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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124776, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526988

RESUMEN

Modern microscopy studies are capable of revealing ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) that are produced in the processes related to traffic vehicular, industrial, metropolitan, and marine aerosol dry deposition in the coastal zones. Especially, secondary aerosol passages complexes categories of NPs and UFPs, which can be accumulated on construction compounds and by dry deposition, encourages multiples monuments deterioration routes. The advanced electron microscopies method is one of the most utilized in environmental studies. Between the different industrial areas in the world, the Caribbean area is the most relevant symbols of air quality due to climatic conditions with strong winds, but this study shows that regionally the most industrialized region does not have an adequate air quality. In the present work, electron microscopy analyses are used to describe of the extent of ultra-fine particle and nanoparticles in walls in contact to weathering. Numerous phases were recognized by advanced mineralogy methods. Thanks to the new analytical procedure it was feasible to understand NPs and UFPs; the occurrence of potential hazardous elements (PHEs), most of them as minerals but also combined in multiple accumulations with Al-Cr-Fe-K-Mg-Pb-Si-Ti-Zn amorphous; and carbonaceous phases.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Nanopartículas/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/química , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Atmósfera , Región del Caribe , Colombia , Monitoreo del Ambiente/instrumentación , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Desarrollo Industrial , Minerales/análisis , Vehículos a Motor , Material Particulado/química , Viento
2.
Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent ; 27(4): 172-181, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769939

RESUMEN

AIM: The colour stability of the silicone is essential for the longevity of facial prostheses. This in vitro study investigates the colour degradation of two different skin shade silicones moulded in Type II and Type III dental stone. METHODS & MATERIALS: Two different types of dental stone were used to fabricate 168 silicone samples (n=42 for each group) using M511 maxillofacial silicone, which was coloured with Spectromatch Procolourants. The polymerisation was carried out at 85°C 1.5 hours. A spectrophotometer was used to record the colour differences (ΔΕ) of each group before and after polymerisation. The CIEL*a*b* formula was used to obtain the measurements and a one-way ANOVA was carried out for the statistical analysis of the data. RESULTS: There is a statistically significant colour difference (ΔΕ) for all groups. For the Afro-Caribbean skin tone, Type III dental stone demonstrated the greatest colour change (ΔΕ = 4.36), whereas, for the Caucasian skin tone, it was the Type II dental stone (ΔΕ = 2.21). CONCLUSION: This study showed that regardless of the investing material, the colour of the silicone lightens after polymerisation. Both types of dental stone resulted in visible colour changes, with a ΔΕ ranging from 1.64 - 4.36.


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Maxilofacial , Elastómeros de Silicona , Región del Caribe , Color , Ensayo de Materiales , Pigmentación de la Piel
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1424, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking, alcohol and obesity are important risk factors for a number of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of these risk factors differ by socioeconomic group in most populations, but this socially stratified distribution may depend on the social and cultural context. Little information on this topic is currently available in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and obesity by several socioeconomic determinants in the French West Indies (FWI). METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional health survey conducted in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2014 in a representative sample of the population aged 15-75 years (n = 4054). All analyses were stratified by gender, and encompassed sample weights, calculated to account for the sampling design and correct for non-response. For each risk factor, we calculated weighted prevalence by income, educational level, occupational class and having hot water at home. Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Current smoking and harmful chronic alcohol use were more common in men than in women (PR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.55-2.09; PR = 4.53, 95% CI = 3.38-6.09 respectively). On the other hand, the prevalence of obesity was higher in women than in men (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.57-0.79). Higher education, higher occupational class and higher income were associated with lower prevalence of harmful alcohol drinking in men (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.25-0.72; PR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-1.01; PR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.03 respectively), but not in women. For tobacco smoking, no variation by socioeconomic status was observed in men whereas the prevalence of current smoking was higher among women with higher occupational class (PR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91) and higher income (PR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03). In women, a lower prevalence of obesity was associated with a higher income (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.33-0.56), a higher occupational class (PR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.50-0.80), a higher educational level (PR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.26-0.50) and having hot water at home (PR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.54-0.80). CONCLUSION: Women of high socio-economic status were significantly more likely to be smokers, whereas alcohol drinking in men and obesity in women were inversely associated with socioeconomic status.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Renta , Obesidad/epidemiología , Ocupaciones , Clase Social , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Región del Caribe , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Guadalupe/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Martinica/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Abastecimiento de Agua , Adulto Joven
4.
Zootaxa ; 4609(2): zootaxa.4609.2.4, 2019 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717107

