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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 716421, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485238

RESUMEN

Objective: Key to reducing the spread of COVID-19 in the UK is increased use of the NHS Test and Trace (NHSTT) system. This study explored one of the main issues that determine whether people engage with NHSTT, how people understand symptoms that may indicate the presence of COVID-19 and that should trigger a request for a test. Methods: In this qualitative study, a series of semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people (21 members of the general population, 19 students). There was nearly an equal split between male and female participants in both samples. Data were collected between 30 November and 11 December 2020 and explored using thematic analysis. There was substantial similarity in responses for both populations so we combined our results and highlighted where differences were present. Results: Participants generally had good knowledge of the main symptoms of COVID-19 (high temperature, new, persistent cough, anosmia) but had low confidence in their ability to differentiate them from symptoms of other illnesses. Attribution of symptoms to COVID-19 was most likely where the symptoms were severe, many symptoms were present, symptoms had lasted for some time and when perceived risk of exposure to infection was high due to previous contact with others. Participants felt encouraged to engage in testing where symptoms were present and had persisted for several days, though, many had concerns about the safety of testing centres and the accuracy of test results. Students had mixed feelings about mass asymptomatic testing, seeing it as a way to access a more normal student experience, but also a potential waste of resources. Conclusions: This study offers novel insights into how people attribute symptoms to COVID-19 and barriers and facilitators to engaging with NHSTT. Participants had positive views of testing, but there is a need to improve not just recognition of each main symptom, but also understanding that even single, mild symptoms may necessitate a test rather than a "wait and see" approach, and to address concerns around test accuracy to increase testing uptake.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Actitud , Tos/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiología
2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 9136-9148, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488399

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the aging population continues to increase worldwide, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and muscular dystrophy/sarcopenia in the elderly has escalated significantly. Cardiovascular diseases elevate the risk of muscular atrophy/sarcopenia, which results in increased disability and mortality of patients. This study analyzed the current available literature related to the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and muscular atrophy/sarcopenia in the aging population. METHODS: The Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database was searched for related literature published between 1900 and March 14, 2021. The subject search was performed using the search terms "muscular atrophy" and "sarcopenia". The search formula was "muscular atrophy OR sarcopenia". The search scope was limited to "cardiovascular diseases OR cardiac & cardiovascular systems". All search results and cited references were exported in plain text format and Citespace software was used to analyze the publications in terms of year of publication, country and institution, journal of publication, authors, and keywords. RESULTS: A total of 1,004 related research documents were obtained, with a citation frequency of 26,705 times. The top five countries for the highest number of published documents were the United States, Japan, Germany, South Korea, and Italy. The top five countries involved in research cooperation were the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Germany, however, overall, there was little cooperation between countries, institutions, and authors. A number of researchers from Germany published the most documents. The author with the most cited publication was Cruz-Jentoft et al. from Spain, which deserves special attention. Professional journals of in the field of geriatrics play a significant role in this research topic. Analysis of the keywords showed that current researchers are mainly concerned with the associated risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between muscular atrophy/sarcopenia and cardiovascular diseases is currently a hot topic of research in geriatrics and cardiovascular disease, and further studies examining the mechanisms involved and potential prevention strategies are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Sarcopenia , Anciano , Bibliometría , Alemania , Humanos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
3.
Br J Nurs ; 30(16): 984-985, 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514834

RESUMEN

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses strategies and polices designed to address rising levels of long COVID in society in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicaciones , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
4.
Br J Nurs ; 30(16): S12-S20, 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514836

RESUMEN

One of the biggest challenges for specialist stoma care nurses (SCNs) caring for anyone living with a stoma is that of being confronted with a problematic stoma. This can be described as an ostomy that continues to cause leakage issues for the patient which, if persistent can quickly impact negatively on their quality of life. A convex stoma appliance, also termed convexity, is a possible solution to a problematic stoma. However, the use of a convex appliance should be considered only after a thorough assessment has been undertaken by a specialist SCN. Professionally, stoma care nursing has advanced greatly in recent years and there has been a realisation that there is a need for clinical guidelines to direct practice and offer a process for the novice SCN to follow. This realisation has been the catalyst behind the development of the new guideline for the assessment and use of convexity by the Association of Stoma Care Nurses UK, which was published this year (https://ascnuk.com/). This article explores the concept of convexity and how the guideline can assist the practice of specialist SCNs, as well as that of ward and community-based nurses who wish to gain more information on using convexity within the specialist sphere of stoma care.


