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1.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(3): 352-359, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114822

RESUMEN

AIMS: Few risk factors for rotator cuff disease (RCD) and corresponding treatment have been firmly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between numerous risk factors and the incidence of surgery for RCD in a large cohort. METHODS: A population-based cohort of people aged between 40 and 69 years in the UK (the UK Biobank) was studied. People who underwent surgery for RCD were identified through a link with NHS inpatient records covering a mean of eight years after enrolment. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as estimates of associations with surgery for RCD accounting for confounders. The risk factors which were considered included age, sex, race, education, Townsend deprivation index, body mass index (BMI), occupational demands, and exposure to smoking. RESULTS: Of the 421,894 people who were included, 47% were male. The mean age at the time of enrolment was 56 years (40 to 69). A total of 2,156 people were identified who underwent surgery for RCD. Each decade increase in age was associated with a 55% increase in the incidence of RCD surgery (95% confidence interval (CI) 46% to 64%). Male sex, non-white race, lower deprivation score, and higher BMI were significantly associated with a higher risk of surgery for RCD (all p < 0.050). Greater occupational physical demands were significantly associated with higher rates of RCD surgery (HR = 2.1, 1.8, and 1.4 for 'always', 'usually', and 'sometimes' doing heavy manual labour vs 'never', all p < 0.001). Former smokers had significantly higher rates of RCD surgery than those who had never smoked (HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.35), p < 0.001), while current smokers had similar rates to those who had never smoked (HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.11)). Among those who had never smoked, the risk of surgery was higher among those with more than one household member who smoked (HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.92)). The risk of RCD surgery was not significantly related to other measurements of secondhand smoking. CONCLUSION: Many factors were independently associated with surgery for RCD, including older age, male sex, higher BMI, lower deprivation score, and higher occupational physical demands. Several of the risk factors which were identified are modifiable, suggesting that the healthcare burden of RCD might be reduced through the pursuit of public health goals, such as reducing obesity and modifying occupational demands. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(3):352-359.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Musculares/cirugía , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de la Población , Manguito de los Rotadores/cirugía , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Musculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Musculares/etiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
4.
BMJ ; 368: m336, 2020 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161038

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether bicycle commuting is associated with risk of injury. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 230 390 commuters (52.1% women; mean age 52.4 years) recruited from 22 sites across the UK compared by mode of transport used (walking, cycling, mixed mode versus non-active (car or public transport)) to commute to and from work on a typical day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: First incident admission to hospital for injury. RESULTS: 5704 (2.5%) participants reported cycling as their main form of commuter transport. Median follow-up was 8.9 years (interquartile range 8.2-9.5 years), and overall 10 241 (4.4%) participants experienced an injury. Injuries occurred in 397 (7.0%) of the commuters who cycled and 7698 (4.3%) of the commuters who used a non-active mode of transport. After adjustment for major confounding sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors, cycling to work was associated with a higher risk of injury compared with commuting by a non-active mode (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.61). Similar trends were observed for commuters who used mixed mode cycling. Walking to work was not associated with a higher risk of injury. Longer cycling distances during commuting were associated with a higher risk of injury, but commute distance was not associated with injury in non-active commuters. Cycle commuting was also associated with a higher number of injuries when the external cause was a transport related incident (incident rate ratio 3.42, 95% confidence interval 3.00 to 3.90). Commuters who cycled to work had a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death than those who did not. If the associations are causal, an estimated 1000 participants changing their mode of commuting to include cycling for 10 years would result in 26 additional admissions to hospital for a first injury (of which three would require a hospital stay of a week or longer), 15 fewer first cancer diagnoses, four fewer cardiovascular disease events, and three fewer deaths. CONCLUSION: Compared with non-active commuting to work, commuting by cycling was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission for a first injury and higher risk of transport related incidents specifically. These risks should be viewed in context of the health benefits of active commuting and underscore the need for a safer infrastructure for cycling in the UK.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo/lesiones , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Transportes , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Caminata
5.
BMJ ; 368: m688, 2020 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188587