RESUMEN

A new dink frog (Eleutherodactylidae: Diasporus) is described from the Tropical Wet Forest, in the northeastern foothills of Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica at an elevation of ca. 1000 m. Analysis of DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) mitochondrial genes revealed a distinct lineage within the genus Diasporus. Additional morphological, morphometric, and acoustic analyses support the differences of this lineage, which we recognize as a new species. This new taxon is distinguished from other members of the genus Diasporus inhabiting Isthmian Central America by its unique coloration: dorsum brown to brown-grayish and venter gray-bluish with pale blotches. The new species is distinguished from other members of the genus Diasporus by very significant genetic distances (higher than 5.6 % in 16S and 16.7 % in COI). The new taxon is most closely related to D. vocator from the south pacific of Costa Rica and to an unnamed taxon from western Panama.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Animales , Región del Caribe , América Central , Costa Rica , Panamá , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S
5.
Zootaxa ; 4608(2): zootaxa.4608.2.1, 2019 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717144

RESUMEN

The Lesser Antilles, in the Eastern Caribbean, were long considered to have only two species in the genus Iguana Laurenti 1768: the Lesser Antillean iguana Iguana delicatissima, which is endemic to parts of the Lesser Antilles, and the Common green iguana Iguana iguana, which also occurs throughout Central and South America. No subspecies are currently recognised. However, herpetologists and reptile collectors have pointed out strong physical differences between some of the island populations of Iguana iguana and those from the continent. Drawing on both morphological and genetic data, this paper describes two subspecies of the Common green iguana Iguana iguana from the southern Lesser Antilles, specifically the countries of Saint Lucia Iguana iguana sanctaluciae and Iguana iguana insularis from St Vincent the Grenadines, and Grenada. The form on the island of Saint Vincent has not been identified. The new subspecies are described based on the following unique combination of characters: Presence of high median and medium to small lateral horns on the snout; Small subtympanic plate not exceeding 20% of the eardrum size; Two or three scales of decreasing size anterior to the subtympanic plate; Fewer than ten small to medium triangular gular spikes; Medium sized dewlap; Low number of small to medium dispersed nuchal tubercles; Dark brown iris, with the white of the eye visible; Oval, prominent nostril; Short and relatively flat head; High dorsal spines; No swelling of the jowls in reproductively active males.                Iguana iguana sanctaluciae has in adults vertical black stripes on body and tail and a black dewlap whereas Iguana iguana insularis is pale grey or creamy white in adults.                Both subspecies are globally threatened by unsustainable hunting (including the pet trade) and by invasive alien species,     including hybridization from invasive iguanas from South and Central America (I. iguana iguana and I. rhinolopha, considered here as full species) that have become established in all three countries. The authors call for stronger measures to conserve the remaining purebred Iguana i. insularis and Iguana i. sanctaluciae ssp. nov. throughout their ranges and for further research to identify other cryptic species and subspecies of Iguana in the Lesser Antilles.