Asunto(s)
Enfermeras Clínicas , Estomía , Estomas Quirúrgicos , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Reino Unido
5.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(5): 1093-1105, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515389

RESUMEN

The long-term effects of childhood abuse have been well studied though the effects of abuse of specific types in adult psychiatric service users are less known. This study aimed to assess the association between childhood abuse and the development of harmful social and behavioural outcomes among adult psychiatric service users. Adult psychiatric service users were accessed from secondary mental health services in South London. A retrospective analysis was conducted of a randomly selected sample of 342 mental health records. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to examine associations between childhood abuse - sexual abuse, physical abuse and psychological/emotional abuse - and health and behavioural outcomes. This study identified that 109 (31.8%) psychiatric service users had some history of childhood abuse and more often presented with high-risk or severe behaviours. Sexual abuse in childhood was linked with social isolation related to loss of friends (odds ratio (OR) = 2.68, P < 0.01), risky behaviours such as binge drinking (OR = 2.15, P < 0.05) and self-harming (OR = 2.86, P < 0.01), while childhood physical abuse was associated with drug abuse in adulthood (OR = 1.88, P < 0.05). Revictimization (adult domestic violence) also impacted on service users' quality of life in terms of loss of housing (OR = 2.21, P < 0.05) and loss of friends/family contact (OR = 2.73, P < 0.01). These findings suggest childhood abuse may play an important role in shaping risk and vulnerability for mental health problems across a lifespan. In acute mental health services, the incorporation of a trauma-informed nursing care model is necessary to generate a shift in culture in the delivery of care.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Servicios de Salud Mental , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 674-679, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475604

RESUMEN

Problem: Mental ill health in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has been a major driver of labour market exclusion through sickness absence, reduced productivity and job loss. Approach: A government-supported programme for improving access to psychological therapies was launched in 2008 and expanded across England in 2010. The aim was to provide evidence-based treatments for people with common mental disorders through three principal strategies: (i) routine session-by-session outcome monitoring; (ii) integration with the wider care system; and (iii) delivery of psychological therapies as part of a stepped-care approach. Local setting: Access to effective psychological therapies was previously low in the United Kingdom. In 2010, only about 35% of people with moderately severe mental disorders were in specialist or non-specialist treatment. Relevant changes: The accessibility of quality mental health services has increased, as has the efficiency of the country's mental health system. The numbers of people entering treatment have increased steadily from 0.43 million in 2012-2013 to 1.09 million in 2018-2019. The recovery rate of patients in treatment increased from 42.8% to 52.1% during 2012-2018. The number of people moved off sick pay and benefits rose from 3683 to 18 039 over the same period. Lessons learnt: A clinical guideline on psychological therapies is a prerequisite for increasing the accessibility and efficiency of mental health services. An integrated approach allows mental health services to have better reach. Routine collection of patient-level outcome data plays an important role in the value and function of the mental health care system.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Eficiencia Organizacional , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Irlanda del Norte , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Reino Unido
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1614, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479524