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of macronutrient intake with all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the implications for dietary advice. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 195 658 of the 502 536 participants in UK Biobank completed at least one dietary questionnaire and were included in the analyses. Diet was assessed using Oxford WebQ, a web based 24 hour recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using standard methodology. Cox proportional models with penalised cubic splines were used to study non-linear associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality and incidence of CVD. RESULTS: 4780 (2.4%) participants died over a mean 10.6 (range 9.4-13.9) years of follow-up, and 948 (0.5%) and 9776 (5.0%) experienced fatal and non-fatal CVD events, respectively, over a mean 9.7 (range 8.5-13.0) years of follow-up. Non-linear associations were found for many macronutrients. Carbohydrate intake showed a non-linear association with mortality; no association at 20-50% of total energy intake but a positive association at 50-70% of energy intake (3.14 v 2.75 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.28 (60-70% v 50% of energy)). A similar pattern was observed for sugar but not for starch or fibre. A higher intake of monounsaturated fat (2.94 v 3.50 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 0.58, 0.51 to 0.66 (20-25% v 5% of energy)) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat (2.66 v 3.04 per 1000 person years, 0.78, 0.75 to 0.81 (5-7% v 12% of energy)) and saturated fat (2.66 v 3.59 per 1000 person years, 0.67, 0.62 to 0.73 (5-10% v 20% of energy)) were associated with a lower risk of mortality. A dietary risk matrix was developed to illustrate how dietary advice can be given based on current intake. CONCLUSION: Many associations between macronutrient intake and health outcomes are non-linear. Thus dietary advice could be tailored to current intake. Dietary guidelines on macronutrients (eg, carbohydrate) should also take account of differential associations of its components (eg, sugar and starch).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Grasas de la Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Adulto , Anciano , Fibras de la Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Nutricional , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
10.
BMJ ; 368: m456, 2020 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131999

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of habitual fish oil supplementation with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in a large prospective cohort. DESIGN: Population based, prospective cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 678 men and women aged between 40 and 69 who had no CVD or cancer at baseline were enrolled between 2006 and 2010 and followed up to the end of 2018. MAIN EXPOSURE: All participants answered questions on the habitual use of supplements, including fish oil. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality, CVD mortality, and CVD events. RESULTS: At baseline, 133 438 (31.2%) of the 427 678 participants reported habitual use of fish oil supplements. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for habitual users of fish oil versus non-users were 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.90) for all cause mortality, 0.84 (0.78 to 0.91) for CVD mortality, and 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) for incident CVD events. For CVD events, the association seemed to be stronger among those with prevalent hypertension (P for interaction=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual use of fish oil seems to be associated with a lower risk of all cause and CVD mortality and to provide a marginal benefit against CVD events among the general population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
11.
BMJ ; 368: m331, 2020 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075790

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and major malformations, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder in children. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 104 605 children born from 1990 to 2016 whose mothers were prescribed one macrolide monotherapy (erythromycin, clarithromycin, or azithromycin) or one penicillin monotherapy from the fourth gestational week to delivery. Two negative control cohorts consisted of 82 314 children whose mothers were prescribed macrolides or penicillins before conception, and 53 735 children who were siblings of the children in the study cohort. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risks of any major malformations and system specific major malformations (nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genital, and urinary) after macrolide or penicillin prescribing during the first trimester (four to 13 gestational weeks), second to third trimester (14 gestational weeks to birth), or any trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, risks of cerebral palsy, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. RESULTS: Major malformations were recorded in 186 of 8632 children (21.55 per 1000) whose mothers were prescribed macrolides and 1666 of 95 973 children (17.36 per 1000) whose mothers were prescribed penicillins during pregnancy. Macrolide prescribing during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation compared with penicillin (27.65 v 17.65 per 1000, adjusted risk ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.03) and specifically cardiovascular malformations (10.60 v 6.61 per 1000, 1.62, 1.05 to 2.51). Macrolide prescribing in any trimester was associated with an increased risk of genital malformations (4.75 v 3.07 per 1000, 1.58, 1.14 to 2.19, mainly hypospadias). Erythromycin in the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation (27.39 v 17.65 per 1000, 1.50, 1.13 to 1.99). No statistically significant associations were found for other system specific malformations or for neurodevelopmental disorders. Findings were robust to sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing macrolide antibiotics during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation and specifically cardiovascular malformations compared with penicillin antibiotics. Macrolide prescribing in any trimester was associated with an increased risk of genital malformations. These findings show that macrolides should be used with caution during pregnancy and if feasible alternative antibiotics should be prescribed until further research is available. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03948620.