Asunto(s)
Iguanas , Animales , Región del Caribe , Islas , Masculino
6.
Zootaxa ; 4691(4): zootaxa.4691.4.2, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719386

RESUMEN

The heteronemertean genus Dushia Corrêa, 1963 was established for what was identified as D. atra (Girard, 1851) (originally Meckelia atra) based on material from littoral, shallow waters in Curaçao, while the nominal species Meckelia atra was originally described from deep water off Florida Cape. In this paper, we conclude that the type species for Dushia has been misidentified. Based on specimens from the Caribbean, we establish D. wijnhoffae Schwartz Norenburg sp. nov. to represent the true identity of the genus, according to Article 70.3.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; Meckelia atra should be regarded as a nomen dubium. While the genus has remained monotypic since its establishment, our molecular analysis discovered a second member-or rather a group of members-from the West Pacific. This 'group of members', herein termed Dushia nigra (Stimpson, 1855) species complex comb. nov., involves i) at least two genetically separated biological entities, 0.136-0.148 (p-distance) and 0.152-0.168 (K2P) apart in terms of 513-bp COI sequences, which we interpret as likely to represent cryptic species, ii) three color forms, orange, brown, and black, with the last one occurring most frequently, and iii) four nominal species, Meckelia nigra Stimpson, 1855 (now Cerebratulus niger), Meckelia rubella Stimpson, 1855 (now Cerebratulus rubellus), Micrura formosana Yamaoka, 1939, and Micrura japonica Iwata, 1952. At present, however, we have no objective ground as to which of the four potentially available names (i.e., formosana, japonica, nigra, and rubella) should be allotted to the two cryptic species discovered in the analysis, because i) a single locality can harbor two cryptic species, ii) a single cryptic species may contain three different color morphs (i.e., orange, brown, black), and iii) no data from the type localities for these four nominal species are available at the moment. Our multi-locus analysis of heteronemerteans-for which 16S rRNA, COI, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, histone H3 genes are available in public databases-shows that Dushia wijnhoffae sp. nov. and Dushia nigra species complex comb. nov. form a clade, which is closely related to Gorgonorhynchus albocinctus Kajihara, 2015 and an undetermined heteronemertean that has been misidentified as Cerebratulus leucopsis (Coe, 1901). Members of Dushia thus show a vicariant Caribbean-West-Pacific distribution, indicating that the lineage predates the rise of the Isthmus of Panama.


Asunto(s)
Invertebrados , Animales , Región del Caribe , Curazao , Florida , Invertebrados/genética , Panamá , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Indias Occidentales
7.
Zootaxa ; 4638(4): zootaxa.4638.4.3, 2019 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712458

RESUMEN

Podocotyle pearsei Manter, 1934 is documented from the intestine of Vaillant's grenadier, Bathygadus melanobranchus Vaillant (Macrouridae: Bathygadinae), collected from the northeastern and western Gulf of Mexico from 783-841 m depth. The finding of P. pearsei in B. melanobranchus represents the first originally published report of this genus from this host and the fifth documented host species for P. pearsei. We report three unidentified species of Podocotyle, represented by one individual each, from the intestine of the western Atlantic grenadier, Nezumia atlantica (Parr) (Macrouridae: Macrourinae), and from Bathygadus favosus Goode Bean (Macrouridae: Bathygadinae) found at 637 m, 710 m and 1,143 m depths in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico off Florida and from the Caribbean Sea off Colombia. We provide a checklist of the parasites known from the three macrourid species relevant to this study, comment on the biogeography of the five species of Podocotyle now known from the deep sea and discuss the low host specificity observed across this genus. The high number of fish hosts for Podocotyle (i.e. type hosts include at least 22 piscine families) encompassing a wide phylogenetic diversity and diet makes it unlikely that members of a single genus could evolve such a broad array of life histories (i.e. utilize dissimilar intermediate hosts), and we predict in the future that Podocotyle will be taxonomically divided up. Morphological and especially molecular work is needed for Podocotyle as well as for other digenean genera known to inhabit the deep sea. Podocotyle sp. 1 2 represent the first originally published reports of this genus from N. atlantica while Podocotyle sp. 3 represents the first report of this genus from B. favosus. Podocotyle koshari Nagaty, 1973 is declared a species inquirenda, and a dichotomous key to the 27 species of Podocotyle we recognize is provided.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Infecciones por Trematodos , Animales , Región del Caribe , Colombia , Florida , Golfo de México , México , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4573(1): zootaxa.4573.1.1, 2019 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715787

RESUMEN

Ostracods from the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene Pirabas Formation, Northeastern Amazonia, Pará State, Brazil were examined from one subsurface and four outcrop sections. A total of 119 species were recognized and are illustrated; another 53 species were left in open nomenclature. Twenty-seven of the species are common to the Neogene of Caribbean, another two species are known from areas other than the Caribbean, and one species was already described from the studied unit. This study provides a robust taxonomic database for paleoenvironmental, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic studies and contributes to the knowledge of the paleodiversity of Neogene Ostracods from the Southwestern Atlantic.


