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1.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 227-238, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478289

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour towards another person who does not or cannot consent to it causes serious harm to its victims. Understandable tendencies towards isolating or shaming the offenders, however, may actually increase risks of recidivism and further such harms. AIM: The study aims to consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for sex offenders, mainly in a U.K. context, across four areas: criminal justice system programmes, medication, interventions for sex offenders with personality disorder and a community-based model for the reintegration-Circles of Support and Accountability, and identify key evidence gaps. METHODS: We searched for reviews in the following four strands of work-psychosocial programmes, medication, personality focused therapies, and Circles of Support and Accountability-and identified gaps in knowledge. FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials in this field are rare but have been achieved. Findings from more naturalistic outcome studies of sex offender treatment programmes are disappointing, but recidivism rates among released sex offender prisoners are low, regardless. Medication relying on substantial physiological change raises substantial ethical concerns. Not all sex offenders have a mental disorder but up to half have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, which may need specific treatment. Evidence is growing that lay work such as Circles of Support and Accountability is a valuable adjunct to other interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: In this field, where tensions between attributions swing between "madness" and "badness," there is growing evidence for optimism that complexity of history and presentation can be met through cooperation between the many disciplines, integrative strategies, and wider community engagement. The need now is for large, prospective controlled trials of interventions, with long periods of follow-up. Perhaps, the most exciting developments have come from the wider public. More research into the qualities of these volunteers might inform public education and health strategies supporting wider safety.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Criminales/psicología , Libido/efectos de los fármacos , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Grupos de Autoayuda , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual/efectos de los fármacos , Responsabilidad Social , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/efectos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Prisioneros , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16103, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Evidence showed that reoffending habits are increasing among offenders with violent sexual behaviors. Given the recidivism rates, a psychotherapeutic intervention becomes imperative. This study examined the efficacy of prison-based cognitive behavioral rehabilitation intervention (PCBRI) on violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Nigerian prisons. METHOD: A total of45 participants were the sample size. Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory and Hypersexual Behavior Inventory were employed in assessing the participants at 3 points. Using a simple random allocation sequence, 23 participants were exposed to PCBRI programme and 22 participants allocated to control condition. The data obtained were analyzed using repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Results indicated a significant effect of the treatment on violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Nigerian prisons exposed to the PCBRI programme when compared to the no-intervention group. Result also showed a significant interaction effect of time and group on sex offenders with violent sexual behaviors. Follow-up tests showed significant decrease in violent sexual behaviors after 6 months for the PCBRI group in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that PCBRI approach is a type of psychotherapy that reduces violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Southeast Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Criminales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Prisiones , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Reincidencia/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Index enferm ; 28(1/2): 23-27, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184978

RESUMEN

Objetivo principal: analizar la relación entre la reincidencia de accidentes con materiales biológicos y el perfil de los trabajadores de las instituciones de salud. Metodología: descriptivo-analítico, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en el Servicio de Asistencia Especializada, con 73 trabajadores de Instituciones de salud que sufrieron accidentes con material biológica. Se utilizó un cuestionario con características relacionadas al trabajo ya los accidentes, que fueron analizados por medio de estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados principales: las variables edad, tiempo de actuación, carga horaria semanal y unidad de trabajo, se asociaron a la reincidencia de accidentes (p <0,05). Los trabajadores accidentados más de una vez presentaron una edad superior a 41 años, más tiempo de experiencia y carga horaria inferior a 40 horas semanales. La prevalencia de accidentes aumentó 11% (RP: 1,11) mes/trabajo, siendo la reexposición 66% menor (RP: 0,24) para carga horaria entre 40-59hs. Conclusión principal: los resultados sugieren que la reincidencia de los accidentes puede estar relacionada con el mayor tiempo de experiencia profesional y la carga horaria inferior a 40 horas semanales


