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1.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 65-77, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144421

RESUMEN

Resumen Esta investigación se ocupa del análisis del inciso 3 del artículo I de la Ley 1959 de 2019 que modifica el artículo 229 de la Ley 599 de 2000 frente al principio constitucional de derecho penal de acto en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, siendo este un principio que se proyecta a partir de la Teoría del Garantismo como una garantía de la dignidad humana y el derecho fundamental de la libertad de las personas. Para lograr el objetivo se realizó una investigación eminentemente jurídica, enmarcada en un tipo de estudio correlacional, a través de los métodos del análisis y la síntesis. Se analiza en primer lugar el contenido normativo del principio de derecho penal de acto para determinar el lugar que ocupa dentro del engranaje de las garantías penales en Colombia, después, se identifican los elementos del tipo penal de la violencia intrafamiliar en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, luego, se estudian las razones legislativas esgrimidas para establecer la reincidencia en el delito de violencia intrafamiliar. Se concluye que el legislador extralimitó sus funciones y configuró una norma inválida en términos garantistas, lo que implica un desbordamiento de los límites del ius puniendi del Estado.


Abstract This study analyzes subsection 3 of article 1 of Law 1959/2019, which amended article 229 of Law 599/2000, regarding the constitutional criminal principle of action in the Colombian legal system. Said principle is based on the Theory of Guarantees, as a guarantee for human dignity and people's fundamental right to freedom. To this end, a solely juridical study was carried out, in the framework of a study of correlations, using the methods of analysis and synthesis. Firstly, the legal content of the criminal law principle of action is reviewed, in order to determine its place in the framework of criminal guarantees in Colombia. Then, the criminal elements of intra-family violence in the Colombian legal system are identified, to subsequently study the arguments made by the legislators to establish recidivism in the crime of intra-family violence. We conclude by arguing that the legislators overreached their functions and designed a law that is invalid in terms of providing guarantees, which implies going beyond the Government's ius puniendi limits.


Resumo Esta investigação trata da análise do parágrafo 3° do artigo 1 ° da Lei 1959 de 2019 que altera o artigo 229 da Lei 599 de 2000, em relação ao princípio constitucional do direito penal do fato no ordenamento jurídico colombiano, sendo este um princípio projetado a partir da Teoria do Garantismo como garantia da dignidade humana e do direito fundamental da liberdade das pessoas. Para atingir o objetivo, foi realizada uma investigação eminentemente jurídica, enquadrada num tipo de estudo correlacional, através dos métodos de análise e síntese. Em primeiro lugar, analisa-se o conteúdo normativo do princípio do direito penal do fato para determinar o lugar que ocupa dentro do mecanismo de garantias penais na Colômbia. A seguir, são identificados os elementos do tipo penal da violência doméstica no ordenamento jurídico colombiano. Depois, são estudadas as razões legislativas apresentadas para estabelecer a reincidência no crime de violência doméstica. Conclui-se que o legislador extrapolou suas funções e configurou uma norma inválida nos termos de garantistas, o que implica em extravasamento dos limites do ius puniendi do Estado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Violencia Doméstica , Constitución y Estatutos , Derecho Penal , Reincidencia
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 69-75, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190651

RESUMEN

This study analyses the psychosocial characteristics based on recidivism risk of juvenile offenders in conditions of internment. A sample of 102 juvenile offenders (92 male, 10 female) who were serving sentences in the only detention centre in Navarra (Spain) was used. Data on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics as well as features related to recidivism risk were collected through the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) and data on personality characteristics were obtained through the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). The results showed that risk of reoffending was high for 21.6% of the sample, moderate for 31.4%, and low for 47.1%. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for various psychosocial and personality characteristics. In addition, the main variables related to the different risk levels of criminal recidivism were the presence/absence of history of violent behaviour, school performance, problem-solving skills, and submission as a personality trait. These four variables correctly classified 80.4% of the sample. According to the results, these variables must be considered in the development of effective intervention programmes in detention centres with juvenile offenders in order to decrease criminal reoffending rates