Asunto(s)
Anomalías Inducidas por Medicamentos/etiología , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Macrólidos/efectos adversos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Anomalías Inducidas por Medicamentos/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/inducido químicamente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/inducido químicamente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Anomalías Cardiovasculares/inducido químicamente , Anomalías Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Parálisis Cerebral/inducido químicamente , Parálisis Cerebral/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Epilepsia/inducido químicamente , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Reino Unido/epidemiología
12.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(2): 239-245, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009437

RESUMEN

AIMS: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery in children and the adolescent population has increased steadily over recent years. We used a national database to look at trends in ACL reconstruction and rates of serious complications, growth disturbance, and revision surgery, over 20 years. METHODS: All hospital episodes for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, under the age of 20 years, between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2017, were extracted by procedure code from the national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Population standardized rates of intervention were determined by age group and year of treatment. Subsequent rates of serious complications including reoperation for infection, growth disturbance (osteotomy, epiphysiodesis), revision reconstruction, and/or contralateral ACL reconstruction rates were determined. RESULTS: Over the 20 year period, 16,125 ACL reconstructions were included. The mean age of patients was 16.9 years (SD 2.0; 27.1% female, n = 4,374/16,125). The majority of procedures were observed in the 15 to 19 years age group. The rate of ACL reconstruction increased 29-fold from 1997 to 1998, to 2016 to 2017. Within 90 days of ACL reconstruction, the rate of reoperation for infection was 0.31% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.41, n = 50/16,125) and the rate of pulmonary embolism was 0.037% (95%.CI 0.014 to 0.081, n = 6/16,125). Of those with minimum five-year follow-up following ACL reconstruction (n = 7,585), 1.00% of patients subsequently underwent an osteotomy (95% CI 0.79 to 1.25, n = 76/7,585), 0.09% an epiphysiodesis (95% CI 0.04 to 0.19, n = 7/7,585), 7.46% revision ACL reconstruction (95% CI 6.88 to 8.08, n = 566/7,585), and 6.37% contralateral ACL reconstruction (95% CI 5.83 to 6.94, n = 483/7,585). CONCLUSION: Rates of paediatric and adolescent ACL reconstruction have increased 29-fold over the last 20 years. Despite the increasing rate in the younger population, the risk of serious complications, including further surgery for growth disturbance is very low. The results of our study provide a point of reference for shared decision making in the management of ACL injury in the paediatric and adolescent population. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(2):239-245.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirugía , Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Adolescente , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiología , Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/efectos adversos , Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Reoperación/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
BMJ ; 368: m131, 2020 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051121

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare established associations between risk factors and mortality in UK Biobank, a study with an exceptionally low rate of response to its baseline survey, against those from representative studies that have conventional response rates. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study alongside individual participant meta-analysis of other cohort studies. SETTING: United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Analytical sample of 499 701 people (response rate 5.5%) in analyses in UK Biobank; pooled data from the Health Surveys for England (HSE) and the Scottish Health Surveys (SHS), including 18 studies and 89 895 people (mean response rate 68%). Both study populations were linked to the same nationwide mortality registries, and the baseline age range was aligned at 40-69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Death from cardiovascular disease, selected malignancies, and suicide. To quantify the difference between hazard ratios in the two studies, a ratio of the hazard ratios was used with HSE-SHS as the referent. RESULTS: Risk factor levels and mortality rates were typically more favourable in UK Biobank participants relative to the HSE-SHS consortium. For the associations between risk factors and mortality endpoints, however, close agreement was seen between studies. Based on 14 288 deaths during an average of 7.0 years of follow-up in UK Biobank and 7861 deaths over 10 years of mortality surveillance in HSE-SHS, for cardiovascular disease mortality, for instance, the age and sex adjusted hazard ratio for ever having smoked cigarettes (versus never) was 2.04 (95% confidence interval 1.87 to 2.24) in UK Biobank and 1.99 (1.78 to 2.23) in HSE-SHS, yielding a ratio of hazard ratios close to unity (1.02, 0.88 to 1.19). The overall pattern of agreement between studies was essentially unchanged when results were compared separately by sex and when baseline years and censoring dates were aligned. CONCLUSION: Despite a very low response rate, risk factor associations in the UK Biobank seem to be generalisable.