Asunto(s)
Crustáceos , Animales , Brasil , Región del Caribe
9.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.1, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716040

RESUMEN

Fifteen species in seven genera of Cirratulidae are reported from shallow-water collections in the Caribbean Sea primarily as part of the Caribbean I expedition of the research vessel Alpha Helix in 1977 and smaller separate collections from Panama and Venezuela. Thirteen species, all bitentaculates, are new to science. New species include Aphelochaeta caribbeanensis n. sp.; six species of Caulleriella: C. angusticrista n. sp., C. convexacapa n. sp., C. microbidentata n. sp., C. parapicula n. sp., C. parvinasa n. sp., and C. quadrata n. sp.; Chaetozone dossena n. sp.; three species of Kirkegaardia: K. filiformis n. sp., K. panamaensis n. sp., and K. playita n. sp.; and two species of Dodecaceria: D. alphahelixae n. sp. and D. dibranchiata n. sp. Additionally, two multitentaculate cirratulids, Cirriformia sp. from Panama and Timarete punctata (Grube, 1859) from Nicaragua are reported.


Asunto(s)
Poliquetos , Animales , Región del Caribe
10.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.2, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716041

RESUMEN

The formerly monotypic taxon, Hyalopale bispinosa Perkins 1985 (Chrysopetalinae), is comprised of a cryptic species complex from predominantly tropical embayments and island reefs of the Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Hyalopale species are of meiofaunal size (length: 1-2.8mm), but considered non-interstitial, with the majority of species inhabiting a singular habitat of shallow littoral zones among algae and epifauna overlying sediments in rubble. Hyalopale adults exhibit notochaetal fans characterized by the presence of lateral and midline notochaetal spines. Species of Hyalopale can be distinguished by the shape of glass-like notochaetal paleae and the number of densely stacked ribs. Hyalopale bispinosa forms a western and eastern Atlantic species complex, comprising the type species, Hyalopale bispinosa s.s., a comparatively larger form with the highest number of notochaetal paleael ribs from Florida, and Hyalopale cf. bispinosa, from the western and eastern Mediterranean, a smaller form with a similar notochaetal morphology to the latter. Unfortunately, no molecular sequence data is available for Hyalopale bispinosa s.s. Five new species are described, with molecular sequence data provided for three: Hyalopale leslieae sp. nov., a small form with a comparatively low number of paleal ribs, found from the Florida Keys to Belize, Caribbean Sea, H. zerofskii sp. nov. from southern California and Mexico, eastern Pacific and H. sapphiriglancyorum sp. nov., a distinctive species with the lowest number of paleael ribs, from Raja Ampat, Indonesia and the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, western Pacific. Two other species are described from morphology alone: H. angeliensis sp. nov. from Dampier, Western Australia and Seychelle Islands, eastern Indian Ocean and H. furfuricula sp. nov. from the Red Sea and Mozambique, western Indian Ocean, possessing a unique paleal brow shape. While well supported as a clade, support for relationships within Hyalopale is low. Hyalopale cf. bispinosa (Mediterranean) was recovered as sister group to the remaining Hyalopale, with H. leslieae sp. nov. as sister to the Hyalopale Pacific clade, comprising H. zerofskii sp. nov. (eastern Pacific) and H. sapphiriglancyorum sp. nov. (western Pacific). Within Chrysopetalinae, Hyalopale and Paleanotus formed a clade that was the sister group to the other paleate chrysopetalids under maximum likelihood, though Paleanotus grouped with the other paleate forms under maximum parsimony. The adult morphology of Hyalopale species is compared with that exhibited in the larvae of Paleanotus species; based on these results, including possession of a shared notochaetal character, Hyalopale is considered to contain paedomorphic taxa.