En este estudio se analizan las características psicosociales de una muestra de menores infractores en un centro de internamiento en función del riesgo de reincidencia. Se evaluó una muestra de 102 menores infractores (92 varones y 10 mujeres) que cumplían una medida judicial en el único centro de internamiento de Navarra (España). Se recogió información sobre las características sociodemográficas, psicosociales y el riesgo de reincidencia a través del Inventario para la Gestión y la Intervención con Jóvenes (IGI-J), así como sobre las características de personalidad a través del Inventario Clínico de Adolescentes de Millon (MACI). Los resultados mostraron que el riesgo de reincidencia era alto para el 21.6% de la muestra, moderado para el 31.4% y bajo para el 47.1%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en numerosas características psicosociales y de personalidad. Además, las principales variables relacionadas con los diferentes niveles de riesgo de reincidencia fueron la presencia/ausencia de una historia de conductas violentas, el rendimiento escolar, las habilidades para la solución de problemas y la sumisión como características de personalidad. Estas cuatro variables clasificaban correctamente al 80.4% de la muestra. Con arreglo a los resultados encontrados, estas variables se deben tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de programas de intervención eficaces en los centros de internamiento con menores infractores con el objetivo de disminuir la tasa de reincidencia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Reincidencia/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239942, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002058

RESUMEN

To deter the performance of illegal driving behaviours, traffic infringement notices may be issued. Whilst there is a substantial body of research that has examined rates of reoffending following a traffic infringement, there have been few studies examining the length of time to next traffic offence. Where this research has been conducted, the findings do not provide current understandings, given the substantial changes in traffic sanctioning over time. The aim of this study was to address this gap, by examining risk factors for recidivism following a driver receiving a traffic infringement notice, as well as the time to next traffic offence. Licensing and infringements data held in the Driver Licensing System (DLS), maintained by the road authority in Victoria, Australia were used. All drivers included in the study were born prior to 1975, and received their first Victorian drivers licence between 1994 and 2016. Data from 203,620 drivers were used. Cox proportional hazards modelling was undertaken to examine factors associated with recidivism within 12 months of receiving a traffic infringement. 131,691 (64.7%) drivers had received at least one traffic infringement in Victoria, Australia since receiving their Victorian driver's licence. Factors found to be associated with longer time to further traffic offending in the year that followed the first infringement included being female; receiving a first Victorian driver's licence when aged 45+ years; and being licenced 10+ years. Traffic infringements deter some groups of Victorian drivers, but not others. If drivers are to be deterred from further illegal driving behaviour, it is important other countermeasures are developed and trialled.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducción de Automóvil/estadística & datos numéricos , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Conducción de Automóvil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conducción de Automóvil/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Victoria
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007668, 2020 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with poor mental health, criminality, substance use and relationship difficulties. This review updates Gibbon 2010 (previous version of the review). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential benefits and adverse effects of psychological interventions for adults with AsPD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 13 other databases and two trials registers up to 5 September 2019. We also searched reference lists and contacted study authors to identify studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of adults, where participants with an AsPD or dissocial personality disorder diagnosis comprised at least 75% of the sample randomly allocated to receive a psychological intervention, treatment-as-usual (TAU), waiting list or no treatment. The primary outcomes were aggression, reconviction, global state/functioning, social functioning and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 19 studies (eight new to this update), comparing a psychological intervention against TAU (also called 'standard Maintenance'(SM) in some studies). Eight of the 18 psychological interventions reported data on our primary outcomes. Four studies focussed exclusively on participants with AsPD, and 15 on subgroups of participants with AsPD. Data were available from only 10 studies involving 605 participants. Eight studies were conducted in the UK and North America, and one each in Iran, Denmark and the Netherlands. Study duration ranged from 4 to 156 weeks (median = 26 weeks). Most participants (75%) were male; the mean age was 35.5 years. Eleven studies (58%) were funded by research councils. Risk of bias was high for 13% of criteria, unclear for 54% and low for 33%. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) + TAU versus TAU One study (52 participants) found no evidence of a difference between CBT + TAU and TAU for physical aggression (odds ratio (OR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.07; low-certainty evidence) for outpatients at 12 months post-intervention. One study (39 participants) found no evidence of a difference between CBT + TAU and TAU for social functioning (mean difference (MD) -1.60 points, 95% CI -5.21 to 2.01; very low-certainty evidence), measured by the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ; range = 0-24), for outpatients at 12 months post-intervention. Impulsive lifestyle counselling (ILC) + TAU versus TAU One study (118 participants) found no evidence of a difference between ILC + TAU and TAU for trait aggression (assessed with Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form) for outpatients at nine months (MD 0.07, CI -0.35 to 0.49; very low-certainty evidence). One study (142 participants) found no evidence of a difference between ILC + TAU and TAU alone for the adverse event of death (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.04 to 4.54; very low-certainty evidence) or incarceration (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.86; very low-certainty evidence) for outpatients between three and nine months follow-up. Contingency management (CM) + SM versus SM One study (83 participants) found evidence that, compared to SM alone, CM + SM may improve social functioning measured by family/social scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI; range = 0 (no problems) to 1 (severe problems); MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.02; low-certainty evidence) for outpatients at six months. 'Driving whilst intoxicated' programme (DWI) + incarceration versus incarceration One study (52 participants) found no evidence of a difference between DWI + incarceration and incarceration alone on reconviction rates (hazard ratio 0.56, CI -0.19 to 1.31; very low-certainty evidence) for prisoner participants at 24 months. Schema therapy (ST) versus TAU One study (30 participants in a secure psychiatric hospital, 87% had AsPD diagnosis) found no evidence of a difference between ST and TAU for the number of participants who were reconvicted (OR 2.81, 95% CI 0.11 to 74.56, P = 0.54) at three years. The same study found that ST may be more likely to improve social functioning (assessed by the mean number of days until patients gain unsupervised leave (MD -137.33, 95% CI -271.31 to -3.35) compared to TAU, and no evidence of a difference between the groups for overall adverse events, classified as the number of people experiencing a global negative outcome over a three-year period (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.19). The certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was very low. Social problem-solving (SPS) + psychoeducation (PE) versus TAU One study (17 participants) found no evidence of a difference between SPS + PE and TAU for participants' level of social functioning (MD -1.60 points, 95% CI -5.43 to 2.23; very low-certainty evidence) assessed with the SFQ at six months post-intervention. Dialectical behaviour therapy versus TAU One study (skewed data, 14 participants) provided very low-certainty, narrative evidence that DBT may reduce the number of self-harm days for outpatients at two months post-intervention compared to TAU. Psychosocial risk management (PSRM; 'Resettle') versus TAU One study (skewed data, 35 participants) found no evidence of a difference between PSRM and TAU for a number of officially recorded offences at one year after release from prison. It also found no evidence of difference between the PSRM and TAU for the adverse event of death during the study period (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.05 to 14.83, P = 0.94, 72 participants (90% had AsPD), 1 study, very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is very limited evidence available on psychological interventions for adults with AsPD. Few interventions addressed the primary outcomes of this review and, of the eight that did, only three (CM + SM, ST and DBT) showed evidence that the intervention may be more effective than the control condition. No intervention reported compelling evidence of change in antisocial behaviour. Overall, the certainty of the evidence was low or very low, meaning that we have little confidence in the effect estimates reported. The conclusions of this update have not changed from those of the original review, despite the addition of eight new studies. This highlights the ongoing need for further methodologically rigorous studies to yield further data to guide the development and application of psychological interventions for AsPD and may suggest that a new approach is required.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Agresión/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/mortalidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Cocaína/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Conducir bajo la Influencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Recompensa , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239046, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941496

RESUMEN

The increasing recidivism rate of sex offenders indicates potential problems in existing recidivism programs. The present study was conducted to determine whether the polygraph examination is a useful technique to obtain a sex offender's concealed past sexual history. We collected fifty-two sex offenders' data and analyzed it. Among the 52 participants, the court ordered 26 sex offenders to take the psychiatric evaluation and the polygraph test. The other half were prisoners at the hospital who were currently undergoing treatment. The participants in the polygraph group disclosed more deviant sexual behaviors and paraphilia interests/behaviors than the comparison group. Thus, the polygraph examination is a powerful tool that can encourage sex offenders to disclose hidden information to help create suitable psychological therapy programs for preventing recidivism in the future.