Asunto(s)
Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
16.
BJOG ; 127(5): 600-608, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986555

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore obstetricians' and gynaecologists' experiences of work-related traumatic events, to measure the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), any impacts on personal and professional lives, and any support needs. DESIGN: Mixed methods: cross-sectional survey and in-depth interviews. SAMPLE AND SETTING: Fellows, members and trainees of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). METHODS: A survey was sent to 6300 fellows, members and trainees of RCOG. 1095 people responded. Then 43 in-depth interviews with trauma-exposed participants were completed and analysed by template analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Exposure to traumatic work-related events and PTSD, personal and professional impacts, and whether there was any need for support. Interviews explored the impact of trauma, what helped or hindered psychological recovery, and any assistance wanted. RESULTS: Two-thirds reported exposure to traumatic work-related events. Of these, 18% of both consultants and trainees reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Staff of black or minority ethnicity were at increased risk of PTSD. Clinically significant PTSD symptoms were associated with lower job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Organisational impacts included sick leave, and 'seriously considering leaving the profession'. 91% wanted a system of care. The culture in obstetrics and gynaecology was identified as a barrier to trauma support. A strategy to manage the impact of work-place trauma is proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to work-related trauma is a feature of the experience of obstetricians and gynaecologists. Some will suffer PTSD with high personal, professional and organisational impacts. A system of care is needed. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: 18% of obstetrics and gynaecology doctors experience post-traumatic stress disorder after traumatic events at work.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología , Obstetricia , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Médicos/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Adulto , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Desgaste por Empatía/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Despersonalización , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología
17.
BMJ ; 368: l6987, 2020 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969318

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude and duration of any hypothesised protective effect of household exposure to a child with varicella on the relative incidence of herpes zoster in adults. DESIGN: Self controlled case series. SETTING: UK general practices contributing to Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: 9604 adults (≥18 years) with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (in primary care or hospital records) between 1997 and 2018, who during their observation period lived with a child (<18 years) with a diagnosis of varicella. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative incidence of herpes zoster in the 20 years after exposure to a child with varicella in the household compared with baseline time (all other time, excluding the 60 days before exposure). RESULTS: 6584 of the 9604 adults with herpes zoster (68.6%) were women. Median age of exposure to a child with varicella was 38.3 years (interquartile range 32.3-48.8 years) and median observation period was 14.7 (11.1-17.7) years. 4116 adults developed zoster in the baseline period, 433 in the 60 days before exposure and 5055 in the risk period. After adjustment for age, calendar time, and season, strong evidence suggested that in the two years after household exposure to a child with varicella, adults were 33% less likely to develop zoster (incidence ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.73) compared with baseline time. In the 10-20 years after exposure, adults were 27% less likely to develop herpes zoster (0.73, 0.62 to 0.87) compared with baseline time. A stronger boosting effect was observed among men than among women after exposure to varicella. CONCLUSIONS: The relative incidence of zoster was lower in the periods after exposure to a household contact with varicella, with modest but long lasting protective effects observed. This study suggests that exogenous boosting provides some protection from the risk of herpes zoster, but not complete immunity, as assumed by previous cost effectiveness estimates of varicella immunisation.