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescent multiple risk behaviour (MRB) is associated with negative outcomes such as police arrests, unemployment and premature mortality and morbidity. What is unknown is whether MRB is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in adulthood. We test whether adolescent MRB is associated with socioeconomic status (SES) in young adulthood and whether it is moderated by early life SES variables. METHODS: Prospective cohort studies; British Cohort Study 1970 (BCS70) and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), born in 1991-1992, were used and two comparable MRB variables were derived. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between MRB and young adult SES. The moderating effect of three early life SES variables was assessed using logistic regression models with and without interaction parameters. Evidence to support the presence of moderation was determined by likelihood ratio tests ≤p = 0.05. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. RESULTS: Adolescents had a median of two risk behaviours in BCS70 and three in ALSPAC. Adolescent MRB was negatively associated with young adult SES (university degree attainment) in BCS70 (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.86) and ALSPAC (OR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.88). There was a dose response relationship, with each additional risk behaviour resulting in reduced odds of university degree attainment. MRB was associated occupational status at age 34 in BCS70 (OR 0.86 95% CI: 0.82, 0.90). In BCS70, there was evidence that maternal education (p = 0.03), parental occupational status (p = 0.009) and household income (p = 0.03) moderated the effect of adolescent MRB on young adult SES in that the negative effect of MRB is stronger for those with low socioeconomic backgrounds. No evidence of moderation was found in the ALSPAC cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence appears to be a critical time in the life course to address risk behaviours, due to the likelihood that behaviours established here may have effects in adulthood. Intervening on adolescent MRB could improve later SES outcomes and thus affect health outcomes later in life. Evidence for a moderation effect in the BCS70 but not ALSPAC suggests that more detailed measures should be investigated to capture the nuance of contemporary young adult SES.


Asunto(s)
Asunción de Riesgos , Clase Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1621, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous research has examined individual-level and place characteristics as correlates of subjective wellbeing, with many studies concluding that individual factors (e.g. health, finances) are more strongly related to wellbeing. However, this 'dualistic' approach has been challenged, with some arguing that it is impossible to disentangle the effects of the two domains, and that wellbeing should be considered as part of a network of mutually reinforcing relationships between individual, community and place characteristics. We used network analysis to explore these complex associations. METHODS: Data were from a large sample of adults from a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of the United Kingdom (N = 4319). Wellbeing was assessed using the 7-item version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS). Mixed graphical networks were estimated including wellbeing, place and individual-characteristic variables as nodes. RESULTS: We found a densely connected network in which wellbeing was associated, both directly and indirectly, with all of the individual, community and place characteristics assessed. Wellbeing was most strongly connected with individual characteristics, in particular financial difficulty and subjective physical health. However, controlling for all other variables in the network model, wellbeing was positively associated with local greenspace usage, civic agency, and neighbourhood cohesion, and negatively associated with housing disrepair. Greater specificity in these associations was observed when the wellbeing construct was broken down into its constituent parts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the complex relationships that exist between individual, community and place characteristics in the context of subjective wellbeing, and that all domains need to be considered when developing population-level strategies to improve wellbeing. Further consideration needs to be given to how this might happen in practice, for example through a combination of consistent use of community engagement methodologies alongside Health in All Policy (HiAP) approaches.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda , Características de la Residencia , Adulto , Humanos , Reino Unido
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054377, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489298