Asunto(s)
Detección de Mentiras/psicología , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Criminales/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Parafílicos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Parafílicos/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Revelación de la Verdad/ética
7.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 221-227, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women with histories of childhood trauma tend to score higher on recidivism risk/needs assessment tools, such as the Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV). These may affect their chance of leaving custody, but risk scores may be inflated by reliance on additional items which reflect other fixed childhood events. AIMS: We hypothesised that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) would be related to immutable risk measures according to the LSI-R: SV, such as juvenile arrest history, rather than more mutable factors, such as criminal attitudes. METHODS: Two interviewer-administered questionnaires-one about ACEs and one about criminogenic risk and needs-were given to a cohort of women just after release from jail. Phi coefficients were used to test for associations between ? ACE scale scores and scores on the risk tool-the LSI-R: SV. RESULTS: ACE scale items were related to static risk item scores from the LSI-R: SV, but not to any of the dynamic risk items except psychological health. CONCLUSIONS: Risk reduction is an important task in the criminal justice system, for which systematic risk assessment is an integral part of decision making. Self-reported experience of psychological health apart, only fixed historical variables were related to estimated recidivism risk. There was no relationship between the mutable constructs of attitudes towards crime or employment status and estimated risk. This raises the question of whether the risk of recidivism is increased when there is a background of childhood trauma. Implications for using risk reduction tools to inform the need for trauma-informed correctional care are discussed. Longitudinal research assessing recidivism is needed to test this further.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Reincidencia , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Crimen/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Prisiones , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Aggress Behav ; 46(6): 508-515, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780434

RESUMEN

There is relatively limited research on psychopathy in non-Caucasian ethnic groups and even less on the utility of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) that focuses on PCL-R facet and item scores in predicting violent recidivism. In this study, we assessed the utility of the PCL-R in prospectively predicting violent versus nonviolent recidivism during an 11-year follow-up window. A high-risk sample of 451 incarcerated Korean male offenders was assessed on the PCL-R at baseline. A total of 445 were reconvicted after release (353 violent and 92 nonviolent recidivists). Psychopathy facet scores were higher in violent compared to nonviolent recidivists. Facet 2 (affective) showed the strongest effect size (Cohen's d = 0.53; Percentage change in odds = 22.6%) in predicting violent recidivism. Analyses of the four items constituting the affective facet indicated that callous/lack of empathy (Percentage change in odds = 134.4%) and failure to accept responsibility (Percentage change in odds = 94.5%) were the strongest predictors of violent recidivism. Findings are to our knowledge the first to document the utility of the PCL-R in distinguishing violent from nonviolent recidivism and highlight the role of affective impairment (particularly lack of empathy) in violent recidivism.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial , Criminales , Reincidencia , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/diagnóstico , Lista de Verificación , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009829, 2020 06 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572950