Asunto(s)
Anélidos , Animales , Región del Caribe , Océano Índico , Islas , Océano Pacífico , Filogenia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4586(1): zootaxa.4586.1.7, 2019 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716146

RESUMEN

Four species of robber flies are recorded from Sint Eustatius, Lesser Antilles. Efferia exaggerata sp. n. is described, as well as the male of Ommatius prolongatus Scarbrough.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Animales , Región del Caribe , Masculino
12.
Zootaxa ; 4585(2): zootaxa.4585.2.2, 2019 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716167

RESUMEN

The fasciolariid fauna from two expeditions to French Guiana is examined and augmented with published records and material of other collections from the Guianas and northeastern Brazil. Twelve species of Fasciolaria and Aurantilaria (Fasciolariinae), Aristofusus, Lyonsifusus and Fusinus s.l. (Fusininae), and Lamellilatirus and Polygona (Peristerniinae) are reported and discussed. Nine species are represented in expedition collections, and reports of three other species are evaluated. Two morphologically distinct species of Lamellilatirus are described as new; type localities of both are off French Guiana, 114-118 m. Ten Guianan fasciolariids range variously northward to Caribbean South America and the Lesser Antilles and southward to Ceará, Brazil; one other extends into the northern Caribbean, and one extends southward to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Animales , Brasil , Región del Caribe , Guyana Francesa , Guyana
13.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 137(1): 53-63, 2019 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777400

RESUMEN

Acanthurus spp. of St. Kitts and other Caribbean islands, including ocean surgeonfish A. bahianus, doctorfish A. chirurgus, and blue tang A. coeruleus, frequently show multifocal cutaneous pigmentation. Initial reports from the Leeward Antilles raised suspicion of a parasitic etiology. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of the disease in St. Kitts' Acanthuridae and describe its pathology and etiology. Visual surveys demonstrated consistently high adjusted mean prevalence at 3 shallow reefs in St. Kitts in 2017 (38.9%, 95% CI: 33.8-43.9) and 2018 (51.5%; 95% CI: 46.2-56.9). There were no differences in prevalence across species or reefs, but juvenile fish were less commonly affected than adults. A total of 29 dermatopathy-affected acanthurids were sampled by spearfishing for comprehensive postmortem examination. Digenean metacercariae were dissected from <1 mm cysts within pigmented lesions. Using partial 28S rDNA sequence data they were classified as Family Heterophyidae, members of which are commonly implicated in black spot disease of other fishes. Morphological features of the parasite were most typical of Scaphanocephalus spp. (Creplin, 1842), and 2 genetic profiles were obtained suggesting more than 1 digenean species. Histologically, pigmented lesions had mild chronic perivascular dermatitis and increased melanophores and melanin density, often centered on encysted digenean metacercariae. In 1 affected A. chirurgus, similar metacercariae were histologically identified in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Further research is needed to clarify impact on host fitness, establish the number of heterophyid digenean species that cause black spots on Caribbean fishes and to determine the intermediate and definitive host species.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis , Perciformes , Animales , Región del Caribe , Metacercarias , Indias Occidentales
14.
Zootaxa ; 4614(2): zootaxa.4614.2.3, 2019 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716379

