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1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-02-01.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53240

RESUMEN

Several factors have contributed to the outbreaks of measles and diphtheria in the Region of the Americas, including lack of compliance of vaccination coverage. Moreover, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has decrease in the demand for vaccination services, followed by the impact on the vaccination coverages and the postponement of vaccination campaigns. The following is a summary of the epidemiological situation of measles and diphtheria in 2020, as of epidemiological week (EW) 53.


Diversos factores han contribuido a la ocurrencia de brotes de sarampión y difteria en la Región de las Américas, entre ellos el no alcanzar coberturas de vacunación útiles. Adicionalmente, el inicio de la pandemia por la COVID-19 ha disminuido la demanda de servicios de vacunación, con el consecuente impacto en las coberturas; además del aplazamiento de las campañas de vacunación. A continuación, se presenta un resumen de la situación epidemiológica de sarampión y difteria para el 2020 con datos hasta la semana epidemiológica (SE) 53.


Asunto(s)
Sarampión , Difteria , Urgencias Médicas , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Américas , Región del Caribe , Sarampión , Difteria , Urgencias Médicas , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Américas , Región del Caribe , Betacoronavirus
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-02-16. (OPS/CDE/HT/21-0002).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53277

RESUMEN

En América Latina y el Caribe, entre 70% y 80% de las nuevas infecciones por el VIH se presentan en los grupos de población clave o en sus clientes o parejas sexuales. La información estratégica de calidad sobre los servicios ofrecidos a estos grupos de población, es esencial para la toma de decisiones programáticas que pongan a los países en el camino hacia la eliminación del VIH para el 2030. Desde el 2019, varios países de la región han fortalecido el monitoreo de los servicios preventivos de VIH ofrecidos a los grupos de población clave. Las mejoras han incluido el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de información, la capacitación para la recogida y el análisis de los datos, y el fomento de la toma de decisiones basada en evidencia para mejorar la disponibilidad y cobertura de los servicios de VIH e ITS. A través de la construcción de las cascadas de prevención y atención al VIH, ocho países han conseguido medir el impacto de los servicios de VIH no solo a partir de que las personas de población clave con VIH mantengan una carga viral indetectable, sino también de que las personas de población clave VIH-negativas se mantengan libres de infección. Además se ha progresado en medir la contribución que las asociaciones de la sociedad civil llevan a cabo en la respuesta contra el VIH y las ITS. Este aspecto es fundamental para garantizar su sostenibilidad y el financiamiento por fuentes nacionales. En esta publicación se resumen los principales logros alcanzados en América Latina y el Caribe en favor de la mejora de la información estratégica relacionada con los servicios de VIH para los grupos de población clave. En él se ponen de relieve las experiencias de la region, que pueden servir de ejemplo a otras regiones, a medida que nos adentramos en los últimos diez años para alcanzar los objetivos de eliminación del VIH/sida.


Asunto(s)
VIH , Parejas Sexuales , Infecciones por VIH , Población , Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Identidad de Género , Reforzamiento de Estructuras , Américas , Región del Caribe , Trabajadores Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-02-11. (PAHO/CDE/HT/21-0002).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53271

RESUMEN

In Latin America and the Caribbean, 70-80% of new HIV infections occur among key populations and their clients or sexual partners. High-quality strategic information on the monitoring of HIV prevention services offered to key populations is essential to drive programmatic decisions that put countries on the path to eliminating HIV by 2030. Since 2019, several countries in the region have strengthened the monitoring of HIV preventive services offered to key populations. Improvements include the strengthening of information systems, capacity building for data collection and analysis, and fostering evidence-based decision making to improve the availability and coverage of HIV and STI services. By building the HIV prevention and care cascades, 8 countries in the region have measured the impact of HIV services. This impact is determined not only from the number of people from the key population living with HIV maintaining an undetectable viral load but also from the number of people from the HIV-negative key population kept HIV-free through the provision of essential services. Moreover, countries have progressed in measuring civil society's contribution in the response against HIV and STIs. This aspect is essential to guarantee their sustainability and financing from national sources. The document shown here is a guide for Latin American and Caribbean countries to improve strategic information related to HIV services for key populations through strengthened monitoring using a combination prevention approach.