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 1000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old display problematic or harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Examples include behaviours occurring more frequently than would be considered developmentally appropriate; accompanied by coercion; involving children of different ages or stages of development; or associated with emotional distress. Some, but not all, young people engaging in HSB come to the attention of authorities for investigation, prosecution or treatment. Depending on policy context, young people with HSB are those whose behaviour has resulted in a formal reprimand or warning, conviction for a sexual offence, or civil measures. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are based on the idea that by changing the way a person thinks, and helping them to develop new coping skills, it is possible to change behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CBT for young people aged 10 to 18 years who have exhibited HSB. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also examined relevant websites, checked reference lists and contacted authors of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using parallel groups. We evaluated CBT treatments compared with no treatment, waiting list or standard care, irrespective of mode of delivery or setting, given to young people aged 10 to 18 years, who had been convicted of a sexual offence or who exhibited HSB. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found four eligible RCTs (115 participants). Participants in two studies were adolescent males aged 12 to 18 years old. In two studies participants were males simply described as "adolescents." Three studies took place in the USA and one in South Africa. The four studies were of short duration: one lasted two months; two lasted three months; and one lasted six months. No information was available on funding sources. Two studies compared group-based CBT respectively to no treatment (18 participants) or treatment as usual (21 participants). The third compared CBT with sexual education (16 participants). The fourth compared CBT (19 participants) with mode-deactivation therapy (21 participants) and social skills training (20 participants). Three interventions delivered treatment in a residential setting by someone working there, and one in a community setting by licensed therapist undertaking a PhD. CBT compared with no treatment or treatment as usual Primary outcomes No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of primary outcomes (recidivism, and adverse events such as self-harm or suicidal behaviour). Secondary outcomes There was little to no difference between CBT and treatment as usual on cognitive distortions in general (mean difference (MD) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.54 to 14.66, 1 study, 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence), assessed with Abel and Becker Cognition Scale (higher scores indicate more problematic distortions); and specific cognitive distortions about rape (MD 8.75, 95% CI 2.83 to 14.67, 1 study, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence), measured with the Bumby Cardsort Rape Scale (higher scores indicate more justifications, minimisations, rationalisations and excuses for HSB). One study (18 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that CBT may result in greater improvements in victim empathy (MD 5.56, 95% CI 0.94 to 10.18), measured with the Attitudes Towards Women Scale, compared with no treatment. One additional study also measured this, but provided no usable data. CBT compared with alternative interventions Primary outcomes One study (59 participants) found little to no difference between CBT and alternative treatments on post-treatment sexual aggression scores (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.37, very low-certainty evidence), assessed using Daily Behaviour Reports and Behaviour Incidence Report Forms. No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of our remaining primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes One study (16 participants) provided very low-certainty evidence that, compared to sexual education, mean cognitive distortions pertaining to justification or taking responsibility for actions (MD 3.27, 95% CI -4.77 to -1.77) and apprehension confidence (MD 2.47 95% CI -3.85 to -1.09) may be lower in the CBT group. The same study indicated that mean cognitive distortions pertaining to social-sexual desirability may be lower in the CBT group, and there may be little to no difference between the groups for cognitive distortions pertaining to inappropriate sexual fantasies measured with the Multiphasic Sex Inventory. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether CBT reduces HSB in male adolescents compared to other treatments. All studies had insufficient detail in what they reported to allow for full assessment of risk of bias. 'Risk of bias' judgements were predominantly rated as unclear or high. Sample sizes were very small, and the imprecision of results was significant. There is very low-certainty evidence that group-based CBT may improve victim empathy when compared to no treatment, and may improve cognitive distortions when compared to sexual education, but not treatment as usual. Further research is likely to change the estimate. More robust evaluations of both individual and group-based CBT are required, particularly outside North America, and which look at the effects of CBT on diverse participants.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Adolescente , Actitud , Niño , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Desensibilización Psicológica , Fantasía , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Violación/psicología , Reincidencia , Autoimagen , Educación Sexual , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Habilidades Sociales
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 68-73, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574483

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identifying individuals at highest risk maximizes efficacy of prevention programs in decreasing recidivist gunshot wound (GSW) injury. Characteristics of GSW recidivists may identify this population. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) are one effective strategy; however, programs are expensive, therefore, when possible, epidemiologic data should guide inclusion criteria. METHODS: Seventeen years of all GSW patients presenting to an urban Level I trauma center were reviewed. Countywide murders were reviewed from the same timeframe. Recidivists were any patient presenting twice, either to the hospital or once to the hospital and subsequently dying by firearm. Demographics and characteristics of future recidivists were compared with nonfuture recidivists. RESULTS: There were 9,699 unique intentional, GSW cases reviewed and 1,426 died, leaving 8,273 at risk of recidivism. Five hundred fourteen (6.2%) became recidivists. Most recidivists were African-American men and were younger at first GSW. Median time between incidents was 2.5 years, with a range of 0 days to 16 years. Nearly half were treated and released from the emergency department at their first episode of GSW. For recidivists who died, 128 died at the second incident, 29 at later incidents. Mortality from a second incident of firearm injury is 10% higher than first injuries, second hospitalizations are US $5,000 more expensive, and loss of life has a societal cost of US $167 billion in this community alone. CONCLUSION: The most appropriate population for inclusion in HVIPs at our hospital are young black men. The HVIP services are needed in the emergency department to address those treated and released at first GSW. Recidivists have higher mortality, and hospitalizations are significantly more expensive at the second injury. The investment in prevention is justified and may lead to a decrease in recidivism. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management level III.


