Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 227.727
Filtrar
1.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monografía en Portugués | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677

RESUMEN

Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.


This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.


Asunto(s)
Política Pública , Coronavirus , Pandemias , España/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 1-13, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016361

RESUMEN

Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from agricultural soils represents a significant source of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. We evaluated the suitability of a modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the N2 O flux from the application of solid manure at two grassland sites (North Wyke [NW] and Pwllpeiran [PW]) in the United Kingdom. The simulated N2 O emissions were validated against field observations measured in 2011 and 2012 for model calibration and validation, respectively. The SWAT model predicts water-filled pore space (WFPS) very well with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), R2 , RMSE, and percentage bias (PBIAS) values of 0.67, .72, 0.06, and 3.64, respectively, during the calibration period for NW site, whereas it gives 0.68, .69, 0.07, and 3.04, respectively during the validation period. At PW, the model predicted the NSE, R2 , RMSE, and PBIAS of 0.55, .69, 0.04, and -4.5, respectively, during calibration and 0.63, .71, 0.05, and -2.6, respectively, during the validation period. Compared with WFPS, the model resulted in a slightly lower fit for N2 O emissions for NW (NSE = 0.47, R2  = .63 during calibration, and NSE = 0.55, R2  = .58 during validation) and for PW (NSE = 0.54, R2  = .71 for calibration, and NSE = 0.47, R2  = .69 for validation). Results revealed that the SWAT model performed reasonably well in representing the dynamics of N2 O emissions after solid manure application to grassland.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Pradera , Suelo , Reino Unido
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1450-1456, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031361

RESUMEN

During the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of a new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been increasing in Europe and the United States (1-3). Clinical features in children have varied but predominantly include shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 (1). Since June 2020, several case reports have described a similar syndrome in adults; this review describes in detail nine patients reported to CDC, seven from published case reports, and summarizes the findings in 11 patients described in three case series in peer-reviewed journals (4-6). These 27 patients had cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and neurologic symptoms without severe respiratory illness and concurrently received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody assays indicating recent infection. Reports of these patients highlight the recognition of an illness referred to here as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), the heterogeneity of clinical signs and symptoms, and the role for antibody testing in identifying similar cases among adults. Clinicians and health departments should consider MIS-A in adults with compatible signs and symptoms. These patients might not have positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test results, and antibody testing might be needed to confirm previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of the temporal association between MIS-A and SARS-CoV-2 infections, interventions that prevent COVID-19 might prevent MIS-A. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis and long-term effects of this newly described condition.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/virología , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(Sup10): S12-S16, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030379

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has led to considerable changes in how healthcare is delivered, as it has pushed people to think outside the box technologically. Mobile working is becoming more widespread, useful and valuable in this innovative period in the NHS. Point-of-care (POC) technology encompasses mobile devices and systems that support health professionals in their daily activities of patient care. It allows the user to safely assess and diagnose individuals at the point of care, providing actionable information to allow rapid clinical decision-making. POC technology also has the ability to support and educate patients with health needs, encouraging patients and their carers to assume greater more control of and responsibility over their health. Providing patients individual care plans to maintain their health will help realise the future of self-care. This article describe the development of a mobile app-Juzo Care-designed to enhance the management of chronic oedema and lymphoedema in mobile working settings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería en Salud Comunitaria , Edema/enfermería , Linfedema/enfermería , Aplicaciones Móviles , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Autocuidado , Betacoronavirus , Enfermedad Crónica , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
5.
Br J Nurs ; 29(18): 1082-1083, 2020 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035084

RESUMEN

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the Prime Minister's personal campaign to reduce the impact of COVID-19 by addressing rising levels of obesity in society.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiología
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e044566, 2020 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020111