Objective: to verify the association between recurrence of accidents with biological materials and the profile of the workers of Health Institutions. Methods: Methods: descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative, performed in the Specialized Assistance Service, with 73 workers from health institutions that suffered an accident with material biological. A questionnaire with characteristics related to work and accidents was used, which were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: the variables age, time of action, weekly workload and work unit were associated to recurrence of accidents (p <0.05). More than once workers were injured more than 41 years old, with more experience and less than 40 hours a week. The prevalence of accidents increased by 11% (RP: 1.11) month/work, with reexposure being 66% lower (PR: 0.24) for the workload between 40-59hs. Conclusions: the results suggest that the recurrence of accidents may be related to the greater time of professional experience and the workload less than 40 hours per week


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Accidentes y Eventos Biológicos , Personal de Salud , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Riesgos Laborales , Anatomía Transversal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Accidentes de Trabajo , Análisis Cuantitativo
4.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(2): 128-133, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-185217

RESUMEN

Background: This study explores the predictive capabilities of sociodemographic characteristics and risk and protective factors for youth recidivism while comparing two analytical methodologies; logistic prediction models and qualitative comparative analysis models. Methods: information from the judicial files of 389 young offenders (14-19.03 years) were gathered from the Juvenile Court and risk and protective factors were extracted from the administration of the Youth Level Service/Case Management Inventory. Recidivism data was also obtained for a follow-up period of two years for each young person. Results: the results showed two different profiles of reoffenders. Most were young boys with high risk scores and low protective factors, but a minority were young foreign girls with crimes against persons and low protective factors. Conclusions: being able to detect the different variables that contribute to recidivism can help implement prevention programs tailored to the criminogenic needs of each specific profile


Introducción: este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar las capacidades predictivas de las variables sociodemográficas, los factores de riesgo y los de protección en la reincidencia de menores infractores, comparando dos metodologías analíticas: modelos de regresión logística y modelos de análisis cualitativos comparativos. Método: los participantes fueron 389 menores infractores (14-19,3 años) del Juzgado de Menores, a los cuales se les administró el Youth Level Service/Case Management Inventory. Se obtuvieron datos sobre la reincidencia en un período de seguimiento de dos años para cada participante. Resultados: se encontraron dos perfiles diferentes de reincidentes, la mayoría eran varones jóvenes con puntuaciones altas en factores de riesgo y bajas en factores de protección. Por el contrario, se halló una minoría de jóvenes extranjeras con delitos contra las personas y escasos factores de protección. Conclusiones: detectar las diferentes variables que contribuyen a la reincidencia puede ayudar a implementar programas de prevención adaptados a las necesidades criminógenas de cada perfil específico


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Correlación de Datos , Demografía , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores Protectores , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
Psicothema ; 31(2): 128-133, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study explores the predictive capabilities of sociodemographic characteristics and risk and protective factors for youth recidivism while comparing two analytical methodologies; logistic prediction models and qualitative comparative analysis models. METHODS: information from the judicial files of 389 young offenders (14-19.03 years) were gathered from the Juvenile Court and risk and protective factors were extracted from the administration of the Youth Level Service/Case Management Inventory. Recidivism data was also obtained for a follow-up period of two years for each young person. RESULTS: the results showed two different profiles of reoffenders. Most were young boys with high risk scores and low protective factors, but a minority were young foreign girls with crimes against persons and low protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: being able to detect the different variables that contribute to recidivism can help implement prevention programs tailored to the criminogenic needs of each specific profile.


Asunto(s)
Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Correlación de Datos , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores Protectores , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sociológicos , Adulto Joven
6.
Sex Abuse ; 31(5): 607-631, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775135

RESUMEN

Developed with the goal of preventing recidivism, contemporary sex offender supervision models focus on collaboration between probation officers and therapists. This exploratory study used focus groups to examine the working relationships between probation officers and therapists from two large U.S. urban probation departments. Overall, both probation officers and therapists were quite positive about their working relationships; they valued each others' roles and agreed that regular, accurate, and timely communication occurred frequently. Not all relationships, however, were effective. Several probation officers and therapists expressed dissatisfaction with poor communication, conflicts between the goals of therapy and probation, a lack of resources, and deficits in the policies they needed to adequately implement components of their supervision model (the containment model). Our findings suggest ways to structure sexual offender supervision that integrate the distinct orientations of probation officers and therapists into a collaboration that promotes public safety and work well for all.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Criminales/psicología , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Respeto , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneros/psicología
7.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(1): 3-17, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877107