Asunto(s)
VIH , Población , Reforzamiento de Estructuras , Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Américas , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Identidad de Género , Trabajadores Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual
4.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e12, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543688

RESUMEN

AIMS: Persistent inequalities exist in how individuals from minority ethnic groups access mental health care. A failure to investigate how these inequalities are experienced and what they mean to people with psychosis has privileged professional narratives and hindered our understanding of how they are sustained and what could be done to reduce them. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term experience of living with psychosis and navigating mental health services within different ethnic groups. METHOD: Our approach was informed by work on narrative analysis and prioritised the meaning that mental health services held for participants. In-depth interviews with 17 black Caribbean, 15 white British and 3 non-British white people with psychosis as part of AESOP-10, a 10-year follow-up of an ethnically diverse cohort of individuals with first-episode psychosis in the UK. Thematic narrative analysis was used to examine experiences at the personal level within and then across the individual accounts. RESULTS: Service users shared many defining experiences and narratives frequently returned to individuals' first contact with mental health services, first hospital admission, the experience of impatient wards, and the meaning of medication and diagnosis in their lives. We found that experiences of powerlessness punctuated the journey through mental health services and this appeared to dominate the accounts of black Caribbean, and to a lesser extent, white British participants. The findings reveal how negative expectations and experiences of mental health services are compounded over time, creating a vicious cycle of disempowerment and mistrust that manifests for many in resistance to - or at the best passive acceptance of - intervention by mental health services. High levels of need, coupled with alienation from services, contributed to negative patterns of service use among black Caribbean participants. White participants recounted substantial, though fewer, experiences of disempowerment and more instances of shared decision making that for some helped protect positive aspects of their lives. CONCLUSIONS: Against a background of entrenched social and economic disempowerment, services were experienced as disempowering by many black Caribbean people, compounding and perpetuating a sense of alienation. Concerted efforts by services to more systematically target social needs and to share power through partnership working may reduce the mistrust that many with psychosis feel when entering services and in turn reduce persistent inequalities across ethnic groups.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/etnología , Trastornos Psicóticos/etnología , Adulto , Región del Caribe , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Navegación de Pacientes , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Trastornos Psicóticos/terapia , Investigación Cualitativa , Clase Social , Reino Unido
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-26.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53239

RESUMEN

The appearance of mutations is a natural and expected event within the evolution of the virus. Since the initial genomic characterization of SARS-CoV-2, the virus has been divided into different genetic groups or clades. In fact, some specific mutations define the viral genetic groups (also called lineages) that are currently circulating globally. Due to various microevolution processes and selection pressures, some additional mutations may appear, generating differences within each genetic group (called variants). It is important to mention that the name of the clade, lineage, variant, etc., are arbitrary and do not correspond to an official taxonomic hierarchy.


La aparición de mutaciones es un evento natural y esperado dentro del proceso de evolución de los virus. Desde la caracterización genómica inicial del SARS-CoV-2, este virus se ha dividido en diferentes grupos genéticos o clados. De hecho, algunas mutaciones específicas definen los grupos genéticos virales (también denominados linajes) que circulan actualmente a nivel global. Por diversos procesos de microevolución y presiones de selección, pueden aparecer algunas mutaciones adicionales, generando diferencias al interior de cada grupo genético (denominadas variantes). Es importante mencionar, que la denominación de clado, linaje, variante, etc., son arbitrarias y no corresponden a una jerarquía taxonómica oficial.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus del SRAS , Pandemias , Epidemias , Salud Pública , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus del SRAS , Pandemias , Epidemias , Salud Pública , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Urgencias Médicas , Región del Caribe , Américas , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Región del Caribe
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-25.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53237

RESUMEN

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 56 countries and territories in the Americas. SITUATION IN NUMBERS IN THE AMERICAS as of 25 January 2021 (15:00): 43,843,324 confirmed cases; 1,009,286 deaths; 56 affected countries / areas / territories.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Epidemias , Análisis de la Situación , Américas , Región del Caribe
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-01-11.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53235