RESUMEN

Petta Malmgren, 1866 is a small and poorly known genus of the annelid family Pectinariidae Quatrefages, 1866. Prior to this study, the genus comprised four species P. pusilla Malmgren, 1866 (type locality Gullmarsfjord, west coast of Sweden), P. assimilis McIntosh, 1885 (type locality between Prince Edward and Kerguelen Island, southern Indian Ocean), P. pellucida (Ehlers, 1887) (type locality Santarem Channel between Cay Sal Bank and Bahamas, Caribbean Sea) and P. tenuis Caullery, 1944 (type locality Sulu, Philippines, tropical Pacific Ocean), the two last ones were known only from the original description. We revised the genus by re-examining the types and providing updated illustrated re-descriptions of its species, except for P. assimilis of which the type material has been lost. Commonly used morphological characters of the genus are expanded to also include new ones such as the presence of pair of lateral ear-shaped lobes adjacent to dorsal base of cephalic veil, pair of ventral lappets on segment 1, pair of dorso-lateral pads on segment 5, large basal hump on branchiae, and a rounded anterior peg with a blunt tip and a longitudinal row of two major teeth on uncini. The type species P. pusilla is recognised as having four lappets on the anterior margins of cephalic veil and a large lower lip posterior to buccal cavity. Two species P. investigatoris n. sp. and P. williamsonae n. sp. are described from deep water off the coast of southeastern Australia and represent the first records of this genus in Australian waters. A phylogenetic position of one new species was assessed in the framework of a phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI). An updated taxonomic key to Pectinariidae genera and all species of Petta is given.


Asunto(s)
Anélidos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Australia , Bahamas , Región del Caribe , Océano Índico , Islas , Océano Pacífico , Filipinas , Filogenia , Suecia , Indias Occidentales
15.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.1, 2019 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716423