RESUMEN

This research investigated the effectiveness of a brief Restorative Justice Intervention. Probationers who attended a Restorative Justice Intervention ( n = 383) were compared with probationers receiving treatment as usual ( n = 130) over a 2- to 6-year follow-up period. The proportion of individuals who recidivated in the control condition ( n = 89, 68.46%) were higher compared with those who recidivated in the intervention condition ( n = 127, 33.16%; z = 7.04, p < .001). In addition, among those who recidivated, those in the intervention condition did so less frequently. Qualitative analyses from a postintervention course evaluation given only to the intervention condition showed that 50% of probationers acknowledged an empathic understanding associated with participation. This brief intervention has a positive multilevel impact on restorative justice. Implications of these effects are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Criminales , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Empatía , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
8.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(1): 77-85, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986615

RESUMEN

The effects of sex offender treatment programs have been addressed in the literature, but there are opportunities to expand research and potentially improve existing sex offender treatment programs. The Federal Bureau of Prison's Sex Offender Treatment Program gives offenders the opportunity to change their behavior by reducing criminality and recidivism, and receive transition services as offenders exit the prison system and reenter society. This program is evidence-based and utilizes landmark research in sex offender treatment, however there are a few details that may present limitations to the effectiveness of the treatment program within the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Entry requirements, such as literacy, cognitive, and remaining sentence requirements, as well as the treatment program environment, present opportunities for research to evaluate the effects of these variables on the convicted sex offender population.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Investigación , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Humanos , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
9.
Personal Disord ; 10(1): 59-69, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927298

RESUMEN

The present study examined the association of psychopathy, measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003), to sexual offender treatment completion, change, and recidivism in a Canadian sample of 302 treated sexual offenders followed up in the community 17.6 years post release. Sexual violence risk and treatment change was evaluated via the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), and general violence risk via the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 1998). High-psychopathy men had significantly higher rates of sexual offender treatment noncompletion (30%) than low-psychopathy men (6%), although they did not evidence significantly less therapeutic change. The Affective facet of the PCL-R uniquely, significantly predicted decreased therapeutic progress, and along with the Lifestyle facet, it predicted treatment noncompletion. Examination of recidivism outcomes revealed that treatment completion in and of itself was not significantly associated with decreased sexual or violent recidivism among psychopathic offenders; however, therapeutic change, reflecting risk reduction, was significantly associated with decreased sexual and violent recidivism after controlling for baseline risk and PCL-R score. Results of survival analysis indicated that a subgroup of high-risk psychopathic men who made substantial treatment gains had lower trajectories of sexual and violent recidivism over the follow-up period relative to other high-risk men who demonstrated fewer treatment benefits. The issue of therapeutic pessimism with implications for the treatment and retention of high-psychopathy sexual offenders, per the two-component model, is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/rehabilitación , Criminales , /estadística & datos numéricos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Desarrollo de Programa , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
10.
J Forensic Nurs ; 14(4): 206-213, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30433909

RESUMEN

Child sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions resulting in lifelong physical and mental health consequences for victims. Most child sexual abuse victims never disclose and do not receive needed treatment. Clearly, pediatric healthcare providers must understand the dynamics of child sexual abuse to better identify and protect potential victims. Forensic nurses are at the forefront of caring for victims of sexual abuse and are strong voices in the education of parents, community members, and other healthcare professionals regarding sexual abuse. Forensic nurses with a deeper understanding of child sexual abuse perpetrators will be better able to educate the public and advocate for children at risk for sexual abuse. In this article, specific types of child sexual abuse perpetration will be explored, and implications for forensic nursing will be discussed.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Pedofilia/psicología , Adolescente , Castración/métodos , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Femenino , Enfermería Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Rol de la Enfermera , Pedofilia/terapia , Reincidencia/prevención & control
11.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 28(6): 476-491, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328151

