vision <6/12. RAAB software was used for data entry and analysis. RESULTS: We examined 3,629 of 3800 selected persons (95.5%). Age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (<3/60), severe visual impairment (SVI; >3/60 to ≤6/60), moderate visual impairment (MVI; >6/60 to ≤6/18), and early visual impairment (EVI; >6/18 to ≤6/12) were 2.14%, 2.35%, 9.68% and 14.7% respectively. Cataract was responsible for 75.0% of blindness and 75.8% of SVI, while refractive error caused 47.9% and 90.9% of MVI and EVI respectively. Most vision loss (95.9%) was avoidable. Cataract surgical coverage among the blind was 81.2%. Refractive error was detected in 17.1% (n = 622) of participants and 95.2% (n = 592) of these did not have spectacles. In the full Rohingya cohort of 76,692, approximately 10,000 surgeries are needed to correct all eyes impaired (<6/18) by cataract, 12,000 need distance glasses and 73,000 require presbyopic correction. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of blindness was lower than expected for a displaced population, in part due to few Rohingya being ≥60 years and the camp's good access to cataract surgery. We suggest the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees include eye care among recommended health services for all refugees with long-term displacement.


Asunto(s)
Ceguera/prevención & control , Ceguera/cirugía , Extracción de Catarata/estadística & datos numéricos , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bangladesh , Ceguera/epidemiología , Ceguera/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mianmar/epidemiología , Mianmar/etnología , Presbiopía/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Errores de Refracción/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242421, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264293

RESUMEN

Lebanon has approximately one million Syrian refugees (SR) registered with the United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR) and an unknown number of unregistered SR, who cannot benefit from formal assistance. This study aimed to examine the livelihoods, coping strategies, and access to healthcare among SR based on registration status and accompanying formal assistance. A mixed-method approach with more emphasis on the qualitative design was adopted. A purposive convenient sampling approach was used to recruit SR from informal tented settlements (ITS) in the Beqaa region in Lebanon. Data collection included 19 focus group discussions (FGDs) that were conducted with participants, who were further divided into three groups: registered refugees with assistance, registered without assistance and unregistered. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants from humanitarian organizations. All interviews and FGDs were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. SR were highly dependent on formal assistance when received, albeit being insufficient. Regardless of registration status, refugees resorted to informal livelihood strategies, including informal employment, child labor, early marriage, and accruing debt. Poor living conditions and food insecurity were reported among all SR. Limited healthcare access and high out-of-pocket costs led to limited use of antenatal care services, prioritizing life-threatening conditions, and resorting to alternative sources of healthcare. Severity of these conditions and their adverse health consequences were especially pronounced among unregistered refugees. Our findings shed light on the economic and health disparities among marginalized SR, with the lack of registration and formal assistance increasing their vulnerability. More tailored and sustainable humanitarian programs are needed to target the most vulnerable and hard-to-reach groups.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Altruismo , Refugiados , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Grupos Focales/normas , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/ética , Siria , Naciones Unidas/ética
11.
Soins ; 65(850): 50-52, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357741

RESUMEN

Over recent years, more and more unaccompanied minors have been arriving on French territory in search of a better future. As a result of their complicated journey before, during and after the migration, these youngsters have specific psychological needs which are not always recognised by the professionals working with them. Research has highlighted the elements weakening the educational alliance between youngsters and the adults surrounding them.


Asunto(s)
Educación , Refugiados , Migrantes , Niño , Niño Abandonado , Humanos , Menores
12.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(4): 302-305, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338367