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To develop an understanding of health professionals' experiences of working at the point of care during the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact on their health and well-being and their support needs. DESIGN: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using framework analysis. SETTING: One large National Health Service integrated care trust. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 19 qualified health professionals (doctors, nurses or allied health professionals), working with patients with COVID-19 admitted to the hospitals between March and May 2020 were eligible to take part. RESULTS: Eight major categories were identified: (1) Working in a 'war zone', (2) 'Going into a war zone without a weapon', (3) 'Patients come first', (4) Impact of COVID-19, (5) Leadership and management, (6) Support systems, (7) Health professionals' support needs, and (8) Camaraderie and pride. Health professionals reported increased levels of stress, anxiety and a lack of sleep. They prioritised their patients' needs over their own and felt a professional obligation to be at work. A key finding was the reported camaraderie among the health professionals where they felt that they were 'fighting this war together'. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a valuable insight into the experiences of some of the frontline health professionals working in a large London-based hospital trust during the first COVID-19 peak. Findings from this study could be used to inform how managers, leaders and organisations can better support their health professional staff during the current pandemic and beyond.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Investigación Cualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
13.
J Foot Ankle Res ; 14(1): 53, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Occupational musculoskeletal injuries are prevalent in healthcare workers and are reported to be profession-specific. There is, however, a paucity of information around the injuries sustained from working as a podiatrist. This paper looks at the incidence of injury from working as a podiatrist, the aggravating factors to sustain these injuries and whether the changes in workload due to the COVID-19 pandemic altered the incidence. METHODS: A modified work based musculoskeletal injury questionnaire was distributed in the UK via podiatry led social media platforms. Open and Closed questions explored the demographics of the sample, perceived injury 12 months prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and then 6 months into the lockdown. Pre and post COVID-19 data were analysed for differences and thematic analysis was included to categorise reported experiences. RESULTS: 148 podiatrists representing 3 % of HCPC registered practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Employment status altered as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic with a 13 % reduction in those working full time. Environments also changed with domiciliary and telehealth significantly increasing (p > 0.00) and non-clinical roles being extended (p > 0.002). Pain frequency and intensity significantly (p > 0.04) increased as a result of the pandemic with shoulder pain being most frequent before lockdown altering to the neck during the lockdown. Two main themes were identified that were attributed to the causes of pain including physical demands and working in awkward spaces. CONCLUSIONS: Work-related musculoskeletal pain in podiatrists is common with the shoulder and neck being the most frequently affected. Changes in work practices due to the restrictions enforced from the COVID-19 pandemic increased the frequency and intensity of pain mostly associated with increased domiciliary and telehealth working environments.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo , COVID-19 , Dolor de Cuello , Enfermedades Profesionales , Podiatría , Dolor de Hombro , Accidentes de Trabajo/prevención & control , Accidentes de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/métodos , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Dolor de Cuello/epidemiología , Dolor de Cuello/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/clasificación , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Podiatría/métodos , Podiatría/tendencias , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Dolor de Hombro/epidemiología , Dolor de Hombro/etiología , Telemedicina/métodos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Carga de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/normas
14.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1541-1549, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465152

RESUMEN

AIMS: While a centralized system for the care of patients with a sarcoma has been advocated for decades, regional variations in survival remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate regional variations in survival and the impact of national policies in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in the UK. METHODS: The study included 1,775 patients with a STS who were referred to a tertiary sarcoma centre. The geographical variations in survival were evaluated according to the periods before and after the issue of guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2006 and the relevant evolution of regional management. RESULTS: There had been a significant difference in survival between patients referred from the North East, North West, East Midlands, West Midlands, South West, and Wales in the pre-NICE era (five-year disease-specific survival (DSS); South West, 74% vs North East, 47% (p = 0.045) or West Midlands, 54% (p = 0.049)), which was most evident for patients with a high-grade STS. However, this variation disappeared in the post-NICE era, in which the overall DSS for high-grade STS improved from 47% to 68% at five years (p < 0.001). Variation in the size of the tumour closely correlated with the variation in DSS, and the overall size of the tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis also decreased after the national policies were issued. CONCLUSION: The survival of patients with a STS improved and regional variation corrected after the introduction of national policies, as a result of a decreasing size of tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis, particularly in patients with a high-grade STS. This highlights the positive impact of national guidelines on regional variation in the presentation, management, and outcome in patients with a STS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1541-1549.