Asunto(s)
Violencia con Armas/prevención & control , Hospitales Universitarios , Reincidencia , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Armas de Fuego , Humanos , Masculino , New Jersey/epidemiología , Readmisión del Paciente , Medición de Riesgo , Centros Traumatológicos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad
12.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 159-171, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573036

RESUMEN

It has been argued that the predictors of all criminal career features are the same, and that childhood risk factors do not predict life-course-persistent offenders. Little is known about childhood predictors of the duration of criminal careers. The aim is to investigate childhood (aged 8-10 years) risk factors for criminal career duration, in comparison with childhood risk factors for other criminal career features. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from age 8, with conviction records up to age 61. Life-course-persistent (LCP) offenders were defined as those with a criminal career lasting at least 20 years. The strongest predictors of LCP offenders were harsh discipline, poor parental supervision, a convicted father and parental conflict. Childhood risk factors for LCP offenders and criminal career duration were different from childhood risk factors for the prevalence of offending (convicted versus unconvicted males). These results should be taken into account in developmental and life-course criminology theories, risk assessment instruments and risk-focused interventions.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Reincidencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Londres/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo
13.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(1): 66-76, jan.-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1092173

RESUMEN

O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar a incidência de casos de reinstitucionalização de crianças e adolescentes e discutir como a política de atendimento a essa população está organizada para fortalecer a função protetiva da família. Para tanto, foi realizada pesquisa documental em bancos de dados oficiais. Estes dados foram posteriormente categorizados e analisados à luz dos princípios da Doutrina da Proteção Integral. Nas análises documentais foram encontradas 81 Guias de Acolhimento que apontavam a reinstitucionalização. Destas, 34,6% referiam-se a acolhidos cujas famílias eram oriundas da Região Administrativa Oeste. Os dados apontam que a reinstitucionalização das crianças e adolescentes pode possuir forte relação com a situação de pobreza e ausência do Estado na proposição de políticas públicas efetivas.


The purpose of this article is to analyze the incidence of cases of new institutionalization of children and adolescents and to discuss how the policy of attending to this population is organized to strengthen the family's protective function. For this, a documentary research was carried out in official databases. These data were later categorized and analyzed. In the documentary analyzes were found 81 Guidance Reception that pointed to the new institutionalization. Of these, 34.6% referred to foster families whose families came from the Western Administrative Region. The data indicate that the new institutionalization of children and adolescents may have a strong relationship with the situation of poverty and absence of the State in proposing effective public policies.


El objetivo del artículo es analizar la incidencia de casos de reinstitucionalización de niños y adolescentes y discutir cómo la política de atención a esa población está organizada para fortalecer la función protectora de la familia. Para eso, se realizó una investigación documental en bases de datos oficiales. En los análisis documentales se encontraron 81 Guías de Acogimiento que apuntaban a la reinstitucionalización. De estas, el 34,6% se refería a acogidos cuyas familias provenían de la Región Administrativa Oeste. Los datos apuntan que la reinstitucionalización de los niños y adolescentes puede tener una fuerte relación con la situación de pobreza y ausencia del Estado en la propuesta de políticas públicas efectivas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Asunción de Riesgos , Defensa del Niño , Niño Institucionalizado , Adolescente Institucionalizado , Acogimiento , Reincidencia , Institucionalización , Niño Acogido
14.
Behav Sci Law ; 38(3): 259-278, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369247