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aggression replacement training (ART) is a widely used cognitive behavioural intervention for reducing aggression-related recidivism among criminal offenders. Its effectiveness in reducing offending, however, remains uncertain. AIM: To examine the effect of ART on adult offenders' criminal recidivism rates. METHOD: We compared 1,124 convicted adult offenders who began ART in the Swedish Prison and Probation Services 2003-2009 with 3,372 offenders in the system at the same time who did not participate in ART. Linkage with nationwide, longitudinal registries allowed extensive propensity score-matched controlling for baseline differences (e.g. sociodemographics, criminal history, psychiatric morbidity, and substance misuse) between groups. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat analyses suggested similar 1-year general reconviction rates (according to the National Crime Register) between the two groups (ART participants 50% [n = 465]: comparison participants 51% [n = 1,492]; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97, 95% CI [0.88, 1.07]) and similar one-year violent recidivism (ART participants 19% [n = 174]: comparison participants 18% [n = 547]; HR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.89, 1.17]). For ART completers, findings suggested a marginal decrease in reconvictions for any recidivism, but not for violent recidivism specifically. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings add to the emerging literature suggesting no effect of ART on reoffending among adult offenders. Originally designed for adolescents, it may be that the programme should include components for more adult-specific needs. Further, although group differences in reoffending did not emerge, research with a wider range of outcomes may be worthwhile before abandoning this approach with offenders.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Puntaje de Propensión , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Suecia
12.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 60(10): 672-681, 2018.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cutbacks in clinical beds in regular and forensic psychiatry increase the burden on outpatient forensic care in The Netherlands.
AIM: Since 2007, Dutch forensic (flexible) assertive community treatment (For(F)ACT) teams offer outpatient, intensive treatment to forensic clients with complex mental health issues. As the need for this form of intensive treatment increases, so does the need for unambiguous indication criteria to facilitate adequate care and accompanied reduction in criminal behavior.
METHOD: The present study investigated the correlation between the clinical indication criteria and risk factors for criminal behavior in 76 For(F)ACT-clients, reviewing which criteria best predicted recidivism.
RESULTS: A weak correlation was found between the indication criteria and risk factors. Further receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that a combination of clinical indication criteria best predicted recidivism.
CONCLUSION: The influential risk factors for For(F)ACT-clients are different compared to those for other groups of delinquents. Important treatment factors are breaking patterns, increasing safety and offering social and financial support. The clinical indication criteria should not be replaced by the START risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/métodos , Psiquiatría Forense , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Atención Ambulatoria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Reincidencia/psicología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
13.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 60: 45-50, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217330

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Criminal recidivism within two years after discharge from secure Forensic Psychiatric Hospitals (FPHs) is high, that is, over 36% for short-term judicial measures. It is assumed that relational care during treatment and continued voluntary contact and informal care after discharge, are factors that contribute to the reduction of criminal recidivism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the provision of relational care and continued contact after treatment can be effective in reducing criminal recidivism two years after discharge (prevalence and time to re-offense) in patients who received treatment according to article 37 of the Dutch Penal Law (i.e., a hospital order for one year) compared to patients with the same order receiving Care As Usual. METHODS: An evaluation study of criminal recidivism in adult patients (N = 111) residing in 4 FPHs in the Netherlands two years after discharge. The intervention 'relational care' group was compared with a historical control group from the same hospital before the new approach had been introduced, and a concurrent control group from three other FPHs in the Netherlands. RESULTS: In the intervention group 15,6% of the participants reoffended within two years following discharge, which was significantly lower than recidivism in the historical (46,5%) and concurrent (47,8%) control group. The odds-ratio for recidivism in the intervention group was 0.245 (95% CI: 0.076-0.797) which was significant at p = .019. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received relational care and subsequently were provided with voluntary contact after treatment recidivated later and at a lower rate than patients from two control groups receiving CAU. Relational care and the voluntary continuation of contact and informal (after)care, which was build up during the treatment period, may bridge the difficult period that patients face when they have left the forensic psychiatric hospital.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Criminal , Alta del Paciente , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Psiquiatría Forense , Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
14.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(14): 4425-4444, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070587