RESUMEN

Tras un brote de un nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) que se produjo en Wuhan, una ciudad de la provincia de Hubei en China, se ha producido una rápida propagación a escala comunitaria, regional e internacional, con un aumento exponencial del número de casos y muertes. El 30 de enero del 2020, el Director General de la OMS declaró que el brote de COVID-19 era una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional (ESPII) de conformidad con el Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005). El primer caso en la Región de las Américas se confirmó en Estados Unidos el 20 de enero del 2020, seguido de Brasil el 26 de febrero del 2020. Desde entonces, la COVID-19 se ha propagado a los 56 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas. SITUACIÓN EN LA REGIÓN DE LAS AMÉRICAS EN CIFRAS al 11 de enero del 2021: 39.552.693 casos confirmados; 921.256 muertes; 56 países, zonas y territorios contados con fines epidemiológicos.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Epidemias , Betacoronavirus , Análisis de la Situación , Américas , Región del Caribe
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-11.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53228

RESUMEN

Following an outbreak of a novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, rapid community, regional and international spread has occurred with exponential growth in cases and deaths. On 30 January 2020, the Director-General (DG) of the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The first case in the Americas was confirmed in the USA on 20 January 2020, followed by Brazil on 26 February 2020. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to all 56 countries and territories in the Americas. SITUATION IN NUMBERS IN THE AMERICAS as of 11 January 2021 (15:00): 39,552,693 confirmed cases; 921,256 deaths; 56 countries / areas / territories counted for epidemiological purposes.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Américas , Región del Caribe , Análisis de la Situación , Pandemias , Enfermedades Transmisibles
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-20.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53219

RESUMEN

The appearance of mutations is a natural and expected event within the evolution of the virus. Since the initial genomic characterization of SARS-CoV-2, the virus has been divided into different genetic groups or clades. In fact, some specific mutations define the viral genetic groups (also called lineages) that are currently circulating globally.


La aparición de mutaciones es un evento natural y esperado dentro del proceso de evolución de los virus. Desde la caracterización genómica inicial del SARS-CoV-2, este virus se ha dividido en diferentes grupos genéticos o clados. De hecho, algunas mutaciones específicas definen los grupos genéticos virales (también denominados linajes) que circulan actualmente a nivel global.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Región del Caribe
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-15.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53218

RESUMEN

All 56 countries and territories in the Region of the Americas have reported COVID-19 cases and deaths. Since the 11 December 2020 PAHO/WHO Epidemiological Update on COVID-19 and as of 14 January 2021, 11,409,052 additional confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 179,547 deaths, have been reported in the Region of the Americas, representing a 28% increase in cases and a 19% increase in deaths.


Los 56 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas han notificado casos y defunciones de COVID-19. Desde la actualización epidemiológica publicada por la OPS/OMS el 11 de diciembre de 2020 hasta el 14 de enero de 2021, fueron notificados 11.409.052 casos confirmados de COVID-19, incluidas 179.547 defunciones adicionales en la región de las Américas, lo que representa un aumento de 28% de casos y de 19% de defunciones.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Américas , Región del Caribe , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional
11.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-11.
en Inglés, Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53217

RESUMEN

Through this document, the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) communicates to the Member States preliminary information on the detection in the Americas of two variants of interest of SARS-CoV-2 that have been associated with increased transmission in the United Kingdom and in the Republic of South Africa. PAHO / WHO recommends that Member States continue with the sequencing of samples according to the guidelines of the regional genomic surveillance network and monitor sudden changes in the incidence of COVID-19, which occur in light of public health measures and of social distancing implemented and fulfilled by the population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Urgencias Médicas , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Américas , Región del Caribe , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Urgencias Médicas , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Américas , Región del Caribe
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-20.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53207

RESUMEN

This technical document is a framework for action. Its objective is to guide the psychiatric care deinstitutionalization process in the context of Latin America and the Caribbean. The essential purpose of deinstitutionalization is to limit the role of psychiatric hospitals by incorporating acute care hospital beds into general hospitals and replace those psychiatric facilities with community-supported housing solutions for people with severe mental illness. At the same time, there must be an efficient network of community-based mental health services. This involves the priority development of effective new community practices and services that protect the rights of people with mental illness. This publication summarizes the facilitators and barriers that will be encountered in the deinstitutionalization process and identifies useful and proven interventions in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Four areas of work are identified with the respective guidelines or suggestions for action, which should provide an operational guide for countries that are restructuring mental health services and moving toward the deinstitutionalization of psychiatric care.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Salud Mental , Trastornos Mentales , Procesos Psicoterapéuticos , América Latina , Región del Caribe
13.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2021-01-20.
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-53213

RESUMEN

O surgimento de mutações é um evento natural e esperado dentro do processo evolutivo dos vírus. Desde a caracterização genômica inicial do SARS-CoV-2, este vírus se dividiu em diferentes grupos genéticos ou clados. De fato, algumas mutações específicas definem os grupos genéticos virais (também denominadas linhagens) que atualmente circulam no mundo (Tabela 1 e Figura 1). Devido a diversos processos de microevolução e pressões de seleção, podem surgir algumas mutações adicionais, gerando diferenças dentro de cada grupo genético (denominadas variantes). É importante mencionar que as denominações clado, linhagem, variante etc. são arbitrárias e não correspondem a uma hierarquia taxonômica oficial. Com as informações disponíveis até o momento, a maioria das mutações do SARS-CoV-2 teve pouco ou nenhum impacto sobre como ele é transmitido ou sobre a gravidade da doença que causa. Desde a identificação inicial do SARS-CoV-2 até o momento, foram compartilhadas mais de 387.500 sequências genômicas completas no mundo todo, por meio de bancos de dados de acesso público. A capacidade de monitorar a evolução viral quase em tempo real tem impacto direto na resposta de saúde pública à pandemia de COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Urgencias Médicas , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Américas , Región del Caribe
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 154: 106968, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031931

RESUMEN

The biogeography of American loliginid squids has been improved in recent years, but certain key taxa have been missing. Given that the most accurate phylogenies and estimates of divergence times of common ancestors depend heavily on good taxonomic coverage we have reanalyzed the genus Lolliguncula in light of new samples that increase the geographic and taxonomic coverage. New sequences were produced using standard methods to update an existing dataset for COI, 16S and Rhodopsin markers. Data was analyzed using various species delimitation methods, rigorous phylogenetic analyses and estimates of divergence times between clades. Within Lolliguncula we recover five monophyletic lineages that relate to the known species L. argus, L. diomedeae, L. panamensis, L. brevis North Atlantic and L. brevis South Atlantic. Except when using low divergence thresholds in ABGD, species delimitation methods only identify four of these lineages as distinct species, grouping L. argus and L. diomedeae as a single species. However, considering the reciprocal monophyly, recent divergence time estimate and morphological diagnoses we refrain from synonymizing L. argus within L. diomedeae, considering them very recently diverged species. The biogeography of the American loliginids is discussed, wherein basal cladogenesis in both Lolliguncula and Doryteuthis occur between the Atlantic and Pacific about 45 mya, with subsequent speciation around 20 mya associated with seafloor changes during the formation of the Caribbean. The recent speciation between L. argus and L. diomedeae is associated to oceanic environmental changes associated with glaciation, deep sea cooling and tropical upwelling.