RESUMEN

Although risk assessment has increasingly been used as a tool to help reform the criminal justice system, some stakeholders are adamantly opposed to using algorithms. The principal concern is that any benefits achieved by safely reducing rates of incarceration will be offset by costs to racial justice claimed to be inherent in the algorithms themselves. But fairness trade-offs are inherent to the task of predicting recidivism, whether the prediction is made by an algorithm or human. Based on a matched sample of 67,784 Black and White federal supervisees assessed with the Post Conviction Risk Assessment, we compared how three alternative strategies for "debiasing" algorithms affect these trade-offs, using arrest for a violent crime as the criterion . These candidate algorithms all strongly predict violent reoffending (areas under the curve = 0.71-72), but vary in their association with race (r = 0.00-0.21) and shift trade-offs between balance in positive predictive value and false-positive rates. Providing algorithms with access to race (rather than omitting race or "blinding" its effects) can maximize calibration and minimize imbalanced error rates. Implications for policymakers with value preferences for efficiency versus equity are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Crimen , Criminales , Reincidencia , Humanos , Masculino , Prisiones , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(2): 221-228, mayo 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197261

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study offers a comparative analysis of evidence for the predictive validity of SAVRY and YLS/CMI scores in predicting risk of recidivism in a group of young people who received a Juvenile Justice order. METHODS: The sample was made up of 594 youths aged between 14 and 18 (M=15.63, SD=1.08) at the time they committed an offense. RESULTS: Both instruments showed high accuracy in predicting recidivism, with the greatest accuracy observed in the SAVRY and YLS/CMI total scores, as well as in the Individual domain of the SAVRY. Comparative analysis of the AUCs of both instruments indicated no statistically significant differences between total scores from the two instruments. Results showed statistically significant differences in comparisons of means and AUCs between the groups of young reoffenders and non-reoffenders in all cases. Our results did not support the hypothesis that dynamic risk factors are a better predictors of recidivism in young offenders. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers empirical evidence of the predictive capacity and differential functioning of the SAVRY and YLS/CMI instruments in the Spanish context


INTRODUCCIÓN: se presenta un análisis comparativo de la evidencia de validez predictiva de las puntuaciones del SAVRY e YLS/CMI para predecir el riesgo de reincidencia en un grupo de jóvenes a los que se les había abierto un expediente en Justicia Juvenil. MÉTODO: la muestra estaba compuesta por 594 jóvenes que tenían entre 14 y 18 años (M = 15.63, DT = 1.08) en el momento de la comisión del hecho delictivo. RESULTADOS: los resultados de ambos instrumentos mostraron una alta capacidad predictiva de la reincidencia, con mayor precisión observada en las puntuaciones totales de SAVRY e YLS/CMI, así como en el dominio individual de SAVRY. El análisis comparativo de las AUC de ambos instrumentos no indicó diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las puntuaciones totales de los dos instrumentos. Se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las comparaciones de medias y AUC entre los grupos de jóvenes reincidentes y no reincidentes. Los resultados de este trabajo no apoyan la hipótesis de que los factores de riesgo dinámicos son mejores predictores de la reincidencia en los jóvenes infractores. CONCLUSIONES: el presente estudio ofrece evidencia empírica de la capacidad predictiva y el funcionamiento diferencial de los instrumentos SAVRY e YLS/CMI en el contexto español


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Reincidencia/psicología , Área Bajo la Curva , Predicción/métodos , Modelos Psicológicos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , España
16.
Behav Sci Law ; 38(3): 226-245, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314380

RESUMEN

Risk assessment tools driven by algorithms offer promising advantages in predicting the recidivism risk of defendants. Jurisdictions are increasingly relying upon risk tool outcomes to help judges at sentencing with their decisions on whether to incarcerate or whether to use community-based sanctions. Yet as sentencing has significant consequences for public safety and individual rights, care must be taken that the tools relied upon are appropriate for the task. Judges are encouraged to act as gatekeepers to evaluate whether the forensic risk assessment tool offered has a sufficient level of validity in that it is fit for the purposes of sentencing, provides an acceptable level of accuracy in its predictions, and achieves an adequate standard of reliability with regard to its outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Derecho Penal , Toma de Decisiones , Reincidencia , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo
17.
Psychol Assess ; 32(6): 568-581, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118459