RESUMEN

Community corrections agencies across the world have adopted biometric technologies as a security tool and cost-effective monitoring strategy. This study investigates the effectiveness of the automated voiceprint recognition supervision (AVRS) curfew program for 386 Korean juvenile probationers from the Seoul Probation Office. Although the AVRS curfew program in Korea has been in effect for more than 14 years, effectiveness of the program has not been fully tested. A propensity score analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the AVRS program, controlling for potential covariates of referring juveniles to the program. Contrary to expectations, a logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the innovative curfew program is a statistically significant factor in increasing the odds of recidivism. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for court-ordered juvenile curfew programs.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/legislación & jurisprudencia , Crimen/prevención & control , Delincuencia Juvenil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Delincuencia Juvenil/prevención & control , Reincidencia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea
15.
J Forensic Nurs ; 14(4): 230-237, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080709

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Forensic psychiatry has the dual task of focusing on the prevention of reoffending as well as maintaining psychiatric rehabilitation. No previous studies addressing the patients' own views on reducing their risk of serious reoffending were found. AIM: This study describes forensic psychiatric inpatients' own views on what aspects of care and personal recovery are important in reducing their risk of serious reoffending. METHODS: A structured qualitative approach was used. Data were collected from semistructured interviews and analyzed with a systematic qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The results highlight aspects of care and personal recovery. Four themes emerged: "time: opportunity for change," "trust: creating a context with meaningful relations," "hope: to reach a future goal," and "toolbox: tools needed for recovery." DISCUSSION: The themes present with a continuum. At one end, there are patients who appreciated possibilities to participate actively in care and treatment. At the other end, patients felt they had no use for their care. Interestingly, although patients in our study were asked for their opinion on how they could reduce their dangerousness, all themes fit into established personal recovery processes found in general psychiatric populations. The theme "time: opportunity for change" seems to have an overarching importance. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: By understanding the specific content along these themes, relevant to the individual patient, carers may be able to better support their personal recovery journey. Because time spent as inpatients in forensic psychiatry is an overarching issue, carers need to be persistent over time.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Mental , Prisioneros/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Psiquiatría Forense , Esperanza , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Suecia , Confianza
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 118: 84-91, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037621

RESUMEN

The truth of the adage, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure", is exemplified by the opioid crisis now facing the world. While the best way to rid society of drug addiction is to prevent it from occurring in the first place, this is highly unlikely in the near future given the many ways that individuals can be first exposed to some potentially addicting substance. When an addiction is established, the first treatment for it is detoxification, but the insidious nature of addiction is its propensity to relapse. Too often, detoxified addicts resume drug use despite knowing that they are exposing themselves to serious, sometimes fatal, consequences. In an attempt to ward off relapse following detoxification, drug treatment centers, clinics, rehabilitation facilities, half-way houses, etc., offer different types of programs to help addicts stay clean. Examples of such treatments are 12-step programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), faith-based programs, and so forth. In addition, narcotics like methadone and suboxone, are sometimes prescribed to control the cravings that drive relapse, but this approach simply substitutes one drug for another. We now hypothesize that the auditory system can be used as a sensory conduit to modify the hijacked brain reward system of recently-detoxified addicts. As a rationale for this hypothesis, we present evidence from basic science studies showing the effect of music (the sensory input) on the brain, and from clinical trials employing music in a variety of neurological conditions. We then summarize an IRB-approved randomized control trial we performed to determine if our sound intervention could reduce the probability of relapse in recently-detoxified subjects. We end with suggestions for further study.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/rehabilitación , Musicoterapia/métodos , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Prevención Secundaria/métodos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Femenino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona , Persona de Mediana Edad , Narcóticos , Plasticidad Neuronal , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Proyectos Piloto , Probabilidad , Calidad de Vida , Recurrencia , Recompensa , Adulto Joven
17.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(15): 4796-4813, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058395

RESUMEN

The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to compare the 6-month outcomes of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) program versus a Health Promotion (HP) program on mitigating recidivism among 130 female parolees/probationers between baseline and 6-month follow-up. The effect of DBT-CM on reducing recidivism was greater among those who expressed a desire for help (risk ratio [RR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.16, 1.00]; p = .050) and among homeless female ex-offenders (HFOs) who were younger (<50 years of age; RR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.19, 1.11]; p = .085) and participants with Desire for Help score > 35 (Model 3; RR = 0.40; 95% CI = [0.16, 1.00]; p = .050). Findings from this pilot study suggest that the DBT-CM intervention may be effective in reducing reincarceration rates among some HFOs during reentry. Larger RCTs are needed to validate our findings.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Reincidencia/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Prisiones , Psicoterapia/métodos , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 119: 16-22, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966859

RESUMEN

Traffic violations, particularly drink driving, are a menace to the drivers themselves, and to other road users. Drink driving crashes often cause death or serious injury to the driver. Understanding the recidivism effect factor of drink driving is essential for designing effective countermeasures. This study is based on register-based data from the National Police Agency, Ministry of the Interior of Taiwan and monthly administrative area information from 2012 to 2015 for the entire population. Hence, this study not only focuses on the effect factor and violation differences between recidivists and non-recidivists, but discusses the entire regional characteristics effect for recidivism. The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive econometrical framework, using a multilevel random effect logistic model, which highlights important contributors to drink driving recidivism from regional attributes. As the study findings from our empirical results indicate, there are statistically significant differences with drink driving in administrative areas, depending on the number of report on drink driving by police, divorce rate of the population, alcohol consumption, number of community security patrol teams, number of bus trips, and level of education. The results of this study provide suggestions to the government for enhancing community security and developing public transportation, both of which can effectively decrease drink driving recidivism and improve public road safety.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Conducir bajo la Influencia , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Adulto , Conducción de Automóvil , Divorcio , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multinivel , Policia , Seguridad , Taiwán , Transportes
19.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(15): 4776-4795, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911445

RESUMEN

Despite the enormous resources spent by states in the United States on bridging the gap between criminal justice and behavioral health services, there have been relatively few statewide evaluations of drug treatment client recidivism. We present the results of an evaluation of recidivism outcomes for a sample of individuals ( n = 1,274) referred to the Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities (TASC) program in North Carolina from 2007 to 2008. The methodology accounted for both client and offense characteristics drawn from TASC, court, and corrections records. Multivariate analyses indicated that program completion is the most important predictor of re-arrest in the 3-year follow-up period, followed by a number of protective and risk factors. More specifically, being female, older at the time of program entry, as well as higher levels of educational attainment decreased the odds of re-arrest, whereas using crack/cocaine increased the odds of re-arrest. Suggestions for future research and policy implications are provided.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/psicología , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/psicología , Reincidencia/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adulto , Redes Comunitarias/organización & administración , Crimen/prevención & control , Derecho Penal , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Psiquiatría Forense/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia , Control Social Formal , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
20.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(14): 4655-4676, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890873

RESUMEN

The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of reentry programs designed to reduce recidivism and ensure successful reintegration among adult, male offenders. Studies were included if they (a) evaluated a reentry program incorporating elements dealing with the transition from prison to community for adult, male offenders; (b) utilized a randomized controlled design; and (c) measured recidivism as a primary outcome. In addition, secondary outcomes measures of reintegration were also included. The systematic search of 8,179 titles revealed nine randomized controlled evaluations that fulfilled eligibility criteria. The random-effects meta-analysis for rearrest revealed a statistically nonsignificant effect favoring the intervention (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.74, 1.07]). Similar results were found for reconviction (OR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.77, 1.12]) and reincarceration (OR = 0.90, 95% CI [0.78, 1.05]). Studies reported mixed results of secondary outcomes of reintegration. The results of this review reflect the variability of findings on reducing recidivism. The challenges faced in conducting this review highlight a need for further research and theory development around reentry programs.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/prevención & control , Criminales/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Adulto , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Recurrencia
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