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Forced migration caused by wars has led to regression in health parameters, including tuberculosis. This study aims to determine the relationship between living area, family type and the number of contacts among refugees and Turkish citizens diagnosed with tuberculosis. METHOD: This study was designed using retrospective file scanning. A total of 194 patients with diagnosed TB were included in this study. In addition, patients' addresses were visited and their family lifestyles and living areas were recorded. RESULTS: Of 194 patients in the age range of 1-72 years (mean = 31.15, SD = 15.16), 98 patients were refugees. The number of contacts among refugees was 549, and their total living area was 7,740 m2. A total of 57 refugees lived in a communal living situation, and their average living area was significantly lower than that of Turkish citizens. Statistical significance was observed between family lifestyle and habitats. This was found due to the difference between nuclear families and communal living situations. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis was found to infect more people in war-related living conditions. This situation is caused by communal living, which refers to people who are not blood relatives living together; this is new information. Communal life should be taken into account in the contact examination of refugees for tuberculosis, and the obstacles to reach health services for refugees living outside of camps should be examined.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Tuberculosis , Adolescente , Anciano , Preescolar , Familia , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
CMAJ Open ; 8(4): E819-E824, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293331

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is high risk of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in congregate settings, including shelters. This study describes a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and corresponding reported symptomatology at a shelter in Toronto. METHODS: This clinical and epidemiologic analysis focuses on a COVID-19 outbreak at a dedicated refugee shelter in downtown Toronto. All adult residents on site at the shelter were offered SARS-CoV-2 testing on Apr. 20, 2020. At the time of testing, residents were screened for 3 typical COVID-19 symptoms (fever, cough and shortness of breath). Among those who tested positive, a more comprehensive clinical assessment was conducted 1 day after testing and a standardized 15-item symptom screen was administered by telephone 14 days after testing. We report rates of positive test results and clinical symptoms with each assessment interval. RESULTS: Of the 63 adult residents on site at the shelter, 60 agreed to be tested. Among those tested, 41.7% (n = 25) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those who tested positive (n = 25), 20.0% (n = 5) reported fever, cough or shortness of breath at the time of testing. On more detailed assessment 1 day later, 70.8% (17/24) reported a broader range of symptoms. During the 14 days after testing, 87.5% (21/24) reported symptoms of infection. INTERPRETATION: We found a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this shelter population. Our study underscores the high risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in congregate living settings and the importance of mobilizing timely testing and management of symptomatic, paucisymptomatic and asymptomatic residents in shelters.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , /genética , Adulto , /virología , Canadá/epidemiología , Tos/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Disnea/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiebre/epidemiología , Vivienda , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e192, 2020 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298230

RESUMEN

AIMS: Research demonstrates elevated levels of common mental disorders among Syrian refugees, but the majority of studies have, to date, focused on adult populations. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Syrian children and adolescents living in Sultanbeyli district of Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: A population-based survey among Syrian children and adolescents aged 8-17 years living in Sultanbeyli district was conducted in 2019, as part of an all-age survey of disability. 80 clusters of 50 participants (all-ages) were selected from the local municipality's refugee registration database using probability proportionate to size sampling. Children aged 8-17 years were assessed for symptoms of common mental disorders using the Child Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-8) and abbreviated versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED). RESULTS: Of the 852 participants, 23.7% (95% CI 19.9-27.2) screened positive for symptomatic depression, PTSD and anxiety. The prevalence estimates for depression, PTSD and anxiety were 12.5% (95% CI 9.8-15.6), 11.5% (95% CI 9.1-14.4) and 9.2% (95% CI 6.8-12.1), respectively. Depression and PTSD were significantly more common in older adolescents, whilst anxiety and PTSD were significantly more common in girls. Depression was more common in children from poorer households and those who had received no education. Children coming from larger households were less likely to show symptoms of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Syrian refugee children and adolescents are vulnerable to common mental disorders, and culturally appropriate prevention and intervention support are needed for this population.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Refugiados/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ansiedad/etnología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etnología , Siria/etnología , Turquia/epidemiología
15.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(5): 427-433, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308509