Asunto(s)
Extremidades , Política de Salud , Sarcoma/mortalidad , Neoplasias de los Tejidos Blandos/mortalidad , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Características de la Residencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Tasa de Supervivencia , Reino Unido/epidemiología
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17421, 2021 08 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465820

RESUMEN

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly to countries all around the world from the end of 2019, which caused a great impact on global health and has had a huge impact on many countries. Since there is still no effective treatment, it is essential to making effective predictions for relevant departments to make responses and arrangements in advance. Under the limited data, the prediction error of LSTM model will increase over time, and its prone to big bias for medium- and long-term prediction. To overcome this problem, our study proposed a LSTM-Markov model, which uses Markov model to reduce the prediction error of LSTM model. Based on confirmed case data in the US, Britain, Brazil and Russia, we calculated the training errors of LSTM and constructed the probability transfer matrix of the Markov model by the errors. And finally, the prediction results were obtained by combining the output data of LSTM model with the prediction errors of Markov Model. The results show that: compared with the prediction results of the classical LSTM model, the average prediction error of LSTM-Markov is reduced by more than 75%, and the RMSE is reduced by more than 60%, the mean [Formula: see text] of LSTM-Markov is over 0.96. All those indicators demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of proposed LSTM-Markov model is higher than that of the LSTM model to reach more accurate prediction of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Aprendizaje Profundo , Humanos , Cadenas de Markov , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Proyectos de Investigación , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos
19.
Trials ; 22(1): 592, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488843