RESUMEN

A dynamic risk factor is a variable that can change across time, and as it changes, there is a corresponding change in the likelihood of the outcome. In corrections, there is evidence for dynamic risk factors when relatively more proximal reassessments enhance predictive validity for recidivism. In this article, we tested the proximity hypothesis with longitudinal, multiple-reassessment data gathered from 3,421 individuals supervised on parole in New Zealand (N = 68,667 assessments of theoretically dynamic risk factors conducted by corrections case managers). In this sample, reassessments consistently improved prediction as demonstrated by (1) incremental prediction over initial baseline scores and (2) improved model fit of the most recent assessment compared with the average of earlier scores. These results contribute to a growing body of evidence that support community corrections agencies conducting repeated assessments of the risk for imminent recidivism using a dynamic risk instrument. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Modelos Psicológicos , Reincidencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia , Adulto Joven
18.
Behav Sci Law ; 38(3): 246-258, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222084

RESUMEN

This article focuses on two aspects of actuarial risk at sentencing, the accuracy of the instrument and the outcome it predicts. For theoretical reasons rooted in the cognitive decision-making and sentencing literature, there is a danger that judges and other practitioners might come to overly rely on a "high risk" label or designation without appreciating the accuracy of the prediction or the actual outcome being predicted. Using sentencing and recidivism data from Pennsylvania (n = 10,000), two simple risk instruments are constructed to illustrate the critical importance of understanding accuracy and outcome before relying on the risk tool information.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Actuarial , Derecho Penal , Toma de Decisiones , Reincidencia , Humanos , Pennsylvania , Medición de Riesgo
19.
Behav Sci Law ; 38(2): 79-99, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189386

RESUMEN

Penile plethysmography (PPG) is an objective measure of male sexual arousal in response to the presentation of a series of erotic and neutral stimuli. This measure is now widely recognized as the most reliable means of objectively measuring male sexual arousal to specific stimuli. Many clinicians and researchers consider PPG to be a vital contribution to the assessment and treatment of adult men with paraphilic interests and men who have committed sex crimes. PPG contributes to the clinical assessment of paraphilic interests, appraisal of risk of recidivism, and provides an objective measurement of changes in sexual arousal in response to treatment. There is strong support for the utility of PPG within clinical and legal contexts. This article addresses ways in which PPG has been utilized in the courts as part of expert clinical opinion. History of its use, details regarding admissibility in court, and case law are explored within the legal systems of Canada, the UK and the USA. Support for the inclusion of PPG as expert evidence is provided and judicial misunderstandings on the rationale for PPG use and its clinical utility in forensic assessments are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Derecho Penal , Pene , Pletismografía , Delitos Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Canadá , Literatura Erótica , Testimonio de Experto , Humanos , Masculino , Reincidencia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
20.
Behav Sci Law ; 38(3): 287-297, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215980

RESUMEN

In this article, we focus on two highly problematic issues in the manner in which the First Step Act of 2018 is being implemented by the Bureau of Prisons: an uncritical separation of "dynamic risks" and "criminogenic needs"; and a spurious reliance on "evidence-based" interventions to reduce recidivism risk. We argue that if the Act is to live up to its promise of being a game-changing development in efforts to reduce crime while simultaneously shrinking mass incarceration, "needs assessment" must be subject to vastly increased empirical attention, variable and causal risk factors must be identified and validly assessed, and interventions to reduce risk must be rigorously evaluated both for their fidelity of implementation and impact on recidivism. Rather than further proliferating programs that ostensibly reduce risk, we believe that serious consideration should be given to the Bureau of Prisons offering one signature, well-established cognitive-behavioral program that can simultaneously address multiple risk factors for moderate and high-risk prisoners.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prisioneros , Prisiones , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
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