RESUMEN

Racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, age, and sex-related health disparities in kidney disease are prominent in the United States. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected marginalized populations. Older adults, people experiencing unstable housing, racial and ethnic minorities, and immigrants are potentially at increased risk for infection and severe complications from COVID-19. The direct and societal effects of the pandemic may increase risk of incident kidney disease and lead to worse outcomes for those with kidney disease. The rapid transition to telemedicine potentially limits access to care for older adults, immigrants, and people experiencing unstable housing. The economic impact of the pandemic has had a disproportionate effect on women, minorities, and immigrants, which may limit their ability to manage kidney disease and lead to complications or kidney disease progression. We describe the impact of COVID-19 on marginalized populations and highlight how the pandemic may exacerbate existing disparities in kidney disease.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Estatus Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Equidad en Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Humanos , Enfermedades Renales/etnología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Clase Social , Inmigrantes Indocumentados/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
Global Health ; 16(1): 118, 2020 12 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2016 Venezuela has seen a collapse in its economy and public health infrastructure resulting in a humanitarian crisis and massive outward migration. With the emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019, the public health emergency within its borders and in neighboring countries has become more severe and as increasing numbers of Venezuelans migrants return home or get stuck along migratory routes, new risks are emerging in the region. RESULTS: Despite clear state obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the rights to health and related economic, social, civil and political rights of its population, in Venezuela, co-occurring malaria and COVID-19 epidemics are propelled by a lack of public investment in health, weak governance, and violations of human rights, especially for certain underserved populations like indigenous groups. COVID-19 has put increased pressure on Venezuelan and regional actors and healthcare systems, as well as international public health agencies, to deal with a domestic and regional public health emergency. CONCLUSIONS: International aid and cooperation for Venezuela to deal with the re-emergence of malaria and the COVID-19 spread, including lifting US-enforced economic sanctions that limit Venezuela's capacity to deal with this crisis, is critical to protecting rights and health in the country and region.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Emigración e Inmigración/estadística & datos numéricos , Derechos Humanos/normas , Malaria/transmisión , /epidemiología , Recesión Económica/estadística & datos numéricos , Derechos Humanos/tendencias , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Venezuela/epidemiología
17.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 92-98, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130654

RESUMEN

The goal is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducational program (PP) aimed at timely detection, prevention of the formation and prevention of chronicity of mental disorders in internally displaced persons (IDPs). 414 IDPs took part in the research. A complex of clinical-psychopathological, psychometric, psychodiagnostic and statistical methods were used. It was found that the group of IDPs is heterogeneous and includes 3 categories of persons: group I - IDPs without signs of mental disorders (conditionally healthy) (53,86%), group II - IDPs with individual symptoms of mental disorders (risk group) (20,05%) and group III - IDPs with established mental disorders (26,09%). The examined IDPs of the III group were found mental disorders, predominantly of the anxiety-depressive spectrum. Factors of psychic traumatization (FPT) were assessed in a dynamic aspect: retrospectively (during of staying in the anti-terrorist operation (ATO) zone), 12 and 24 months after leaving the ATO zone and during of examination. The dynamics of FPT and their significance in time and with regard to gender specificity were shown. In order to timely identify and prevent the formation of mental disorders in IDPs and increase their adaptive capabilities, it is proposed to use PP, which had a group structured work format. The results of its approbation were presented and it were proved that the using of PP could significantly increase the level of psychological adaptation of IDPs by reducing the level of mental stress, reactive anxiety and the severity of negative perception of the future and improving the quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Salud Mental , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/prevención & control
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241963, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156888

RESUMEN

This study assessed the nutritional status of children and adolescents from North Korean refugee (NKR) families who have settled and are living in South Korea (SK). Among the 547 individuals who participated in the study, 526 were ultimately included after excluding 21 with missing height or weight data. Their nutritional status was estimated using the 2017 Korean National Growth Charts for children and adolescents. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and obesity were defined as a height-for-age z-score < -2.0, weight-for-age z-score < -2.0, weight-for-height z-score < -2.0, and body mass index z-score > 2.0, respectively. The overall prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting, and obesity was 7.0%, 6.8%, 5.3%, and 9.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, the prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting, and obesity was 5.4%, 7.0%, 7.6%, and 10.3% for individuals settled in SK for <5 years and 6.1%, 6.1%, 0.0%, and 13.3% for those living in SK for ≥5 years, respectively. Therefore, children and adolescents from NKR families experience the double burden of malnutrition and obesity.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Refugiados , Delgadez/epidemiología , Síndrome Debilitante/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , República Popular Democrática de Corea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , República de Corea/etnología
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