RESUMEN

The triphorid genera Inella and Strobiligera are historically considered to represent one or two distinct groups, with recent studies claiming that Strobiligera comprises species with paucispiral or multispiral protoconchs, whereas only species with paucispiral protoconch occur in Inella. The present study aims to update the taxonomy of Inella and Strobiligera (with paucispiral protoconchs) from Brazil. Three main groups are recognized: Inella s.s. and Strobiligera show a simultaneous emergence of the three spiral cords of the teleoconch, the former possessing a discrete nucleus and the latter bearing a distinct globose protoconch; the "pseudo Inella" group has a late emergence of the median spiral cord of teleoconch. Four species were previously recorded from Brazil: I. unicornium, I. longissima, S. pompona and S. compsa, of which the three latter records are disregarded for being based on shells with broken apices and consequent uncertainty of identification. Twenty species in fact occur in Brazil: Inella s.s. is represented by I. apexbilirata and one possible new species; "pseudo Inella" includes "Inella" differens, "Inella" faberi, "Inella" galo sp. nov., "Inella" euconfio sp. nov., "Inella" leucocephala sp. nov., "Inella" faceta sp. nov., "Inella" maculata sp. nov., "Inella" vanilla sp. nov., and three possible new species; Strobiligera is represented by S. unicornium comb. nov., S. gaesona, S. dinea, Strobiligera campista sp. nov., Strobiligera santista sp. nov., and two possible new species. The "pseudo Inella" group is probably derived from unrelated lineages that converged to a simple type of paucispiral protoconch, requiring the examination of radular morphology to properly reallocate those species. The supposed restricted geographical range of triphorids with lecithotrophic development requires future investigations of the five species from the northwestern Atlantic/Caribbean that are herein recorded to Brazil. Key words: Triphoroidea, marine molluscs, lecithotrophic development, western Atlantic  Introduction Triphoridae is a speciose family of marine snails that feed on sponges, with 642 Recent valid species (WoRMS 2018) and hundreds of undescribed species (Albano et al. 2011). The genus Inella Bayle, 1879 is one of the most challenging taxa in Triphoridae, especially because of its uncertain taxonomic limits and high number of described species (Marshall 1983). Inella and Strobiligera Dall, 1924 are historically considered to represent one or two distinct groups, with recent studies claiming that Strobiligera comprises species with paucispiral or multispiral protoconchs, whereas only species with paucispiral protoconchs occur in Inella (Fernandes Pimenta 2014). A brief taxonomic overview of this issue will be addressed in the next lines.Hinds (1843) proposed the name Ino (preoccupied by the crustacean genus Ino Schrank, 1803; Inella Bayle is a replacement name) for cylindrical, elongated and acuminated triphorid shells. Jousseaume (1884) added that the shell of Inella is composed of at least 15 whorls, sculptured by spiral tubercles, with the last whorl presenting a depressed base and two apertures (i.e., the true aperture and the anterior canal). Laseron (1958) recognized that the Inella concept of Hinds (1843) mixed different shell types; however, Laseron broadened the definitions of Inella, as he also stated, warning that the use of protoconchs could need further generic revision. Kosuge (1966) defined Inella as having axial sculpture and three spiral cords on the teleoconch, a blunt and dome-shaped protoconch with a few spiral ridges, and suggested that Inella belongs to the most advanced group of triphorids. Marshall (1983) proposed the distinction between the "Triphora group" and the "Inella group" (composed of Inella Bayle and related genera) in Triphorinae, perhaps worthy of subfamily distinction, although this division is still informal (Marquet 1996). Marshall (1983: 19) also applied the term Inella s.l., recognizing that it contains "a number of natural groups that are worthy of genus-group status, most of which are as yet unnamed". Simone (2006) interpreted Inella as triphorids with a very elongated shell, a relatively straight spire profile and a projected aperture. Rolán Fernández-Garcés (2008) followed the concept of the catch-all taxon Inella s.l., uniting several species with very different shell forms under a more or less classical protoconch of Inella (i.e., without axial sculpture). Fernandes Pimenta (2014) recognized that lecithotrophic species of Strobiligera have a very inflated protoconch (following Dall 1924), which is distinct from the reduced nucleus observed in Inella s.l., thus substantially reducing the number of species from the Atlantic Ocean previously allocated to the latter.            Marshall (1983) did not indicate any junior synonym for Inella, but Rolán Fernández-Garcés (2008) placed the type species of Strobiligera within Inella, which was later rejected by Fernandes Pimenta (2014). Marquet (1996: 141) mentioned that "Marshall (1983) placed Norephora in synonymy with Inella"; this is not true, as Marshall (1983: 81) only indicated that "Norephora is probably closely related to Inella Bayle" when compared with Talophora Gründel, 1975. In fact, Fernandes Pimenta (2014) suggested that Norephora is probably a synonym of Subulophora Laseron, 1958, pending further investigation. Wenz (1938 apud Kosuge 1966) suggested that Tristoma Menke, 1830 and Biforina Bucquoy, Dautzenberg Dollfus, 1884 were synonyms of Inella, but Marshall (1983) stated that the first is a synonym of Triphora Blainville, 1828 and the second is a synonym of Monophorus Grillo, 1877.Although many species remain to be described in these genera, Inella and Strobiligera are represented altogether by 64 Recent species worldwide (Bouchet Rosenberg 2013; Bouchet Gofas 2014). Both genera are particularly common in mid-low depths of the continental shelf and in the continental slope, especially Strobiligera (Fernandes Pimenta 2017a). Species with paucispiral protoconchs in both groups are absent from the eastern Atlantic (e.g., Bouchet 1985; Rolán 2005), although well-represented in the western Atlantic, with 27 Recent species (Simone 2006; Rolán Fernández-Garcés 2008), mainly in the Caribbean and adjacent regions. Only four of these species were reported from Brazil: Inella unicornium Simone, 2006 is the only endemic species of this genus in Brazil; Strobiligera compsa (Dall, 1927) and Strobiligera pompona (Dall, 1927) were respectively considered misidentifications of Absalão (1989) and Rios (1975, 1985, 1994, 2009) by Fernandes Pimenta (2014); and Inella longissima (Dall, 1881), reported by Rios (1985, 2009) from southern Brazil, replacing his prior identification of Inella triserialis Dall, 1881 (Rios 1975).The main objective of the present work is to update the taxonomy of Inella and Strobiligera species with paucispiral protoconchs, given that Strobiligera species from Brazil with multispiral protoconchs were already reviewed by Fernandes Pimenta (2014), filling a large gap in taxonomic knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Tamaño Corporal , Brasil , Región del Caribe , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Indias Occidentales
16.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.7, 2019 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716429