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine hesitancy is a major hurdle for stopping the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, fear of vaccine side effects created widespread concern and paused global vaccination efforts. Many studies find that how medical risks are framed and communicated can influence individuals' perceptions and behavior, yet there is little evidence on how the communication of COVID-19 vaccine side-effect risks influences vaccine intentions. The primary objective of our study is to evaluate how the framing of vaccine-side effect risks impacts individuals' vaccine intentions and perceptions of vaccine safety. The study will assess the impact of 3 dimensions of side-effect framing: 1. Qualitative risk labels: Determine whether attaching a qualitative risk label (e.g. adding "very low risk" next to the actual numerical risk) impacts individuals' willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. 2. Comparison groups: Determine how framing side-effect risks in comparison to other causes of mortality (COVID-19 mortality and motor vehicle mortality) impacts individuals' willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. 3. How the comparison risks are presented: Determine whether comparisons to other causes of mortality are presented on an absolute or relative scale impacts individuals' willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. Secondarily, we will also randomize a subset of individuals to receive the "status-quo" framing, where the vaccine side-effect risks are presented like how they were presented in the media. We will then compare vaccine intentions and perceptions of vaccine safety between the status-quo and the pooled intervention group samples to provide some insight into how "harmful" the status-quo framing was. Ultimately, we believe that our results will provide the some of the first experimental evidence on how the communication of COVID-19 vaccine risks may impact the public's willingness to be vaccinated and can inform future efforts to increase vaccination rates. TRIAL DESIGN: Our study is an online-based randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of different vaccine side-effect framings on COVID-19 vaccine intentions and perceived safety for a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. Using a factorial design, we will experimentally assess the impact of 3 risk framing strategies, varying whether the risk is presented: (1) with a qualitative label, (2) whether the risk is presented with a comparison risk, and (3) for comparison cases, whether the comparison is in absolute or relative terms. We will also randomize a portion of respondents to a status quo framing where the side effect risk mimics the media's communication in early April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: This will be an online study setting. We will use Prolific to recruit participants and host our study on the Gorilla platform. To be eligible, participants must be 18 years old or over (male, female, or other), have current residence in the US or UK, and be able to speak English. Participants will be excluded from the study if they do not meet our inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Our study content will consist of five pages presented to individuals online. Page 1 will explain the purpose of the study and contain the consent information. Page 2 will contain basic sociodemographic questions, including participants' age, sex, and schooling level. Page 3 will set up the experiment by telling individuals that we will describe a hypothetical new COVID-19 vaccine and that we would like to know how likely they would be to take the vaccine and how safe they think the vaccine is. On this page, we will also encourage individuals to respond truthfully and remind them that their answers are confidential and cannot be linked back to any personal identifying information. Page 4 will be the main experimental slide, where we will present individuals with information on the vaccine, varying how the vaccination risk is communicated based on which experimental framing arm they are randomized to. We will factorially randomize across the following factors in the following order (separately by country). First, we will determine whether individuals are randomized to the status quo framing, or the intervention framings (1500 respondents to the status quo, and 4500 to the intervention). Among those randomized to the intervention framing, we will randomize (equal allocation) whether the side effect is presented without a comparison, with a comparison to COVID-19 mortality, or with a comparison to motor vehicle mortality. We will then factorially randomize (equal allocation) whether the risk is presented with a qualitative risk label or not (e.g. "very low risk"). To ensure that the factors are independent of one another, we will do this by randomizing individuals to the risk labels within strata of the comparison group factor. Lastly, among those randomized to the comparison group, we will factorially randomize whether the risk is presented as an absolute or relative comparison. As previously, we will ensure independence by doing this randomization within strata of comparison group*risk labelling. This entire design is visualized in the full protocol. The experimental text for each arm is: Arm 1: With regards to side effects, so far 8 individuals have developed potentially life-threatening blood clots. This is among the approximately 7 million adults that have received the vaccine so far. Arm 2: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. Arm 3: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). Arm 4: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 170 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated Americans died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 108 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated individuals in the UK died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Arm 5: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/170th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated Americans based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/108th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated individuals in the UK based on data from the past year. Arm 6: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 170 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated Americans died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 108 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated individuals in the UK died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Arm 7: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/170th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated Americans based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/108th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated individuals in the UK based on data from the past year. Arm 8: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 12 out of every 100,000 Americans died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 2.6 out of every 100,000 individuals in the UK died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Arm 9: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/12th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is almost 1/4th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Arm 10: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 12 out of every 100,000 Americans died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 2.6 out of every 100,000 individuals in the UK died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Arm 11: Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/12th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is nearly 1/4th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accidentbased on data from the past year. The risk information will be presented on a single page along with the two main outcome questions. Lastly, for individuals that reported that they are unlikely or unsure about whether they would take the vaccine, the final page will ask them their reason (question based on a recently published study of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy). MAIN OUTCOMES: Our primary outcome is individuals' willingness to take the hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. We will measure this outcome by asking, "How likely would you be to take this vaccine?" allowing individuals to choose from a four-point Likert response of "Unlikely, Unsure leaning towards unlikely, Unsure leaning towards likely, Very likely." This outcome variable, including the categories and phrasing, is based on a recently published study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy conducted by researchers with the Vaccine Hesitance Project at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Our secondary outcome is individuals' perceived safety of the vaccine. We will assess this outcome by asking individuals, "How safe do you feel this vaccine is?" allowing them to choose answers ranging from 1-10 where 1 is extremely unsafe, and 10 is extremely safe. Both outcomes will be measured at the time of the questionnaire. Participants can take up to 45 min to complete the questions but will not be able to go back and change their responses after submitting their questionnaire. RANDOMIZATION: Using a web-based randomization algorithm, Gorilla will randomly allocate participants to each of the experimental arms. Gorilla allows for two randomization options - independent randomization of each individual based on a probability draw and balanced randomization, which randomizes without replacement such that among groups of respondents a fixed proportion will end up in each experimental arm. We will use the "balanced randomization" option to ensure that our experimental arms are balanced. Participants will be randomized based on the allocations described above. BLINDING: Because Prolific handles the interaction between the study investigators and participants, the participants will be completely anonymous to the study investigators. The outcome measures will be self-reported and submitted anonymously. All persons in the study team will be blinded to the group allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED: We will randomize 6000 participants per country for a total sample of 12000 individuals. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version number is 1.0 and the date is July 14, 2021. Recruitment is expected to begin on 26 July 2021 and end by August 10, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( www.drks.de ) on July 12th, 2021: # DRKS00025551 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Full_Protocol_20Jul2021) In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Adolescente , Adulto , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Pandemias , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Vacunas/efectos adversos
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