Asunto(s)
Decapodiformes/clasificación , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Animales , Región del Caribe , Océanos y Mares , Especificidad de la Especie , Factores de Tiempo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 144309, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348164

RESUMEN

Human enteric pathogens are a major global concern, as they are responsible for thousands of preventable deaths every year. New pathogens in wastewater are constantly emerging. For example, SARS-CoV-2 has been recently detected in domestic sewage and primary sludge. Knowledge about the reduction of viruses in wastewater treatment and their partitioning between the treated liquid effluent versus the sludge or biosolids is still very scarce, especially in countries with emerging economies and tropical climates. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors are among the top three most commonly used technologies for the treatment of sewage in Latin America and the Caribbean, and their use has become increasingly common in many other low- and middle-income countries. High-rate algal ponds (HRAP) are regarded as a sustainable technology for the post-treatment of UASB effluent. This study evaluated the overall reduction and the liquid-solid partitioning of somatic coliphages, F-specific coliphages, and E. coli in a pilot-scale system comprised of a UASB reactor followed by HRAPs treating real wastewater. Average log removal for somatic and F-specific coliphages were 0.40 and 0.56 for the UASB reactor, and 1.15 and 1.70 for HRAPs, respectively. The overall removal of both phages in the system was 2.06-log. Removal of E. coli was consistently higher. The number of viruses leaving the system in the UASB solids and algal biomass was less than 10% of the number leaving in the clarified liquid effluent. The number of E. coli leaving the system in solids residuals was estimated to be approximately one order of magnitude higher than the number of E. coli leaving in the liquid effluent. Results from this study demonstrate the suitability of UASB-HRAP systems to reduce viral and bacterial indicators from domestic sewage and the importance of adequately treating sludge for pathogen reduction before they are used as biosolids.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Región del Caribe , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Estanques , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111503, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091786

RESUMEN

Enhancing the thermal comfort of low-income housing in developing countries located in tropical areas is one of the main challenges for engineers and architects worldwide. The coconut mesocarp fibre (coir) has shown enormous potential for improving some properties of modified concretes or mortars, such as low-weight and high-acoustic isolation. In this study, the potential use of modified mortars by coconut fibres as a facade coating layer to enhance thermal comfort in low-income housing structures was evaluated for the city of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. An actual typical low-income house of 42 m2 was monitored. Temperature and humidity variations were monitored for 39 days, thermal characteristics of coir-modified mortars were also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an adaptation of the standard test method of the guarded-hot-cartridge apparatus. The EnergyPlus™ software was used to simulate indoor temperature variations in the studied house. Results show that during the period of 4 h of maximum sunlight radiation with outdoor temperatures in the range of 29-34 °C, coating the cement-sand hollow block structure with a layer of coir-modified mortar could reduce indoor room temperatures by 0.5-1.5 °C, approximately. Thus, there is a potential to enhance the thermal comfort in low-income housing structures with coconut fibre modified mortars while reducing annual energy costs of cooling by 16%, making it affordable for low-income families in the Caribbean region of Colombia.


Asunto(s)
Cocos , Vivienda , Región del Caribe , Ciudades , Colombia
19.
Artículo en Francés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53233

RESUMEN

Dans ce numéro : Conserver le capital confiance : lutter contre les informations fausses sur les vaccins | Ce que j’ai appris comme conseillère en vaccination pendant la pandémie de COVID-19…Par Karen Broome | Foire aux questions sur la vaccination contre la COVID-19 | Validation d’un outil de caractérisation du risque pour la surveillance de la chaîne du froid à l’échelon local | Aspirer ou non avant d’administrer le vaccin ? | Prix des vaccins achetés par l’intermédiaire du Fonds renouvelable de l’OPS, 2020 | Prix des seringues achetées par l’intermédiaire du Fonds renouvelable de l’OPS, 2020-2021


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización , Vacunación , Vacunas , Américas , Región del Caribe
20.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53232

RESUMEN

Nesta Edição: Como manter a confiança: combater a desinformação em torno das vacinas | O que aprendi como assessora de imunização durante a pandemia de COVID-19... Dra. Karen Broome | Perguntas frequentes sobre a vacinação contra COVID-19 | Validação de ferramenta de categorização do risco para o monitoramento da rede de frio na instância local | Aspirar ou não aspirar antes de administrar uma vacina? | Preços de vacinas compradas por meio do Fundo Rotativo da OPAS, 2020 | Preços de seringas compradas por meio do Fundo Rotativo da OPAS, 2020-2021


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización , Vacunación , Pandemias , Américas , Región del Caribe , Vacunas
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