Asunto(s)
Varicela/inmunología , Herpes Zóster/epidemiología , Herpesvirus Humano 3/inmunología , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Varicela/virología , Preescolar , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Herpes Zóster/inmunología , Herpes Zóster/virología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
19.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 226-239, 2020 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791690

RESUMEN

This final report of the Lancet Commission into liver disease in the UK stresses the continuing increase in burden of liver disease from excess alcohol consumption and obesity, with high levels of hospital admissions which are worsening in deprived areas. Only with comprehensive food and alcohol strategies based on fiscal and regulatory measures (including a minimum unit price for alcohol, the alcohol duty escalator, and an extension of the sugar levy on food content) can the disease burden be curtailed. Following introduction of minimum unit pricing in Scotland, alcohol sales fell by 3%, with the greatest effect on heavy drinkers of low-cost alcohol products. We also discuss the major contribution of obesity and alcohol to the ten most common cancers as well as measures outlined by the departing Chief Medical Officer to combat rising levels of obesity-the highest of any country in the west. Mortality of severely ill patients with liver disease in district general hospitals is unacceptably high, indicating the need to develop a masterplan for improving hospital care. We propose a plan based around specialist hospital centres that are linked to district general hospitals by operational delivery networks. This plan has received strong backing from the British Association for Study of the Liver and British Society of Gastroenterology, but is held up at NHS England. The value of so-called day-case care bundles to reduce high hospital readmission rates with greater care in the community is described, along with examples of locally derived schemes for the early detection of disease and, in particular, schemes to allow general practitioners to refer patients directly for elastography assessment. New funding arrangements for general practitioners will be required if these proposals are to be taken up more widely around the country. Understanding of the harm to health from lifestyle causes among the general population is low, with a poor knowledge of alcohol consumption and dietary guidelines. The Lancet Commission has serious doubts about whether the initiatives described in the Prevention Green Paper, with the onus placed on the individual based on the use of information technology and the latest in behavioural science, will be effective. We call for greater coordination between official and non-official bodies that have highlighted the unacceptable disease burden from liver disease in England in order to present a single, strong voice to the higher echelons of government.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Hepatopatías/epidemiología , Hepatopatías/prevención & control , Obesidad/epidemiología , Bebidas Alcohólicas/economía , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Alcoholismo/terapia , Comercio , Redes Comunitarias/organización & administración , Comorbilidad , Costo de Enfermedad , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Legislación Alimentaria , Hepatopatías/diagnóstico , Hepatopatías/etiología , Trasplante de Hígado/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Paquetes de Atención al Paciente , Escocia , Reino Unido/epidemiología
20.
BJOG ; 127(3): 389-395, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794098

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Presence of lung metastases in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is generally considered not to influence prognosis. However, in a recent study in the Netherlands, GTN patients with lung metastases had a higher recurrence rate and more disease-specific deaths compared with patients without metastases. The aim of the present study was to validate these findings in a different country. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Charing Cross Hospital, United Kingdom. POPULATION: A total of 1040 low-risk GTN patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) between 2002 and 2016 were identified: 65 with lung metastases (group 1) and 975 without metastases (group 2). METHODS: Baseline characteristics, MTX resistance, survival and recurrence rates were recorded and compared between both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MTX resistance, recurrence rate and survival. RESULTS: The occurrence of MTX resistance and median number of MTX courses to achieve remission was significantly higher in patients with lung metastases than patients without metastases (60% versus 38.9%, P = 0.001; and nine versus six courses, P < 0.001). All choriocarcinoma patients (n = 4) with lung metastases developed MTX resistance. The recurrence rate was also higher in group I (9.2% versus 2.7%; P = 0.012). Disease-specific survival was 100% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of lung metastases at the start of MTX therapy is associated with increased incidence of MTX resistance and recurrence in low-risk GTN without affecting overall survival, which remains 100%. However, individuals with low-risk choriocarcinoma with lung metastases are likely to become resistant to MTX and primary multi-agent chemotherapy should be considered. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: The presence of lung metastases appears to increase the risk of recurrence in low-risk GTN, but does not affect overall cure rates and survival.


Asunto(s)
Coriocarcinoma , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Trofoblástica Gestacional , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Metotrexato , Adulto , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Coriocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Coriocarcinoma/patología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Enfermedad Trofoblástica Gestacional/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Trofoblástica Gestacional/patología , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundario , Metotrexato/administración & dosificación , Metotrexato/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Embarazo , Recurrencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
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