RESUMEN

Phymaraphiniidae Schrammen 1924 (Porifera: Astrophorina) is a family of lithistid demosponges that has received little attention in the past decades. The systematic problems within this family have not been addressed for a long time due to the absence of new records and material. The genus Exsuperantia Özdikmen 2009 was first described by Schmidt (1879) as Rimella to allocate the species Rimella clava, found in the Caribbean. In 1892, Topsent found what he thought to be the same species described by Schmidt in the Azores, and synonymized it with Racodiscula clava, as he thought this species belonged to the family Theonellidae Lendenfeld 1903. However, Rimella and Racodiscula belong to distinct families: Rimella to Phymaraphiniidae, and Racodiscula to Theonellidae. Due to the fact that the genus Rimella was already preoccupied by a gastropod, it was renamed as Exsuperantia. In result of the poor preservation of Schmidt's material and the absence of new specimens, the attribution of Topsent's specimens to the family level remained obscure. Here, we review the genus Exsuperantia based on the analysis of new material recently collected during various research expeditions in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The comparison of these new specimens with Schmidt's and Topsent's type material, allowed us to assign Topsent's specimens to a new species, Exsuperantia archipelagus sp. nov., and confirm its attribution to the family Phymaraphiniidae (not Theonellidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions using newly generated sequences of the cytochrome subunit (COI) marker also support the assignment of the new species to the family Phymaraphiniidae (not Theonellidae).


Asunto(s)
Poríferos , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Azores , Región del Caribe , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4664(1): zootaxa.4664.1.6, 2019 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716691

RESUMEN

Charinus rocamadre is the only species described and recorded from Colombia. It is know from only one male specimen collected from a cave in the Colombian Caribbean region. Herein, we describe the female of C. rocamadre for the first time, based on several specimens collected from the type locality of this species. We also provide images and describe the ultrastructure of male and female gonopods, as well as provide partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S rRNA).


Asunto(s)
Arácnidos , ADN Mitocondrial , Animales , Región del Caribe , Colombia , Femenino , Masculino , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S
18.
Zootaxa ; 4657(2): zootaxa.4657.2.6, 2019 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716787

RESUMEN

Two new species of Geckobia Mégnin, 1878, Geckobia andina n. sp. and Geckobia circumdata n. sp., ectoparasites commonly reported on geckos, are described from the host species Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus (Wiegmann). The specimens were collected in the subtropical region of the Andean Pacific of Peru. The geographic distribution of species of Geckobia in South America and the Caribbean are mapped. Furthermore, a dichotomous key for the species of New World Geckobia is provided.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , Animales , Región del Caribe , Perú , América del Sur
19.
Zootaxa ; 4656(2): zootaxa.4656.2.7, 2019 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716828

RESUMEN

In this study, we revise two groups of cryptic leaf litter ants, the Strumigenys nitens and Strumigenys simulans species groups. These two groups are restricted to the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas. We redefine the species groups, provide a key for the five species in the S. nitens group, and differentiate the two species in the S. simulans group. Four new species are described: Strumigenys caiman sp. nov., S. economoi sp. nov., S. hubbewatyorum sp. nov., and S. zemi sp. nov. We review and provide a key for the Strumigenys fauna of Hispaniola, which comprises the two endemic species S. economoi and S. zemi, six more broadly distributed Neotropical species, and three pan-tropical "tramp" species.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Animales , Bahamas , Región del Caribe , Indias Occidentales
20.
Zootaxa ; 4648(2): zootaxa.4648.2.12, 2019 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716956

RESUMEN

A new species of the spongicolid genus Spongicola, S. liosomatus sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on three male specimens and one female specimen collected from off northern Blanquilla Island, Venezuela, Caribbean Sea at a depth of 135-160 m, representing the first species of the genus found in the Atlantic Ocean. It appears closest to S. levigatus Hayashi Ogawa, 1987, S. teres Komai, 2015 and S. inflatus de Saint-Laurent Cleva, 1981 in having reduced armature on the body and appendages. However, the unserrated ventral edge of the third pereiopods and the membranous ridges of the first and second pereiopod cutting edges, distinguish the new species from these three species as well as all other members of the genus.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Región del Caribe , Femenino , Masculino , Venezuela
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