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To analyse enrolment to interventional trials during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England and describe the barriers to successful recruitment in the circumstance of a further wave or future pandemics. DESIGN: We analysed registered interventional COVID-19 trial data and concurrently did a prospective observational study of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who were being assessed for eligibility to one of the RECOVERY, C19-ACS or SIMPLE trials. SETTING: Interventional COVID-19 trial data were analysed from the clinicaltrials.gov and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number databases on 12 July 2020. The patient cohort was taken from five centres in a respiratory National Institute for Health Research network. Population and modelling data were taken from published reports from the UK government and Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit. PARTICIPANTS: 2082 consecutive admitted patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 27 March 2020 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions enrolled, and reasons for exclusion from the aforementioned trials. Comparisons of trial recruitment targets with estimated feasible recruitment numbers. RESULTS: Analysis of trial registration data for COVID-19 treatment studies enrolling in England showed that by 12 July 2020, 29 142 participants were needed. In the observational study, 430 (20.7%) proceeded to randomisation. 82 (3.9%) declined participation, 699 (33.6%) were excluded on clinical grounds, 363 (17.4%) were medically fit for discharge and 153 (7.3%) were receiving palliative care. With 111 037 people hospitalised with COVID-19 in England by 12 July 2020, we determine that 22 985 people were potentially suitable for trial enrolment. We estimate a UK hospitalisation rate of 2.38%, and that another 1.25 million infections would be required to meet recruitment targets of ongoing trials. CONCLUSIONS: Feasible recruitment rates, study design and proliferation of trials can limit the number, and size, that will successfully complete recruitment. We consider that fewer, more appropriately designed trials, prioritising cooperation between centres would maximise productivity in a further wave.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Selección de Paciente , Neumonía Viral , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Investigación Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Determinación de la Elegibilidad , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 600, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028237

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences. METHODS: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Percepción Social , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología
11.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 977-989, 2020 10 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010843

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic capsular release are costly and invasive treatments for frozen shoulder, but their effectiveness remains uncertain. We compared these two surgical interventions with early structured physiotherapy plus steroid injection. METHODS: In this multicentre, pragmatic, three-arm, superiority randomised trial, patients referred to secondary care for treatment of primary frozen shoulder were recruited from 35 hospital sites in the UK. Participants were adults (≥18 years) with unilateral frozen shoulder, characterised by restriction of passive external rotation (≥50%) in the affected shoulder. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive manipulation under anaesthesia, arthroscopic capsular release, or early structured physiotherapy. In manipulation under anaesthesia, the surgeon manipulated the affected shoulder to stretch and tear the tight capsule while the participant was under general anaesthesia, supplemented by a steroid injection. Arthroscopic capsular release, also done under general anaesthesia, involved surgically dividing the contracted anterior capsule in the rotator interval, followed by manipulation, with optional steroid injection. Both forms of surgery were followed by postprocedural physiotherapy. Early structured physiotherapy involved mobilisation techniques and a graduated home exercise programme supplemented by a steroid injection. Both early structured physiotherapy and postprocedural physiotherapy involved 12 sessions during up to 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS; 0-48) at 12 months after randomisation, analysed by initial randomisation group. We sought a target difference of 5 OSS points between physiotherapy and either form of surgery, or 4 points between manipulation and capsular release. The trial registration is ISRCTN48804508. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017, we screened 914 patients, of whom 503 (55%) were randomly assigned. At 12 months, OSS data were available for 189 (94%) of 201 participants assigned to manipulation (mean estimate 38·3 points, 95% CI 36·9 to 39·7), 191 (94%) of 203 participants assigned to capsular release (40·3 points, 38·9 to 41·7), and 93 (94%) of 99 participants assigned to physiotherapy (37·2 points, 35·3 to 39·2). The mean group differences were 2·01 points (0·10 to 3·91) between the capsular release and manipulation groups, 3·06 points (0·71 to 5·41) between capsular release and physiotherapy, and 1·05 points (-1·28 to 3·39) between manipulation and physiotherapy. Eight serious adverse events were reported with capsular release and two with manipulation. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life-year, manipulation under anaesthesia had the highest probability of being cost-effective (0·8632, compared with 0·1366 for physiotherapy and 0·0002 for capsular release). INTERPRETATION: All mean differences on the assessment of shoulder pain and function (OSS) at the primary endpoint of 12 months were less than the target differences. Therefore, none of the three interventions were clinically superior. Arthoscopic capsular release carried higher risks, and manipulation under anaesthesia was the most cost-effective. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.


Asunto(s)
Bursitis/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administración & dosificación , Liberación de la Cápsula Articular , Manipulación Ortopédica , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atención Secundaria de Salud , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Inyecciones Intraarticulares , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reino Unido
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 503-512, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046925

RESUMEN

The world has recently witnessed the global impact of natural disease outbreaks, such as those caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Ebola virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and the lasting impact of the accidental spread of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom. Natural outbreaks, of both emerging and re-emerging diseases, can have significant impacts on local, national and regional communities. An effective response to these outbreaks relies heavily on the coordination of both public health and Veterinary Services to identify the signs, symptoms and patterns of disease quickly and respond accordingly. The future global risks related to infectious disease are influenced by several factors, including human migration, urban development, agricultural development and climate change. As technology advances, we are more aware of the potential risks associated with dual-use equipment and research (defined as equipment or research that can be used for legitimate as well as nefarious purposes), synthetic biology, the engineering of biological systems, and the evolving modus operandi of criminals and terrorist groups. The ability to detect natural, accidental or deliberate outbreaks and incidents will rely heavily on cross-agency communication, establishment of informationsharing platforms, development of joint investigative strategies, and recognition that effective response requires a strong health and security agency interface. Therefore, the management of a suspicious biological incident requires intersectoral and interregional cooperation employing a comprehensive approach which considers prevention, preparedness, response and recovery and identifies and considers the unique characteristics and requirements of the incident.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22623, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019485

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To identify the 100 most cited research articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: The Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched to identify the 100 most cited articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy as of September 29, 2019. Articles were ranked based on the total citations received from 2 databases. One hundred articles about radiotherapy for cervical cancer were identified. The following important information was extracted: author, journal, year and month of publication, country or region, and radiotherapy technologies. RESULTS: The 100 most cited articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy were published between 1964 and 2016, and the total citations from 2 databases ranged from 3478 to 211, including a total of 49,262 citations as of September 29, 2019. The index of citations per year ranged from 170.4 to 13.1. These articles were from 16 countries or regions, with most publications being from the United States (n = 38), followed by Austria (n = 15), Canada (n = 8), France (n = 8) and the United Kingdom (n = 7). The International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics produced the most articles (n = 42), followed by Radiotherapy and Oncology (n = 13), Cancer (n = 8) and Journal of Clinical Oncology (n = 7). These articles were categorized as original studies (n = 86), recommendations (n = 5), guidelines (n = 5) and reviews (n = 4). Of the 100 most cited articles, intracavitary brachytherapy (n = 50) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (n = 34) were the most commonly used treatment techniques. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report and analysis of the most cited articles on cervical cancer radiotherapy. This bibliographic study presents the history of technological development in external radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Brachytherapy is an indispensable part of radiotherapy for cervical cancer. The International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics is the journal with the most publications related to cervical cancer radiotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia/métodos , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/radioterapia , Austria/epidemiología , Bibliometría , Biología/estadística & datos numéricos , Canadá/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Oncología Médica/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Física/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones/tendencias , Oncología por Radiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47857

RESUMEN

41% dos entrevistados disseram ter largado o cigarro por causa da pandemia


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Reino Unido
16.
Br J Nurs ; 29(17): 1044-1045, 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972231

RESUMEN

Lauren Oliver, formerly Clinical Nurse Advisor, NHS Nightingale North West, outlines the challenges faced by staff in providing good-quality end-of-life care for patients in a temporary hospital during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitales Provinciales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Cuidado Terminal/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medicina Estatal/organización & administración , Reino Unido/epidemiología
17.
Br J Nurs ; 29(17): 1042-1043, 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972233

RESUMEN

Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, discusses the lawfulness of instructions to issue bulk do not attempt resuscitation orders during the COVID19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Órdenes de Resucitación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Legislación de Enfermería , Medicina Estatal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reino Unido/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA